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About the Cover: Fire- 
bee II is the newest 
member in Rvan's family 
of Firebees. The XBQM- 
34E is a growth version, 
supersonic target. Engi- 
neering mockup projects 
new design in wings and 
fuselage configuration. 




JAN.-FEB./1966 « VOLUME 27 • NO. 1 

Firebee II 

Missile Age Born Amid Sand & Sage 

Ryan System Signals "Go-Ahead" 10 

Which Way Is Down? 14 

Reporter News 19 

Vertiwing/Disc Rotor 20 

Man-Made Moon Beams 22. 

Man & Machines 25 










Ryan adds a growth version 
to family. . . 

• THfiUsf^jJ 

RYAN Aeronautical Company's "Firebee 
11", a growth version jet target drone that 
adds supersonic speeds to existing Firebee pre- 
sentation capabilities, is in design fabrication 
stages under a Navy Bureau of Weapons contract. 

The longer, sleeker version of the famed Fire- 
bee target missile is scheduled for laboratory and 
ground testing in late 1966 and a flight test pro- 
gram at Point Mugu, California, in early 1967. 

Designated the XBQM-34E, the high-per- 
formance, remote-controlled drone is a successor 
to the subsonic BQM-34A. Its designed speed 
of 1,000 miles per hour will be coupled to the 
present target's basic features and will utilize 
many of the same components. 

Adding to the economics involved in its evolu- 
tion, "Firebee II" will also utilize existing air- 
borne and ground support facihties with only 
minimum modification requirements. 

Longer than the BQM-34A (28 1/4 feet vs. 
23Vi feet), but with shorter wings dO feet vs. 
13 feet), the shmmer supersonic Firebee achieves 
a high fineness ratio of length to equivalent cross 
sectional area, reducing drag. 

The streamlined appearance of the XBQM- 
34E is effected, in part, by a change in fuel tank- 
age arrangements. Both the subsonic and super- 
sonic Firebees have the same capacity, 663 
pounds, but the BQM-34A has a deeper fuselage 
to accommodate the entire load. The XBQM- 
34E will carry only 263 pounds of fuel within 

Full-scale mockup of growth version Firebee 11 
is being used by Ryan to conduct antenna tests. 

the fuselage, and 400 pounds in a jettisonable 
external fuel pod, slung beneath the fuselage. In 
this configuration, the XBOM-34E will perform 
subsonic flight missions, with similar performance 
capability, endurance and range to the BQM- 
34A. For supersonic flight, the external pod is 
jettisoned, and utilizing the fuel within the fuse- 
lage, the new Firebee will be capable of flying 
target missions at Mach 1.5 at 60,000 feet. 

In a typical mission, the supersonic target 
with its fuel pod, will be launched, either from 
a zero-length ground launcher or from a "mother" 
aircraft at 15,000 feet. It will climb to 50,000 
feet at high subsonic speed, about Mach .95. The 
pod will be jettisoned, and the drone will ac- 
celerate and climb to 60,000 feet, at which point 
it will level out at Mach 1.5 and fly for 20 

In such a mission, described as a combined 
subsonic cruise/supersonic dash, total time aloft 
from launch would be 72 minutes, including 11 
minutes of climb to altitude after launch, 30 
minutes of cruise at 50,000 feet at Mach .95, 
11 minutes of acceleration and climb to 60,000 
feet after the fuel pod is dropped, and 20 minutes 
in the supersonic dash. 

When the Firebee II is launched in the super- 
sonic configuration, without the extended fuel 
pod, it will cfimb and accelerate, after either 
ground or air launch to 60,000 feet and Mach 
1.5, in 24 minutes, and then perform a 13.7 min- 

ute dash at the supersonic speed and altitude. 
And for typically basic subsonic missions such 
as now performed by the BQM-34A, the XBOM- 
34E will climb to 50,000 feet at Mach .9, and 
remain aloft in subsonic cruise for 83 minutes. 

As America's most widely used realistic train- 
ing and missile evaluation weapon, the Firebee 
has achieved spectacular low altitude, as well as 
high altitude capabilities, and the supersonic Fire- 
bee follows in this tradition. The XBQM-34E 
will be able to perform at sea level at Mach 1.1 
(over 800 mph). In a typical low altitude mis- 
sion, it would be flown at subsonic speed with 
the fuel pod for 1 3 minutes while being positioned 
at 500 feet prior to the supersonic hot leg. The 
pod would then be jettisoned, the Firebee would 
descend and accelerate to Mach 1.1 at 50 feet 
for more than 5 minutes. 

Such a variety of mission capabilities will 
enable the supersonic Firebee to preserve the 
great utility of the subsonic Firebee in Fleet 
readiness exercises and evaluation of shipbome 
surface-to-air Tartar, Terrier and Talos missiles. 
In addition, allowances wiU be made in the de- 
sign for the types of augmentation equipment and 
antenna required for air-to-air missiles, such as 
wingtip flares used when Sidewinder heat-seeking 
missiles are fired. 

As in the BQM-34A, the XBQM-34E will 
be equipped, as required, with passive radar re- 
flectors such as the Luneberg Lens, or active aug- 








Ryan Avionics group leader W. R. Karniazin (left) checks antenna test specifications of full-scale mockup 
on tower while R. L. Perry (right) antenna engineer, monitors stylus trace of radiation at Ryan facility. 

mentation devices, such as traveling wave tubes. 
It also will be capable of carrying electronic 
countermeasure equipment (ECM) to simulate 
jamming radar-seeking devices in enemy missiles 
and threat aircraft. 

During the flight test program at Point Mugu, 
the present Firebee guidance and control equip- 
ment will be used, with modifications to permit 
simultaneous employment for either subsonic or 
supersonic drones. First unpowered flights will 
be for Lockheed DP-2E launch aircraft compati- 
bility tests, and for tests of the parachute recovery 
system, starting in February, 1967. Powered 
flights will begin in May, 1967. The government 
has an opdon to procure additional supersonic 
Firebees to be delivered at that time for early 
use with the Fleet. 

Because of its streamlined design and smaller 
wing, the XBQM-34E is lighter, across the board, 
than the subsonic Firebee. Empty weight is 1,257 
pounds, compared to the BQM-34A's 1,400 
pounds, total gross weight is 2,126 pounds, as 
against 2,500 pounds design gross weight of the 
subsonic drone. Launch gross weight without 
fuel pod is 1,696 pounds, including useful load 
of fuel, oil and augmentation equipment. To 
allow for future growth, the design structural 
gross weight of the XBQM-34E is 2,300 pounds. 

The new generation Firebee will be powered 
by a Continental turbo-jet YJ69-T-6 engine pro- 
viding 1 ,840 pounds static sea level thrust, slightly 
greater than that of the J69-T-29 Continental 

engine (1,700 pounds thrust) in the subsonic 

The engine to be used in the XBQM-34E's 
basic version is actually a modification of the 
J-69-T-29, involving a rearrangement of acces- 
sories to reduce the engine frontal area, a modi- 
fied compressor design to uprate thrust, and some 
materials changes in the radial compressor to 
permit supersonic Firebee operations at sea level. 

Among unusual engineering characteristics of 
the BQM-34A are its "clean" wings, in that there 
are no ailerons, since roll control is achieved by 
means of differential deflection of the all-movable 
horizontal tail surfaces. Pitch control is achieved 
by collective deflection of the horizontal tail sur- 
faces, the hinge axes of which are swept to mini- 
mize hinge moments. 

The wings and vertical tail are swept 53 de- 
grees at their leading edges and have a 3 per 
cent thickness ratio, while the horizontal tail 
is swept 45 degrees at the leading edge and has 
a 3.5 per cent thickness ratio. 

Protuberances beyond the basic airframe hues 
are avoided by designing the external attachments 
and antennas to be flush. The suspension fittings 
in the top of the fuselage for attachment of the 
target to the DP-2E launch aircraft retract auto- 
matically after launch. The receptacle for the 
spike fitting of the JATO bottle used for ground 
launch is in the form of a socket within the un- 
derside of the fuselage. 

The parachute recovery system is identical 


Beginning at upper left the drag chute deploys, 
decelerating Firebee II. Main chute container 
separates from the drone, unfurling main cano- 
py. Upon contact with the surface, parachute 
is disconnected by automatic release assembly. 

to that used in the BOM-34A and is installed 
in a similar manner, except that the shroud lines 
and the riser lie in a trough which is flush with 
the top of the fuselage. In order to minimize 
damage to external contours during recovery, the 
main parachute is released automatically on touch- 
down to prevent dragging. 

The nose radome, similar to the subsonic 
Firebee, houses the scoring system and passive 
augmentation. Directly behind this is the equip- 
ment compartment, in which are housed electrical 
and electronic systems; aft of that is the central 
fuselage consisting of the fuel tank and structure 
for supporting the wing panels. The inlet and 
oil tank assembly, also similar to the BQM-34A, 
are slung under the equipment compartment. 

The inlet duct passes from the inlet through 
the fuel tank to the engine, which is installed in 
a fuselage half-shell, part of the central fuselage 
structure. The entire aft portion of the fuselage 
is a removable subassembly which forms the up- 
per shell, covering the engine. 

The horizontal tail consists of two all-movable 
surfaces, used for both roll and pitch attitude 
control. These surfaces are driven by an electro- 
hydraulic actuator unit which is a self-contained 
package with three output shafts — two for the 
horizontal tail and one for the active rudder, used 

for directional trim and yaw damping. 

The fuselage is of conventional aluminum 
structure, with the main panels of the wings and 
empennage of aluminum honeycomb. The nose 
radome, wing tips and fin cap, which are used 
as antenna housings, are of glass fiber construc- 
tion, as is the engine oil tank, integral with the 
inlet assembly. 

Existing BQM-34A ground support equipment 

— for systems checkout, guidance and control 

— is being modified to accommodate both sub- 
sonic and supersonic Firebees. 

First wind tunnel tests performed on models 
of the supersonic Firebee were initially sponsored 
by Ryan in 1963 in the Convair high speed 
wind tunnel, San Diego. These were followed 
by a preliminary design study contract awarded 
by the Navy in July, 1964, involving considerable 
additional wind tunnel tests, some at Convair and 
others at the Douglas Aerophysics Laboratory. 
El Segundo. A total of 167 hours were utilized 
for force, inlet and pod separation tests, including 
30 hours of force tests. These steps preceded 
award of a contract for more than $5 million 
from the Bureau of Naval Weapons for design 
and production of the initial quantity of the 
newest member of the Firebee, most widely used 
jet target drone in the Free World. ■ 

RYAN FiREBEE-TowBEE target systems streak- 
ing high above the desert regions of New 
Mexico and Texas, are helping add a new page 
of progress today to the tradition-steeped history 
of Fort BHss, Texas, headquarters of the U. S. 
Army Air Defense Center. 

Fort Bliss was the cradle for the birth of 
America's rocket and missile development. 

Indeed, the Space Age itself began amidst 
the barren rocks and sand of West Texas and 

Southern New Mexico. 

This was a fitting start. For the United States' 
first miUtary rockets helped win this land in 1848. 
They were crudely developed and had severe 
limitations, but the black-powder rockets used in 
the landings at Vera Cruz and the subsequent 
march to Mexico City, are directly related to 
the advances being made today at Fort Bliss 
and its firing ranges in New Mexico. 

Established by the War Department in 1848 



& SArpE 

By Lorena P. Edien 
Information Office 
U. S. Army Defense Center 
Fort Bliss, Texas 

McGregor Range Commander, Col. E. W. Schmid, escorts foreign dignitaries on tour of \ike fuciliiie.', 
(above, left). Early-day Firebee launches were made from fo.x-hole facility as in photo (above, right). 

as a frontier military outpost, Fort Bliss served 
as the home of the famed 1st Cavalry Division 
in the pre- WW II days and has since head- 
quartered the Army Anti-Aircraft Artillery School 
and the Army Anti-Aircraft Artillery Board. 

Much of the spadework for our present-day 
Space Age came during the years 1945-1949 at 
Fort Bliss, during an era when the world's fore- 
most authorities in areas of rocketry and missiles 
were shunted into desert isolation. 

Led by Dr. Wernher von Braun and other top 
German scientists, the Space Age truly gained its 
early-day identity in this Southwestern United 

It was here on the Fort Bliss firing ranges that 
the Army's first Artillery and Guided Missile Bat- 
talion was organized and carried work forward 
on pioneering rocket and missile programs. 

Forerunners to today's sophisticated arsenal 
of guided missiles included the Cobra, White Wiz- 
zard. Tiny Tim, Bumble Bee, Lark, Talos, Ter- 
rier, Tartar, Matador, in addition to a wide 
spectrum of other related programs. 

The Nike missile family, which came into 
being as a result of the Anti-Aircraft Artillery 
Board's requirement for a fast, maneuverable 
high-climbing missile, came a little closer to 
reality August 3, 1949, when the 1st Guided 
Missile Regiment became directly associated with 
it for the first time. It was four years, though, 
before training began for Nike units. 

Nike missiles, being surface-to-air weapons, 
required aerial targets. The Nike Ajax, the first 

in the Nike family, was first tested against pro- 
peller-driven OQ-2, OQ-19, and XQ-15 targets, 
launched from the ground. 

When the longer-range, more powerful, solid- 
propellant Nike Hercules was developed, it re- 
quired a faster target. In the beginning it was 
flown against airplane-launched RP-76 and then 
the OQ-19Bs. Offset shoots were held against 
theoretical targets, too, assisted by planes from 
Biggs Air Force Base in El Paso. Today the Nike 
Hercules is flown against electronically simulated 

When the Nikes became operational, it was 
necessary to have more space for firing. The Nike 
Ajax has a 25-mile range, 60,000-foot altitude, 
and the Nike Hercules a more-than-75-mile range 
and in excess of 100,000-foot altitude. 

The low-altitude Hawk (Homing All the 
Way Killer) was added August 29, 1958, to the 
missile systems taught at Fort Bliss. Designed to 
defend against aircraft which come in too low for 
detection by conventional radar, the Hawk re- 
quired a special kind of target. The Firebee-Tow- 
bee fills the need. Launched from Oro Grande 
Range, several miles west of McGregor Range, 
the Firebee-Towbee is used as a target by Hawk 
units receiving "package" or original training and 
by units returning to Fort Bliss once a year to 
practice fire. 

The Firebee-Towbee helps train missilemen 
who man the vicious Hawk. Although designed 
specifically for low-altitude use, the Hawk, hom- 
ing in on energy reflected by its target, can de- 

Hawk missile battery (upper left) is prepared for exercise on McGregor range while simultaneous pre- 
launcli preparations are made (upper right) by Ryan's Firebee-Towbee crew based at McGregor Range. 

stroy the full spectrum of airplanes attacking a 
field army at all possible speeds and altitudes in 
a wide variety of countermeasure conditions. Its 
range enables it to destroy planes 45 miles away 
from the soldier in the field. 

Today the free world recognizes the neces- 
sity for a strong military rocket-missile program. 
More and more progress is being made without 
the early problems. 

At Fort BHss, where it all started, only sur- 
face-to-air missile work is being done. With a 
few exceptions, all other rocket and missile proj- 
ects have been moved to other places. Other 
missile projects were taken over by the Air Force, 
Navy, and other branches of the Army. 

The Firebee-Towbee is part of a distinguished 
team at Fort Bliss. Air defense units organized 
and trained there stand guard 24 hours a day 
around the world. Their unsheathed Nike and 
Hawk missiles are a guarantee that no man-made 
death will rain from the skies on peoples of the 
Free World. 

Air defense units guarding cities and industrial 
areas of the United States are a part of the North 
American Air Defense Command, which begins 
at the northern rim of the North American con- 
tinent and ends at the southern tip of Mexico. 
(Protection of Mexico is limited to special re- 
quests by the Mexican government. ) 

Across the Atlantic, foreign and American 
units trained at Fort Bhss are part of the North 
Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). NATO's 
air defense command covers the land area extend- 

ing from the North Cape of Norway to North 
Africa, from the Atlantic to the eastern border of 
Turkey; including France, Italy, Greece, as well 
as Turkey on the Mediterranean. 

In the Pacific, foreign and/or American units 
trained at Fort Bliss stand guard in Korea, Japan, 
Okinawa, and Viet Nam. 

In the meantime, air defense is not remain- 
ing static. Current systems are constantly being 
tested and improved or discarded and new sys- 
tems are being developed. Fort BHss is involved 
in these activities. 

It is active in the development of the Nike X 
system, the United States' only defense against the 
devastating intercontinental ballistic missile. Al- 
though the entire system is not yet operational, 
Fort Bhss has made preparations to begin training 
Nike X missilemen when it is. 

Another air defense system planned for Fort 
Bliss is the Redeye. A small weapon to be car- 
ried and fired by a single man, it is planned as 
additional protection of front-hne troops against 
low flying aircraft: jets, helicopters, reconnais- 
sance drones, etc. The Redeye is still undergoing 
engineering and service tests. Training is ex- 
pected to start on it at Fort Bliss soon. 

There are other air defense systems in various 
stages of development on which Fort Bliss per- 
sonnel are working. 

The past has a claim on Fort Bhss. But Fort 
Bliss belongs to the future. If it were not for the 
development of rockets at Fort Bhss in the past, 
there might be no future for the United States. ■ 




A MILESTONE OF MAJOR proportions in the 
Surveyor program was established in No- 
vember 1965 with the achievement of a successful 
terminal descent test at Holloman Air Force 
Base, New Mexico. 

The successful test was the first in a series of 
eight in the current schedule and, in this accom- 
plishment, further paved the way for man's ulti- 
mate soft-landing of an unmanned vehicle on 
the moon. 

Already posed as a complex feat in the 
Space Age, credit for the initial 
November 22 test was shared by 
Ryan Aeronautical Company for 
the successful development of 
Surveyor's radar altimeter and 
Doppler velocity sensor system. 

E. Bruce Clapp, Surveyor 
Program Manager at Ryan, said 
"It proved that the Ryan landing 
radar can successfully be used 
in the control of the free-flight 
descent of Surveyor to the 



moon's surface. "This was the acid tcit and it 
worked magnificently!" 

Tethered to a balloon gondola platform, the 
Surveyor test vehicle rose to 1400 feet where pre- 
descent system checkouts were conducted. 

With its vernier engines ignited the test vehicle 
was released to descend under its own power to 
600 feet under control of the Ryan control sys- 
tem. The radar altimeter and Doppler velocity 
sensors provided guidance to the flight control 
and vernier engine system to control the 
rate of descent and spacecraft orientation. 
The soft landing terminal descent pro- 
file was concluded at the pre-pro- 
grammed altitude of 600 feet and 
the vernier engines were cut off. 
A parachute recovery system was 
deployed after vernier engine cut 
off for the remaining drop to earth. 
This test represents the first suc- 
cessful free-flight descent of the 
Surveyor and demonstrated the re- 
markable control capabilities of Ryan's 


Surveyor vehicle will be launched on lunar voyage 
this year as forerunner to manned moon landings. 

radar altimeter and Dopper velocity sensor system. 

"A major milestone in the Surveyor program," 
according to officials conducting the test, it was 
described by Hughes Senior Project Engineer 
Bob McNamara as, "perfect in every detail." 

Under the direction of Jet Propulsion Labora- 
tory, seven Surveyor vehicles are being built by 
Hughes Aircraft Company for the U.S. National 
Aeronautics and Space Administration. 

As a major sub-contractor, Ryan is building 
the landing radar which is used to control the 
descent and soft-landing of each of the space- 
craft on the lunar surface. 

The first of seven planned launches is to oc- 
cur during 1966. 

Sheldon C. Shallon, Chief Scientist for the 
Hughes Surveyor program, said the spacecraft 
will be launched into orbit by an Atlas, Centaur 
rocket for its 64-hour flight to the moon. 

One of the primary difficulties related to the 
program is to control Surveyor as it descends to 
the lunar surface at 6 to 10 miles per hour, about 
the speed that a human parachutist hits the 

Surveyor test vehicle (upper right) starts its 
tethered ascent to 1500 feet for drop test con- 
ducted last November at Holloman, N.M. Mating 
tests (bottom right) between Surveyor and its 
Centaur vehicle were conducted during mid-1965. 





Alt. 1000 Miles Velocity 7200 FPS 

Align retro thrust axis with velocity 
vector, followed by television transmis- 
sion from downward looking camera. 

Altitude 50 Miles Velocity 9000 FPS 

Retro engine ignition triggered by alti- 
tude marking radar. Inertial attitude 
control with vernier engines. 

JK. Alt. 25,0 

/I > Retro en( 

.000 Feet Velocity 350 FPS 

engine burnoul and ejection. 

Vernier descent with flight control by 
radar altimeter and Doppler velocity 


This difficult landing must be achieved by 
slowing Surveyor from 6,000 to about 3V2 miles 
per hour, at which time it is released to the lunar 
gravity and will impact the surface at a speed 
of 6 to 10 miles per hour. 

After separation of the spacecraft from the 
Centaur, tracking acquisition occurs at the Johan- 
nesburg, South African station with later track- 
ing by stations at Canberra, AustraUa and Gold- 
stone, California. 

Three cold gas reaction jets located on the 
landing gear legs control the spacecraft through 
an angular search to acquire and track both the 
Sun and the star Canopus. When the appropriate 
sensors lock on to these celestial points, an iner- 
tial reference system is established in space which 
is automatically maintained during transit. 

Tracking data received in sequence from these 
three DSN stations are processed and used to 
compute the required midcourse correction ap- 
proximately twenty hours after launch. The mag- 
nitude and direction of the midcourse correction 
is sent from the Goldstone tracking station to the 
spacecraft where it is stored. 

Surveyor management teamwork between Hughes 
and Ryan officials (from left) S. C. Shallon, E. B. 
Clapp, E. St. John and J. R. Iverson is playing a 
major role in the ultimate success of program. 

Alt. 13 Ft. Vel. 5 FPS 

Vernier engine shutoff, fol 
lowed by free fall to surface. 


Upon radio command, the spacecraft orients 
itself along the specified thrust vector, and at the 
appropriate time, three stored liquid-fuel vernier 
rocket engines operate to provide a midcourse 
alteration of the trajectory which will ultimately 
bring the spacecraft to the chosen lunar landing 
area. After the midcourse correction is com- 
pleted, the spacecraft reacquires the Sun and 
Canopus to maintain its previous attitude. 

Approximately 66 hours after launch. Sur- 
veyor approaches to within 1000 miles of the 
lunar surface. Upon command from the Gold- 
stone tracking station, the spacecraft changes 
attitude to align the thrust of its retro rocket with 
the computer spacecraft velocity vector. 

As the spacecraft approaches the moon, at 
a relative speed of about 9,000 fps, the altitude 
marking radar generates a signal at the 60-mile 
point, causing first the vernier engines and then 
the solid propellant main retro rocket motor to 

Main retro ignition expels the radar from 
the retro rocket nozzle and decelerates the 
spacecraft. At an altitude of approximately 40,- 
000 feet, the main retro rocket burns out and 

its empty case is dropped from the spacecraft. 

At this point, the spacecraft is close enough 
to the surface of the moon to receive a good sig- 
nal from its radar altimeter and Doppler velocity 
sensor system. Signals from this system are pro- 
cessed by the flight control electronics and used 
to control the three vernier rocket engines. 

Thus, the spacecraft continues to decelerate 
along a pre-programmed range velocity curve 
until an altitude of about 13 feet is reached. At 
this time the horizontal and vertical components 
of the velocity are less than 5 and 15 fps, re- 
spectively, and the vernier engines are turned off. 

The spacecraft falls the remaining short 
distance to the surface of the moon with the 
touchdown cushioned by the landing legs and 
crushable energy absorbers located under the 

Ryan began its work on Surveyor project in 
July 1961. In a closely related project, Ryan en- 
gineers are also engaged today in the development 
of a landing radar system for the manned Lunar 
Excursion Module (LEM), the vehicle designed 
to achieve man's first moon landing via the Apollo 
program. ■ 

Ryan engineers conducted 
final series of acoustical tests on 
Surveyor descent-landing system 
at San Diego just before 
successful test at 
Holloman last November. 




Increased attention will be given to the 
problem of spacecraft stabilization in coming 
months by the National Aeronautics and Space 
Administration. Ryan Electronic and Space 
Systems has been working closely with the 
University of Michigan on the challenging 
analysis of horizon sensing as it applies to 
stabilization techniques. 

In the following article, Mr. W. L. Wolfe, 
Jr., a research engineer at the University of 
Michigan, discusses the multiple facets related 
to hdlFizon sensing. 


By W. L. Wolfe, Jr. — Research Engineer, University of Michigan 


Intrepid adventurers of earlier years were 
preoccupied with new horizons; discoveries, in- 
ventions and exploration in science and the 
arts. The Cape of Good Hope route to India, 
the New World, horseless carriages, pasteuriza- 
tion, the printing press, and rockets are all in- 
cluded. These were new horizons only figura- 
tively in many cases, but they were both literal 
and figurative for Columbus, who imagined a 
new route and saw a new continent. Our pres- 

ent space programs are uncovering more ex- 
citing new horizons in both literal and figura- 
tive ways, and they are also dependent upon 
the very nature of these horizons for the pro- 
gress of many space tasks. The orientation 
of a spacecraft can be found by determining 
the horizon position on opposite sides of the 
craft and by performing some simple trigono- 
metric calculations. In this article we shall 
explore why this is done, how it is done, how 


well it is done, and indeed we shall discuss steps 
that can be taken for improving present per- 


But what is a horizon? Mr. Webster says it 
is "the line or circle which forms the apparent 
boundary between earth and sky." Such a defini- 
tion was certainly adequate for Columbus and his 
mates who surely saw a sharp and unambiguous 
demarkation between the sea and the sky. Such 
a definition can also be used by our astronauts 
and would be useful if they could always see to 
the surface of the earth. But they cannot, and 
satellite-borne systems have not been devised 
which can always detect this boundary in an un- 
ambiguous way with equipment that is econom- 
ical of space, weight, and power. When you are 

Fig. 1. Horizon "pipper" system used earth's bright- 
ness as a signal source for early-day space programs. 

in a satellite — or even a commercial airliner 
at about 30,000 feet, the horizon you see is that 
between the dark blue sky and the white light 
reflected from high-altitude clouds and scattered 
from haze. This may be called an apparent vis- 
ible horizon; and it may have little relationship 
to the actual earth horizon. Further, if you view 
this horizon through filters of different colors it 
will change. Because of the optical properties of 
the clouds and haze there will be a blue and a red 
and a yellow horizon, all at different altitudes. 
In effect, the position of the horizon is in the eyes 
of the beholder, and the horizon will have still 
other appearances for colors beyond our visible 
range, in the infrared and ultraviolet parts of 
the spectrum. 


The horizon sensor is a new instrument, a 
navigation device completely unique to the space 
age, an innovation caused by the peculiarities of 
vehicles which orbit at altitudes of more than 
100 miles. They are possible also only because 
these vehicles are at these altitudes. Inertial 
guidance techniques are based on elements like 
gyroscopes and special pendulums which measure 
certain properties of the gravitational field. Such 
pendulums are of little use in the "gravity free" 
condition of a satellite wherein the force of gravity 
is exactly compensated by centrifugal force. Gyro- 
scopes, like any measuring device so far con- 
structed by man have inherent errors; gyroscope 
errors are proportional to the time elapsed from 
their initial setting. Although an inertial system 
can be quite accurate in a flight from Boston 
to San Diego, lasting six to twelve hours they 
are impractical for six-month orbits. 

Loran, Shoran, and similar techniques require 
an elaborate network of sending and receiving 
stations to establish the coordinate systems, and 
star-tracking and star-mapping systems can be 
used for satellite altitude determination only if 
the orbital position is known to accuracies better 
than are now available in real time. 


These difficulties and the obvious advantages 
of small, sensitive optical devices for sensing the 
optical horizon led to the early use of these in- 
struments in our space program. Pioneer IV, a 
spin stabiUzed lunar probe launched in March 
of 1959, used a photo-electric detector with a 
field of view of 0.5° square which was to pro- 
vide pulses as the line of sight crossed the bright 
lunar surface. Vanguard used a similar system 
as well as TIROS, another spin stabilized satellite. 
Of course, the latter two systems, as does the one 
illustrated in Figure 1 , used the brightness of the 
earth as a signal source. These simple imple- 
ments were often called horizon pippers for 
fairly obvious reasons. 

The Discoverer earth satellites first launched 
February 1959 were probably the first to have 
an earth-oriented attitude-stabihzation system 
which had as its core a modern horizon sensor. 
In orbit, the horizon sensor supplied the pitch 
gyro, of the orthogonal three gyros of the system. 
with torquing signals to maintain a position fixed 
with respect to a local vertical. Conical scanners 
have been used in experimental Atlas, Thor. and 
Jupiter missiles. 

In the latter case a vertical reference with 





Fig. 2. Two known tangents of a sphere can be inter- 
sected as illustrated above to find center of sphere. 

oceans and other topographical features which 
again could be accounted for, but with a larger 
computer. The real problem is you cannot see 
the surface of the earth at the horizon most of 
the time. The light scattered and reflected from 
haze and clouds is the only light seen by the eye. 
All that can be used is the optical horizon. The 
quantity of haze, its altitude, and the occurrence 
of clouds are all statistical quantities — and no 
light is scattered from them at night. Thus a 
photoelectric cell which responds only in the 
visible is a poor detector for horizon sensor. 

The earth is warm and its atmosphere is 
warm compared to the utter cold of outer space. 
Such warm objects radiate copious amounts of 
infrared radiation with the peak radiation at 
about 15 lU in wavelength. Signals sensed by 
an infrared detector come from the radiation 

an rms error of 0.25° was estabhshed. The Mer- 
cury manned spacecraft was controlled along 
three axes, two of them by pitch and roll signals 
to the automatic control system (which could be 
overridden manually. ) The Gemini satellites have 
also used attitude information supplied by in- 
frared horizon sensors. The attitude control sys- 
tem has two sections, each of which contains three 
rate gyros, and which receives a signal from the 
computer, the horizon sensor and rate gyros so 
it can send signals to actuate the control jets. 
The infrared horizon sensor is considerably im- 
proved over the Mercury devices, principally be- 
cause it uses a better if not the best spectral band, 
although it also employs a different scanning 

Other satellite systems which use these devices 
are OGO, POGO, Nimbus, Agena payloads, Sa- 
turn vehicles, and Apollo. A typical roll and 
pitch sensing system is shown in Figure 5. 


The primary function of a horizon sensor 
system is not the determination of the horizon, 
it is the determination of the local vertical (Fig. 
2 ) . When two tangents to a sphere are found, the 
center of the sphere can be found. The perpen- 
diculars to the tangents intersect at the center 
of the sphere. The problem is simpUfied, of 
course, if the tangents are in the same plane; 
then the depression angle bisector is the vertical. 

Life, of course, in the real world is not so 
simple. First, the earth is not a sphere but an 
oblate spheroid. If you know where you are 
looking, this httle correction can be made — in 
principle. Of course, the earth is not a simple 
oblate spheroid either; there are mountains, 

•Jean I 


Fig. 3. Prominent dip in the scan drawing is caused by 
high-altitude cold clouds in the 1.8 to 18/i regions. 

emitted from the atmosphere of the earth. Even 
in this spectral region one does not see the ra- 
diation directly from the earth, but rather from 
the atmospheric constituents. The difficulties of 
accounting for oblateness and for topographical 
features are now replaced by problems associated 
with the vagaries of the atmosphere. 

In some of the early devices, and indeed 
even on some Mercury flights, false horizons were 
sometimes sensed, and the resultant control ma- 
neuvers were more than mUd corrections. The 
system used a conical horizon sensor with the 
spectral region from 1.8 /i to about 18 /x. The 
electronic processing system used a preset chpping 
level to indicate presence or absence of an earth 
signal. The dip shown in Fig. 3 is the culprit of 
the Mercury misadventures. This dip is caused 
by high altitude clouds over the earth. Such high 
clouds are cooled because they are higher; they, 
therefore, radiate less than do their lower-altitude 
warmer counterparts — and the spectral region 
is such that these radiation differences are not 
absorbed by higher altitude atmospheric constit- 
uents. The less drastic wiggles in the signal could 
be caused by local temperature differences or 
local changes in the atmospheric composition 
— or by other more subtle effects. 



Careful considerations of the facts already 
on hand at the time but caused by the serious 
problems discussed above led to a fairly direct 
solution, involving a problem or two in instru- 
mentation: choose the 14-16 // spectral region. 
The rationale is that carbon dioxide which radi- 
ates in this band is a relatively constant propor- 
tion of the atmosphere regardless of the chmate, 
season, etc. This is in contradistinction to water 
vapor for instance, which has daily and seasonal 
variations. Other atmospheric constituents are 
relatively unimportant. 

;, 7 

I 6 


- 5 


i 4 

I 3 

1 2 


30 40 50 10 


C^J I I 

Fig. 4. Slant path altitude graph illustrates radia- 
tion variances according to latitudes of the seasons. 

There are actually very few measurements of 
the atmospheric composition of really high alti- 
tudes. There are rather only inferences from 
such things as temperature and pressure histories 
and surface properties, etc. As in many areas 
of aerospace sciences, the engineering applications 
now require more physical, geological, and me- 
teorological information about our planet than 
we now have. 

It is possible, based upon our present knowl- 
edge, to estimate the shape and changes of the 
infrared horizon profiles. Figure 4 shows some 

of the vagaries of the profile. It shows, of course, 
that there are significant differences at different 
latitudes and for different seasons — a difference 
range of about 10 km. The figure also shows 
that a simple normalization technique can bring 
about almost an order of magnitude improvement. 

No one has yet incorporated the previously 
mentioned normalization in this instrument, but 
this is not to say the equipment designers have 
been lax. Indeed, they have been most ingenious. 
Some used the simple clipping level technique 
described above; some have measured the inflec- 
tion point; others look for the null value of the 
second harmonic of the output signal. Although 
most systems have been conical scanners, some 
have been fixed in position, and others have 
tracked, and some devices used an energy balanc- 
ing technique. Scans have been obtained by the 
motion of the satellite, by electromechanical de- 
vices, by piezo-electricity and frustrated total re- 

Through all these methods, manufacturers 
have brought the precision of the instruments, 
the instrumental error to about 0.05". This means 
that the angular position of an abrupt radiation 
change can be determined reproducibly to this 
amount, and this has most often been done in 
the laboratory scanning an electric fry pan painted 

As a result of these equipment advances, 
horizon sensing is now limited in accuracy by 
the variation of the horizon itself. Future im- 
provements will be accomplished only as more 
information on the systematic and random varia- 
tion of the composition and condition of the high 
altitude atmosphere becomes available. ■ 


Fig. 5. Patterns for both pitch and roll are shown in this schematic representation of horizon sensing. 


Portable Power Unif for Combat Areas Available 

A portable power condition- 
ing unit for use in forward com- 
bat or isolated areas has been 
developed by the Ryan Aeronau- 
tical Company. 

The unit translates antl 
conditions raw power from avail- 
able sources into highly depend- 
able and stable outputs for bench 
and field test appHcations. 

Easily transportable, the 
portable power conditioning unit 
is highly adaptable for forward area and remote location tests as 
required. Simple in design, the unit has over-all dimensions of 

Its unique design prevents overload or shorting out. No internal 
adjustments or patching is necessitated by differing power sources. 

Test Program for XV-5A Extended: Modifications Due 

Extended testing and modifications have been authorized for 
the U.S. Army XV-5A in a program that will continue through 
September 1966, according to R. C. Jackson, Ryan President. 

The Vertical /Short Take Ofl-and-Landing research aircraft has 
compiled 130 hours in over 320 flights during test phases I and 
II at Edwards A.F.B., California. 

Eight military and government agency pilots recently com- 
pleted a program of flight indoctrination in the XV-5A as an 
adjunct to the extended test phase. 

Each of the pilots completed five indoctrination flights follow- 
ing pre-flight training in the XV-5A Flight Simulator at San Diego. 

The significant modifications to the XV-5A will include the 
addition of a diverter valve for the nose fan, and a mechanical 
connector that will allow conversion of one jet engine at a time. 

New AN/APN-130A Test Set Developed ... 

A pre-flight test set that measures performance status of the 
AN/APN-130A Ryan Navigation system used by U.S. Navy SH- 
3A and UH-2A aircraft has been developed by Ryan. 

Both hovering and navigational functions are evaluated by 
the test set which also locates defective line replaceable units. It 
initiates preset read-outs on the 
Direction Velocity Indicator and 
Ground Speed-Drift Angle Indi- 

An improved, refined and 
lighter weight version of the 
Doppler Radar Test Set now in 
use, the new set is ideal for one- 
man utilization. 

Changes include the use of 
specific problems rather than 
simple, unidirectional problems, 
using go/no-go indication to 
greater advantage, smaller, fight- 
er components which provides 
quicker identification of malfunc- 




"Vertlwing" system's delta-shaped ro- 
tating wing provides vertical lift char- 
acteristics plus fixed-wing capabilities. 

Disc Rotor system has ihree-bladed rotor housed 
in thin disciis-sliaped centerbody into wliich tlie 
blades are retracted during high-speed regimes. 

would add supersonic speed capabilities to 
conventional rotor-winged aircraft concepts, have 
been proposed by a Ryan Aeronautical Company 

Peter F. Girard, head of advanced programs 
for the San Diego firm and former chief engineer- 
ing test pilot for Ryan, introduced the two con- 
cepts before the Dayton, Ohio, Section of the 
American Helicopter Society October 5. 

Each of the systems represents a distinctly 
different concept. 

One, known as the "Vertiwing," employs a 
delta-shaped, rotating wing that provides vertical 
lift characteristics plus fixed-wing capabilities. 

Once airborne, the aircraft's delta wing rota- 
tion is stopped and conventional, fixed-wing con- 
figuration is assumed, permitting high-speed per- 

The thin, highly swept double delta wing pos- 
sesses very desirable supersonic characteristics and 
some variants, with high fineness ratio fuselages 
and special engine inlets, are capable of high 
supersonic speeds, yet able to hover at disc load- 
ing under 25 pounds per square foot. 

The second high speed rotary concept is 
known as the Disc Rotor system. 


Disc Rotor system illustrated in artist's concept combines capabilities of helicopter with fixed-wing aircraft. 

This system utilizes a more conventional ar- 
ticulated three blade rotor arrangement but is 
equipped with a thin discus-shaped centerbody 
into which the blades are retracted during high- 
speed modes. 

The thin centerbody housing the rotor blades 
shields them from the ambient airstream during 
rotor stoppage. 

The mechanics of retraction and extension 
cycles, as proposed in this concept, are accom- 
plished by pivotal motion, thereby minimizing 
lost motion and increasing accuracy of rotor 
system C.G. control in a simple and straightfor- 
ward manner. 

In common with most stopped-rotor systems, 
the Disc Rotor concept utilizes an auxiliary wing 
for off-loading the rotor. Wing lift is augmented 
by the lift provided by the centerbody, particu- 
larly during stopped-rotor, maneuvering flight. 

Aerodynamic drag penalties due to the discus 
centerbody are small as centerbody thickness 
ratios of less than 9 per cent and disc size of 
only 15 per cent of the basic rotor reference area 
are readily attainable in this system. 

Other significant advantages offered by the 
Disc Rotor system are its simplicity, the straight- 
forward functions involved in rotor-stoppage in 

flight, the compatibility with conventional air- 
frames and its low structural weight penalty. 

One of the most apparent advances is the by- 
pass of dynamic problems encountered in stopping 
long, flexible rotor blades while in flight. 

Ryan's initial efforts in the vertical and short 
takeoff and landing field of aviation were intro- 
duced in 1940, and it has since developed three 
separate types of V/STOL aircraft and was co- 
developer on a fourth. 

Dramatically increased mission requirements 
of the rotor-wing aircraft within recent years, ac- 
cording to Girard, have provided widespread im- 
petus in extending conventional rotor-winged 
aircraft speeds into the truly high speed regimes. 

With this extension are coupled numerous 
other requirements related to payloads, propul- 
sion systems and general aerodynamics. 

Much of the advanced engineering work rep- 
resented in the Vertiwing and Disc Rotor systems 
proposed by Girard has been accomplished with- 
in the past three years as an individual effort. 

The first man to pilot a jet VTOL aircraft, 
Girard served as project engineering test pilot on 
the Ryan X-13 Vertijet in 1955-1957 and VZ- 
3RY Vertiplane in 1959. ■ 



>;/■ * 


Transponder would serve 
lunar landing vehicles as a 
beacon, guiding them to 
landing sites on the moon. 


MOON-BOUND astronauts could be guided to 
pre-selected lunar landing sites by a hom- 
ing device in much the same manner that air- 
planes now follow homing beacons, according to 
Ryan Aeronautical Company space electronics 

A prehminary study for the design-engineer- 
ing of such a device has been completed by 
Ryan Electronics for NASA's Manned Spacecraft 
Center, Houston, Texas. 

The ultimate plan is to place the device — 
called a transponder — on the surface of the moon 
well in advance of a manned lunar landing. De- 
sign engineers say the transponder could be posi- 
tioned on the moon by an unmanned Surveyor- 
type spacecraft, or by a roving vehicle which 
would be carried to the lunar surface, then de- 
tached from the "mother" craft for reconnais- 

Robert L. Ogram, Senior Project Engineer, 
led the Lunar Transponder Program study un- 
der the direction of J. R. Iverson, Director of 
Ryan Electronics at San Diego. NASA's In- 
strumentation and Electronic Systems Division, 
Manned Spacecraft Center, coordinated the over- 
all study. 

Investigations by the Ryan engineering staff 
indicate that it is feasible to place the transponder 

on the moon in such a position that it would be 
subjected to electronic commands from earth. 

Two electronic frequencies are envisioned for 
the transponder system: An S-band (about 2200 
mc) to communicate with the NASA Deep Space 
Instrumentadon Facility on earth; and an X-band 
(about 10,000 mc) for communication with the 
orbiting or descending lunar spacecraft. 

Antenna design and DSIF and spacecraft re- 
ceiver sensitivities are such that 30 milliwatts 
(.030 watt) of radiated power suffices for reliable 
operations, according to Ogram. 

The NASA requirement in this study is for the 
device to be ready to operate at any time during 
a three-year period after installation on the moon. 

Design requirements are being dictated pri- 
marily through man's existing knowledge of lunar 
environmental conditions. Ogram points out that 
lunar surface temperatures fluctuate sharply — 
perhaps as greatly as 300 degrees per hour dur- 
ing eclipse — with a day peak of plus 275 degrees 
F. and minus 250 degrees F. at night. 

In addition, the lunar surface is subjected 
to extremely high energy nuclear radiation from 
the sun which could destroy unprotected elec- 
tronics components in a period of several hours. 
Ogram's study indicates that this radiadon hazard 
is perhaps higher on the moon's surface than on 


Ryan transponder engineering team (left) included (L-to-R) R. L. Ogram, R. V. Lathrop, R. Ehmann and 
W. Pagels. (Right) Draftsman JoAnn Hayward, associated with program, reviews drawings with Lathrop. 

any nearby planets since there is no atmosphere 
or magnetic field to protect it from solar or 
galactic bombardment. 

Micrometeoric bombardment will, as in the 
case of radiation, also be worse on the moon's 
surface than on that of nearby planets. 

Anticipating these hazards, Ryan engineers 
plan a sufficiently thick coat of "armor" to pro- 
tect the transponder from these elements. 

While the basic application of the transponder 
would be to serve as a beacon for lunar landing 
vehicles or orbiting astronauts, the study reflects 
additional uses for the device of long-range 
values in the telemetry fields. 

Data related to seismology, atmospheric com- 
position and pressure, temperatures, microme- 
teoric bombardment and radiation levels in space 
could be relayed via the transponder communi- 
cations systems. 

With knowledge collected over the past sev- 
eral years, Ogram believes that thermal problems 
Df the moon appear to lend themselves to rea- 
sonable solution by passive means, employing 
appropriate surface coating and power switching 

to provide heat to the transponder during night 
time periods if the transponder is in off condition. 

One of the major differences between the 
transponder now under study at Ryan and simi- 
lar devices now in use or planned for near future 
applications is the life requirement factor. 

There appear to be definite advantages in a 
telemetry transponder which is capable of pro- 
viding useful data intermittently over long periods 
of time — perhaps three years or more — Ryan en- 
gineers point out. 

Conventional power sources, such as cur- 
rently used solar panels, cannot provide power 
during the lunar night. Instead, power may be 
provided by long-life atomic sources known as 
radio-isotope-thermoelectric generators. 

Ryan's electronic engineering-design effort — 
the kind being used in the transponder study — 
has paved the way for current Ryan participation 
in Surveyor, LEM and Mariner IV programs. 

And, while much data is yet to be gained in 
the months ahead, the realistic values of the 
transponder system are on the immediate horizon, 
well within reach for man's landing on the moon. 


.tlAK & 



AIR DEFENSE COMMAND'S "Shield of Freedom" 
^ wears a dazzling new coat of luster result- 
ing from the World Wide Fighter-Interceptor 
Weapons Meet held last October at Tyndall Air 
Force Base, Florida. 

"William Tell '65" has been assessed as the 
most gruelling peacetime test ever faced by pilots 
and crewmen. 

Its unprecedented scores also made it the most 
successful event of its kind ever held. 

As an 8-day test of readiness for pilots and 
crewmen of 16 fighter-interceptor teams, "William 
Tell '65" scored a battery of "firsts" for the record 

The 16 teams competing marked the highest 
number in the 11 -year history of weapons meets; 
it was the first time a Canadian team participated; 
the highest number of points ever awarded were 
amassed by the competing teams; the highest 
number of sorties were flown; and the most chal- 
lenging missions ever devised confronted team 
pilots and crewmen. 

In measuring the combat readiness of those 
who guard the Free World's skies, "William Tell 
'65" also served as a yardstick for support ele- 
ments involved. 

Among these and playing an instrumental role 
in the overall success was Ryan Aeronautical 
Company's 33-man field service crew. Dispatched 
to Tyndall in early June, the Ryan team worked 
shoulder-to-shoulder with men of the 4756th Field 
Maintenance and Drone Squadrons in preparing 

Top scoring ream at meet was led by Lt. Col. G. 
K. Dunaway (center). Weapons Team Chief, 
S/Sgt. E. R. Weaver and Weapons Director, 
Flight Lt. D. Finch, RCAF, help display trophies. 



Mission cwcoiuplished, jet-powered Firebee used in "W'illicin Tell '65" is recovered by helicopter for 
return to Tyndall Air Force Base. Firebees set a target reliability record during biennial weapons meet. 



67 jet-powered Firebees for action. 

The remote-controlled, 600-niile-an-hour Fire- 
bee target missiles filled the role of "enemy" air- 
craft, serving as the primary target vehicle for the 
aerial exercise. 

A record reliability mark was established dur- 
ing the meet, with one Firebee completing six 
successive flights over a five-day period. Several 
Firebees which had been used in "William Tell 
'63" were checked, found suitable and flown on 
"William Tell '65" missions in an added test 
of reliability. 

"William Tell '65" was conducted in four 
categories of competition, with F-101 Voodoos, 
F-102 Delta Daggers, F-104 Starfighters and 
F-106 Delta Darts competing. 

First place winner in Category I was the 62nd 
Fighter-Interceptor Squadron, based at Sawyer 
AFB; Category II first place winner, the 32nd 
Fighter-Interceptor Squadron based at Camp New 
Amsterdam, the Netherlands; Category III first 
place team, the 71st Fighter-Interceptor Squad- 
ron, Selfridge AFB; and Category IV first place 
award went to the 331st Fighter -Interceptor 
Squadron based at Webb Air Force Base. 

Though "kills'" were scored electronically 
through the MAATS or BIDOPS systems, five 
actual Firebee "kills" were racked up by com- 
peting teams. Ryan "kill" plaques, symbolizing 
"William Tell '65" weapons proficiency, were 
awarded to the teams by Frank Card Jameson. 
Ryan Vice President of Programs. ■ 


1. Mission complete, recovery device triggers 
parachute that floats the Firebee gently to earth. 

2. Direct hits on five Firebees won Ryan "kill" 
plaques jar the five pilot-controller teams at meet. 

3. F-lOl "Voodoo" pilot awaits takeoff orders. 
"Enemy" has been detected off coast of Florida. 

4. Ground crew conducts systems check on Fire- 
bee. GC-130 was used for air-launching targets. 

5. Weapons personnel arm heat-seeking Side- 
winder missiles which were fired at Ryan Firebees. 










R V A N 


wiB UUuu" uumu 






VOLUME 27, NO. 2 

P. O. Box 31 I/San Diego, California 921 12 




CONTRIBUTING EDITORS/George Becker, Jr., Harold Keen 


STAFF ARTIST/Matt Glacalone 

Hawk Training: Mission at McGregor 3 

Antenna Testing Firebee II 8 

Continental J69-T-6 gives Rrebee II added "sting" 12 

Seek Out and Destroy 15 

XV-5A: From Concept to Reality 19 

RCA, Ryan Point the Way With LEM Radar Systems 24 

Voyage of the No. 8351 28 

Ryan Systems Back Surveyor, Apollo Programs 30 

About the cover: U . S. Army's 
jmazhig^ XV-iA horers white 
lifting 233-pouud dummy in 
simuLited rescue mission at 
Edwards Air Force Base. 






Ryan Firebee awaits letiitial after a Hawk missile exercise on McGregor Range, part of a sprawling S60,000-acre Army complex. 


OVER A CENTURY ago the Army moved into the El Paso, Texas 
area to set up a garrison. They estabUshed the post of El Paso. 
Today, more than 100 years later, El Paso and Fort Bhss are the 
center of Army Air Defense training under the Command of Major Gen- 
eral George T. Powers, III, U. S. Army. 

An essential part of this vast complex is the McGregor Firing Range. 

Wingtip mounted Towbees will be 
towed behind the Firebee in flight. 

Firebee recovered after mission has been placed on dolly for return to 
hangar area for recycling after Hawk missile exercise at McGregor. 

Ryan Firebee "kill" pLiquc, tlitpLt]ed b) Col, E. 
W . Schmid, Commanding Officer at McGregor, 
symbolizes the exceptional skills of Hawk crews. 

This 860,000 acre desert facility is the site 
of intensified Hawk missile battery training 
of officers and crew members from U. S. 
Army Air Defense units the world over. 

Here rigorous and highly reahstic training 
exercises perfect Army personnel abilities in 
recognizing and acquiring "enemy" targets 
with precision and accuracy. 

Training at McGregor is climaxed by hve 
firings on actual targets as a final test of 
training efiectiveness. 

Operational readiness training of missile 
crews receives close-in support from a 20- 
man contractor service team from Ryan 
Aeronautical Company, San Diego, Cali- 
fornia. The crew maintains and operates the 
high performance Firebee jet target drone 
system at McGregor. 

Led by C. D. "Bud" Miller, a veteran 
Ryan target expert, the team, made up of 
technicians trained in all phases of Firebee 
operations, is responsible for flight control, 
recovery, and rehabilitation of the MQM- 
34D Firebee targets. 

Ryan facilities, located at the northern 
end of McGregor Range near Orogrande, 
consist of a well laid out complex of offices 
and workshops. Electronics, engine, air- 
frame, parachute, and weight and balance 
facilities are maintained to service the Fire- 

Nearby, 6V2 miles from the Ryan head- 
quarters, the launch facilities for the fast- 
flying drones are located. A zero length, 
rail launcher, a control blockhouse, a flight 
hangar and the weight and balance facility 
are maintained to provide the fast and 
efficient launch rate needed to support the 
day-to-day mission requirements of the 
Hawk missile training program. 

Flights of the recently developed Firebee/ 
Towbee target system from this desert fa- 
cihty are proving the feasibility and econ- 
omy of presenting multiple targets on a 
single presentation run on the target range. 

The Towbee system employs smaU, wing- 
tip mounted, expendable targets which are 
deployed once the Firebee is airborne and 
in position on the range. Wire reels, 
mounted within the Firebee jet target, pay 
the Towbees out sequentially to distances 
up to 5.000 feet, presenting individual pas- 
sively augmented targets to the Hawk missile 
batteries on the ground, at speeds up to 
520 miles per hour and altitudes from 500 
to 50,000 feet. 

Contractor service support also extends 
beyond the Air Defense training program 
at U. S. Army Air Defense Center, to weap- 
ons research and development and testing 
conducted at nearby White Sands Missile 

Pre-launch system check on Firebee-Towhee 
by J. D. Blankenship, a member of Ryan's 
20-tnan team based at McGregor, adds re- 
liability to Army's Hawk training programs. 

Ftrebee will hurtle from 
ground launch rail shortly, 
serving as "enemy' for lethal 
Hawk missile batteries at Mc- 
Gregor. Firebee launch team 
conducts final count-down 
checking all launch systems. 

Engine run-up tests, using portable test unit, boosts re- 
liability of Firebee system during performance. Ryan has 
based its field team at McGregor Range since 1964- 

Range for U. S. Army Missile Com- 
mand R&D. Firebee jet target flights 
are launched on request from the Ryan 
complex in support of the requirement. 

The Ryan facility at McGregor is 
also used to train other Ryan and 
foreign technicians in Firebee target 
operations prior to their assignment to 
similar tasks at worldwide bases. 

Recent construction at the Mc- 
Gregor facility has produced a "beefed 
up" target ground launch system in- 
creasing target payload capability by 
300 per cent. 

Significant enlargement of physical 
facilities to expedite launches include 
the addition of a new flight hangar for 
mission-ready Firebees and a weight 
and balance building, both located 
near the launcher and flight control 

In recognition of the training pro- 
gram at McGregor, Colonel E. W. 
Schmid the Commanding Officer, was 
presented a Ryan Firebee "kill" 
plaque. Colonel Schmid accepting it 
said, the plaque was a tribute to the 
exceptional skill and accuracy demon- 
strated by the Army Hawk batteries 
during annual service practice. 


Hawk missile streaks over McGregor 
Range during training exercise. Its 
target is a Ryan jet-powered Firebee. 

Remote-controlled flight of Ryan Fire- 
bee is traced on plotting board by foe 
Mosko, a member of Ryan field team. 

With 17 years' experience in building more than 
2500 turbojet targets, Ryan Aeronautical Company 
has been asked by the U. S. Navy to develop a super- 
sonic Firebee. 

This growth version, designated the XBQM-34E, is 
designed to achieve Mach 1.5 (approximately 1,000 
mph), retaining the same rugged, reliable performance- 
proven qualities as its near-sonic ancestors. 

Economy is another inherent quality of the Firebee 
II, since many of the components of the present day 
production Firebees will be used in the new model. 

Flight tests are scheduled to begin at the Navy Mis- 
sile Center, Pt. Mugu, California, early in 1967. 




Full-scale model of Firebee H is mounted on mast (at right) for antenna radiation pattern tests at 
Ryan Electronic and Space Systems where engineers have created special test facility for Firebee 11. 


lidJidiiiiii pdiLiii is monitored by R. L. Perry 
during tests of Firebee lis antenna systems. 


Firebee II engineers M. S. Sevelson (left) and \\" . R. Karmazin check data 
obtained at test facility where full-scale Firebee II is undergoing testing. 

Varying ranges can be obtained 
by moving mast on dual tracks. 

A FULL SCALE model of the su- 
personic Ryan Firebee H, now 
under development for the U. S. Navy, 
is "flying" atop a 40 foot pole at the 
Ryan Aeronautical Company's antenna 
test facility in San Diego, California. 

The swept-wing drone aircraft is 
undergoing antenna pattern testing, a 
vital step in final design of the target 
vehicle which will be capable of speeds 
in excess of 1,000 mph. 

The current tests will aid Ryan en- 
gineers in the placement, size, and 
antennas needed for operating the su- 
personic Firebee IL 

A successor to the famed Ryan 
BQM-34A subsonic Firebee, the new 
target vehicle is being developed with 

a minimum of modification require- 
ments for airborne and ground support 

Longer than the BQM-34A (28 feet 
vs. 23 feet), but with radically swept 
back, shorter wings (9 feet vs. 13 
feet), the slimmer Firebee II, desig- 
nated XBQM-34E, is a highly stream- 
lined, more efficient target. 

New fuel tank arrangements for 
supplying its Continental YJ69-T-6 en- 
gine plus increased thrust capability, 
contribute to the Firebee II stream- 
lined appearance and supersonic per- 

The XBQM-34E will carry 263 lbs. 
of fuel within the fuselage, and 400 lbs. 
in a jettisonable external fuel pod at- 

tached beneath the fuselage. With this 
pod, the XBQM-34E will perform 
subsonic flight missions with similar 
performance, endurance and range as 
the present BQM-34A. 

For supersonic flight, the external 
pod is jettisoned, and using the fuel 
within the fuselage, the new Firebee 
will be capable of flying target missions 
at 1,000 mph at 60,000 feet. 

The Firebee II will also be able to 
fly sea level missions at speeds in 
excess of 800 mph. Maximum en- 
durance time from launch to recovery 
sequence for a combined subsonic- 
supersonic dash mission is estimated 
at 72 minutes. 

Ryan engineers have made aUow- 


Efficiency of Firebee II antenna system is precision measuyed at Ryan's test facility. 

ances in the design of the supersonic 
Firobee II for special augmentation 
equipment and antennas, in addition 
to the normal command, radar and 
telemetry equipment. 

The antenna testing now in progress 
at San Diego virtually eliminates the 
grey areas in antenna design and de- 
velopment. According to M. S. Sevel- 
son, Project Engineer for the Firebee 
II, "This approach offers an economi- 
cal means of solving the particular 
problems of the large number of an- 
tennas on the Firebee II. By elim- 
ination of scale effects as a variable 
to be considered in the development 
phase, and by working with actual 
antennas at their appropriate frequen- 

cies, production antenna characteristics 
may be predicted accurately. As a 
result, complete radiation pattern cov- 
erages are assured." 

Avionics group leader William R. 
Karmazin, in charge of the antenna 
test program for the supersonic Fire- 
bee, states. "We realized it would be 
almost impossible to construct and test 
with any degree of accuracy, scaled 
down versions of all the complex an- 
tennas required by the XBQM-34E 
avionics payload. All of the antennas 
are flush mounted to the surface of the 
airframe. Most of them have some 
structural job to do. This is a lot dif- 
ferent than the antenna system on the 
BQM-34A. On that drone, we were 

able to use scale model techniques with 
most of the simple UHF/VHF an- 
tennas." He added, "The solution for 
this new drone was to develop this 
facility to handle a full scale model. 
This not only allows our antenna 
development program to move along 
faster at less cost, but allows us to 
measure precisely the efficiency of the 
operational antenna system using ac- 
tual production antennas." 

The new test range is located at the 
Ryan Electronic and Space Systems 
plant in San Diego. It is 1,000 feet in 
length. The tower is 40-feet high and 
is mounted on rails which give max- 
imum flexibility in establishing test 
ranges. A feature of the range is the 
16-ft. diameter parabolic antenna. 
This will be used only at the lower fre- 
quencies (1,000 mc and below) where 
it is expected to reduce multipath prob- 
lems. Smaller antennas will be used 
for the higher frequencies. A large 
part of the radio spectrum will be cov- 
ered by the new range. Work on the 
supersonic Firebee 11 alone will in- 
volve frequencies extending from 150 
mc to 11.0 gc. Use of the range out- 
side these frequencies is restricted only 
by the availability of test equipment. 

Currently, measurements being 
taken using the full scale model of the 
XBQM-34E are radiation patterns of 
the Ryan-designed, flush mounted ra- 
dar tracking beacon antennas. The 
next series of tests will provide design 
verification of antennas for radio 
control, telemetry, and L-band IFF 

Unique construction of the full scale 
Firebee II model permits its break- 
down into convenient size components. 
It can be assembled by hand onto the 
test tower. The model weighs approx- 
imately 350 lb. and is 28 ft. in length. 
Heavier airframes and those not suit- 
able for disassembly can be hoisted 
into position on the tower by crane. 
The new test tower can sustain full 
scale models and operational drones 
weighing up to one ton. 

Development of the new capability 
has enabled Ryan engineers to make 
precision pattern measurements under 
simulated free-space conditions with 
both the developmental prototypes and 
production run operational antennas. 
This has resulted in substantial savings 
in cost and development time for the 
supersonic Firebee II program. 


Estimated performance of XBOAI-34E is verified follouing altitude 
chamber tests at Continental. Technician is using a demonstrator 
engine identical to J69-T-6 aerodynamics to obtain flight data. 

Skilled craftsma)iship assures qual- 
ity of Firebee lis new jet engine. 

Continental J69-T-6 gives Firebee II added "sting" 

Continental engine manufacture blends modern 
design with human skills for maximum reliability. 

THE FIRST test runs of a new jet engine to power the 
Ryan Firebee II supersonic target now under develop- 
ment for the Navy by Ryan Aeronautical Company are under- 
way at Continental Aviation and Engineering Corporation, De- 
troit, Michigan. 

The current test program is part of an 18-hour endurance 
qualification plan scheduled for completion this month. 

Developing 1840 pounds of thrust, this improved Conti- 
nental J69 series turbojet power plant will propel the new jet 
target at speeds up to Mach 1.5 and at altitudes of up to 
60,000 feet. 

This new growth version of the veteran Firebee target sys- 
tem will provide more realistic simulations of enemy aircraft 
for training military personnel in air defense systems. 

Based on the present Continental J69-T-29 turbojet that 
has accumulated an enviable record of performance and reli- 
ability in the current Firebee, the J69-T-6 incorporates a new 
transonic axial stage compressor. 

The new development is a result of Continental's continu- 
ing program of component improvement on the J69 series of 
engines. This new compressor made it possible to obtain the 
additional performance required by the new drone while re- 
taining the basic configuration of the highly successful J69-T-29 

The engine cross-section shows the family resemblance of 
the J69-T-6 with other J 69 engines — the annular inlet, axial 


Continental J69 engine combustion chamber frames 
activity of u'orkers assembling turbine shaft at CAE's 
Toledo plant. Engine powers Ryan's famous Firebee. 


CAE technicians test compressor blades 
for precise pitch. Growth version ]69-T-6 
engine compressor is made from titanium. 

and centrifugal stage compressors, annular com- 
buster, rotary fuel distributor and single-stage tur- 

The new engine design, as with all Continental 
J69 engines, incorporates simplicity, reliability and 
minimum weight; the flowpath has a minimum num- 
ber of parts and the least amount of aerodynamic 
turning possible to ensure maximum performance. 

Modifications to strengthen the engine structure 
were necessary because of added stresses imposed 
by requirements for supersonic flight at sea level. 
These modifications included redesign of the cen- 
trifugal compressor cover and radial diffuser and 

Transonic axial stage compressor, to be used in neiv 
Firebee II engine, updates Continental f69 engines. 

use of titanium for the centrifugal compressor in 
place of aluminum. 

Relocation of accessories, controls and external 
fittings, including "repackaging" of the fuel control, 
provides a lower silhouette and reduces engine diam- 
eter to fit the slim diameter of the high-performance 
drone's fuselage. 

The entire engine program — from inception to 
qualification, including design and procurement of 
hardware — spans only three months. 

This relatively brief developmental period is 
attributable, according to program officials to Con- 
tinental's state-of-the-art advances in transonic axial 
compressors and fabrication techniques of titanium. 
Verification of engine performance estimates 
throughout the entire XBQM-34E flight regime have 
been established through the use of a demonstrator 
engine having an aerodynamic configuration identical 
to the J69-T-6. 


Firebee II's new "sting' will come from this growth 
version engine, a Continental f69-T-6 jet turbine. 
Engine will boost XBOAI-34E into WOO mph class. 

>.f„ * * ..t 


Seek out 


submarine Squadron Six are 
helping write a new chapter in the 
history of Naval Aviation today, using 
elements that characterized the first 
half-century: Bold courage, dedication 
and pioneering spirit. 

Soon to observe its tenth anniver- 
sary of commissioned service, HS-6"s 
logbook chronicles modern-day ad- 
vances made by the U. S. Navy in 
anti-submarine warfare. 

Already a war-seasoned unit that 
has five times deployed to Western 
Pacific areas — twice for service in 
waters off Vietnam — the squadron 
will celebrate its tenth birthday this 
June "on-station" in West Pac. 

Under Commander Robert S. Ver- 
milya, HS-6 is one of three squadrons 
comprising Anti-Submarine Air Group 
Fifty-Three, whose mission is: "Seek 
out and destroy enemy submarines." 

Herein lies the uniqueness of HS-6"s 
existence and the contributions it is 
making today to Naval Aviation, in- 
deed to the defense of America. 

Based at Ream Field, California, 
the "Helicopter Capital of the World," 
during stateside re-training cycles, HS- 
6 comprises some 50 pilots and 275 
enlisted personnel who man and main- 
tain the squadron's 16 SH-3A "Sea 
King" helicopters. 

Fitted with external weapon racks, 
the helicopters combine detection with 
"kill" capabilities. 

From dusk to dawn and throughout 
the day, mission requirements range 
from a gruelling schedule of standard 
ASW exercise drills on through a spec- 
trum of tactical procedures that chal- 
lenge the most skilled instrument pilots. 

The most rigid disciplines imposed 
on earth-bound aviation are exercised 
by rotor-winged pilots as they skim 
over the crest of waves in the pitch 
black of night, hover in stationary 
position and dip the 300-pound trans- 
ducer beneath the sea. 

Anti-submarine helicopters nor- 
mally operate in the 40-foot zero-air- 
speed realm. Add the elements oi 
all-weather and zero-zero flight condi- 
tions to this "standard" requirement 
and the personality of HS-6 flight re- 
quirements draw into realistic focus. 

Under combat operational condi- 
tions. Commander Vermilya's unit has 
the capability for search and rescue 
missions, as demonstrated in 1964 in 
the Gulf of Tonkin. The squadron 

Space age mission is fulfilled by HS-6 helicopter as Navy Frog- 
man is dropped into sea to aid recovery of manned Alercury 
space capsule. Unit aided in two Mercury recovery missions. 

Ryan's new pre-fUght test set, used here by HS-6 
technician to check Doppler radar navigation system, 
is currently undergoing evaluation in the Pacific fleet. 


participated in several rescue missions 
involving downed pilots of carrier 
based-attack aircraft. 

Truly a "space age" organization, 
HS-6 units have twice been assigned 
recovery missions related to manned 
spacecraft. Its first mission came in 
October 1962 with the recovery of 
Project Mercury Astronaut Wally 
Shirra in the mid-Pacific. This was 
followed in May 1963 with the re- 
covery of a second Mercury Astro- 
naut, Gordon Cooper. 

It is a statement of fact, not a boast, 
when HS-6 pilots assert, "We can fill 

any mission requirement, anywhere at 
any time!" 

This degree of confidence comes 
only from men whose professional 
skills have been demonstrated under 
actual priority conditions. 

Linked to this capability is an in- 
herent characteristic common only with 
helicopter pilots: precise navigational 
abilities. As one pilot explains, "There 
simply isn't any alternative to precise 
navigation in an ASW unit." 

It is in this general area of naviga- 
tion that Ryan's Doppler radar naviga- 
tion system (AN/APN-130) is filling 

Ream Field spreads out beneath SH-3A 
follotvi7ig a mission out over the Pacific. 


a critically important role today. 

This unit is standard equipment in 
all Navy ASW helicopter units. 

Its values are best described by 
Lieutenant Richard Nichols, who told 
of operating from the carrier USS 
Kearsarge on a night mission that took 
him some 90 miles from the ship. 

"I set up my automatic navigation 
system before takeoff and returned 
four hours late: less than two degrees 
and a half-mile from the flight deck! 
Through the use of the Ryan system, 
I was able to give total concentration 
to the other mission requirements." 

R]tii! system is flight "insurance" for 
return trip. Naiigator sets system's 
memory button before the mission. 

Another HS-6 pilot, Lieutenant 
Commander James D. Waring, points 
to the '"backup system" that the APN- 
130 serves during radio failures. 

"When it happened to my ship, I 
simply pushed the memory button and 
the system re-traced our course back 
to the ship." 

The Ryan Doppler radar navigation 
system is designed to detect fore and 
aft motion (heading speed), left and 
right motion (drift speed) and verti- 
cal motion, up and down. This three- 
way measurement enables pilots to 
maintain sustained precision hovering 
under all-weather and zero-zero con- 

Linked with automatic stabilization 
and altimetry equipment, pilots can 
maintain a fully automatic maneuver 
for normal cruise conditions through 
transitions in both speed and altitude 
to a hover. 

These capabilities provide a stable 
platform from which sonar operations 

can be conducted on a very reliable 
basis, according to Lieutenant Robert 
A. Wildman, electronics officer for 
the squadron. 

Extending their support capabilities, 
Ryan engineers have designed and de- 
veloped a portable test set for the 
AN/APN-130 system that is now un- 
dergoing evaluation by helicopter units 
based at Ream Field. 

Using this device, one man can per- 
form system checks on helicopters 
that formerly required three to four 

A production contract that calls for 
installation of the AN/APN-130 sys- 
tem in HC-1 helicopters, also based at 
Ream Field, was awarded recently by 
the Navy. 

Thus does the association between 
Ryan Aeronautical Company and 
squadrons such as HS-6 become one 
of prime importance to the continued 
excellence of Navy ASW helo opera- 

^A ^^MlKtJfe^' ^P». 

li "iLhunti t,f the ASW^ fleet come to )'"".' "'.' }.ii>/p' .:: K.. •■■ i-...J, 
"Helicopter Capital of the WorU." Along uith sister squadrons, 
HS-6 is home based here when not deployed aboard ASW carriers. 


Dramatic highlight of environmental test pro- 
gram involved simulated rescue mission. XV-5A 
descends in hover mode over ]ohn Bi/rhans, 
who raises hands to shotv freedom of move- 
ment. Instrumented dummy is raised by ivinch. 



Prom Concent to Kcsilitv 


A pause in nearly two years of intense flight testing and pio- 
neering achievement came in late March as the U. S. Army 
XV-5A V/STOL research aircraft began a four-month rest period 
for modification at Edwards Air Force Base. 

To date in the extended flight test program, the XV-5A has: 

Logged nearly 130 hours during 336 flights; demonstrated re- 
liable capabilities of a high-performance jet at speeds of up to 
526 miles an hour, blending this characteristic with the vertical- 
takeoff-and-landing agility of a helicopter; been used to train 15 
pilots; concluded a series of VTO hover, takeoff and landing 
tests over sod, alfalfa fields, unprepared landing sites in the Mojave 
Desert, over water and loose sand; lifted a 235-pound dummy 
by winch and cable in simulated rescue operations. 

Many of the accomplishments were historical "firsts" no high 
performance jet aircraft had ever attempted. 

The exhaustive flight test program moved the Ryan designed 
and built XV-5A, incorporating the Vertifan concept, from draw- 
ing boards to airborne applications. 

Ryan's Chief Eui^'nieeriiig Test Pilot, Vul 
E. Schaeffcr, piloted XV-5A during tests. 


Demonstrating operational capabilities in 
typical encampment area, XV-5A de- 
scends in small area adjacent to tent. 

Built for the U. S. Army Aviation 
Materiel Laboratories (AVLABS), the 
XV-5A features the General Electric 
lift fan propulsion system using fans 
submerged in the wings and nose 
powered by two dry G.E. J58 turbojet 

For V/STOL (Vertical-Short-Take- 
off-and Landing) flight, diverter valves 
in the propulsion system divert hot gas 
from the J85 engines to drive the two, 
five-foot diameter wing fans and a 
smaller three-foot pitch control fan lo- 
cated in the nose of the aircraft. 

A significant asset of the propul- 
sion system is that no more fuel is 
used for vertical takeoff, landing and 
hovering maneuvers, than is used for 
conventional high speed flight. 

Phase I contractor flight tests be- 

gan in May 1964, and Phase II Army 
evaluation started in January 1965. 
The test program conducted at Ed- 
wards Air Force Base, included pilot 
training and austere environmental or 
erosion tests at the Mojave Desert test 

Modifications currently being made 
include the addition of a diverter valve 
for the pitch fan and mechanical con- 
nector that will allow conversion of 
one jet engine at a time. The pitch 
fan diverter valve will permit the pilot 
to shut down the pitch fan during the 
high speed fan flight approach to con- 
version, reducing drag effects observed 
during this flight period. 

This modification is expected to in- 
crease fan powered speeds from the 
present 90-100 knots to 110 knots or 

above. Pitch control at speeds in ex- 
cess of 70 knots is provided by the 
horizontal stabilizer and elevator. 

A second modification will permit 
sequential conversion with one engine 
feeding the fan system through inter- 
connecting ducts while the second en- 
gine's thrust is directed out the con- 
ventional tail pipes. This change wifl 
give the aircraft greater speeds and 
angles of attack in the fan mode. 

A mechanical interconnect between 
the diverter valves and the horizontal 
stabilizer will replace an electrical re- 
lay system simplifying ground and pre- 
flight check-out procedures. 

A refinement in the mechanical con- 
trol system of the aircraft wiU also be 
made. It will allow the pilot to mon- 
itor roll control as he maneuvers the 
aircraft during vertical take-offs and 

A fourth modification will include 
insulating the cockpit and adding an 
air inlet forward of the cockpit wind- 
shield, to improve the pilot comfort 

The effect of these modifications will 
be determined during flight tests sched- 
uled to resume by August. 

In the impressive austere environ- 
ment tests, the XV-5A executed ver- 
tical takeoft's and landings from sod, 
alfalfa fields, plowed dirt, a parachute 
drop zone, a standard Army T-17 
membrane and on the unprepared 
desert floor. 

The exhaustive test program in- 
cluded hovering over water, air-taxiing 
from the hangar area following stand- 
ard helicopter procedures. A simu- 
lated rescue operation was conducted 
in which a 235-pound sensored dummy 
was raised by cable and winch to with- 
in four feet of the aircraft, which was 
hovering at fifty feet altitude. 

The erosion tests were conducted 
to determine the capability of a high 
downwash vehicle to land on various 
surfaces. A U. S. Air Force CH-21 
helicopter, with a gross weight similar 
to that of the XV-5A, performed each 
maneuver at each site prior to the XV- 
5A as a safety measure. 

Conducted for the Army within a 


Flying on fans, XV-5A descends 
in sand cloud during tests in desert 
(upper right). Circle of visibil- 
ity beneath plane is caused by its 
downwash of exhaust. Air taxi test 
(at right) demonstrates agility of 
XV-5A in maneuvering thru con- 
gested area. Using Army T-17 
membrane for a ground cover, 
XV-^A achieves vertical landing 
tvith ease (below). Series of tests 
included hover-landing investiga- 
tions over variety of unprepared 
sites and alfalfa field (beloiv). 

period of three weeks at Edwards and 
the U. S. Naval Ordnance Test Sta- 
tion, China Lake, California, the ero- 
sion test program followed a training 
period in which eight pilots were 
checked out in the XV-5A, bringing 
to 15 the number who are currently 
qualified to fly the aircraft. 

All of the erosion test flights were 
performed by Val Schaeffer, Ryan 
Chief Engineering Test Pilot and the 
first man to fly the XV-5A. 

Ferried cross-country from Edwards 
to China Lake, a distance of some 65 
miles, the XV-5A completed its initial 
erosion test over a sod field, hovering 
and landing on the irregular surface of 
the field. Erected at the test site were 
Army tents and materiel simulating 
a typical encampment. No noticeable 
disturbance was caused by the XV-5A 
as it hovered above and landed a scant 
few yards from the encampment area. 

The soil and ground conditions at 
all sites were evaluated by a team of 
Army soil experts from Vicksburg, 
Mississippi Army Experimental Cen- 
ter. The team took samples before and 
after each test to determine erosion 

Despite a full-power turn up on 
the ground adjacent to the encamp- 
ment area at China Lake, the only 
mark left by the XV-5A was a tire 

Environmental testing continued on 
alfalfa fields, on the T-17 membrane, 
on the raw, unprepared desert floor, 
in a loose, sandy area in which the 
earth had been pulverized to a very 
fine dust to cushion the impact of 
heavy cargo dropped during cargo par- 
achute tests and a freshly plowed field. 

In each instance, the evaluations re- 
flected highly favorable results for the 
XV-5A in hover, descent and landing 
modes, over the wide variety of diverse 
terrain encountered. 


Ryan Base Manager at Edu'ards, John 
Biirhans, simulates air rescue, by standing 
beneath XV-5A as it descends in hover 
mode for pickup. Test investigated ef- 
fects of exhaust velocity on human as 
plane executes descent iti a hover mode. 

One test, conducted over a pond with 
water two to three feet deep, involved 
hovering operations over two life rafts, 
one floating free and the other secured 
to a sea anchor. The free-floating raft 
was pushed to the edge of the pond 
by the downwash while the raft with 
the sea anchor remained within a 
twenty-foot area beneath the XV-5A. 

To evaluate capabilities of the XV- 
5A to air taxi in congested areas, 
Schaeffer flew the aircraft in a hover 
attitude between hangars and rows of 
parked aircraft, following standard 
Army helicopter taxi procedures. 

The test proved that the XV-5A can 
operate within confined areas without 
any hazard to nearby aircraft, person- 
nel, or equipment and that the fan 
downwash, even in a confined area, 
does not present any re-ingestion prob- 

Temperature-sensing paint on the 
helmet and shoulders of the dummy 
indicated that there were no effects 
from the heat and downwash from the 
aircraft. Shaeffer translated the air- 
craft at speeds up to 30 mph with no 
noticeable strain on the dummy. 

In a related test, the aircraft de- 
scended in hover mode to 40 feet 
above a man standing at a "pickup" 
point. The man stated during his de- 
briefing that, "Wind blast and noise 
were not objectionable. It would have 
been possible for me to climb into a 
rescue seat or sling without difficulty." 

The U. S. Army is now studying 
results of these tests and will use the 
data in the design of advanced V/ 
STOL aircraft. 

Compared to a UH-IB helicopter 
in a series of agility tests, the XV-5A 
was flown over a closed course by 
Schaeffer in fan mode or hover con- 
figuration, matching the maneuvers of 
the helicopter. 

Schaeffer, in the XV-5A, completed 

the course in five and one-half minutes, 
then he immediately flew the helicop- 
ter over the course in three minutes, 
50 seconds. 

Maximum climb rates at 2200 feet 
per minute were recorded in vertical 
takeoff and fan powered descents to 
vertical landings were demonstrated 
at a comfortable descent rate of 2500 
feet per minute. 

Variable performance takeoffs were 
accomplished to arrive at a pre-selected 
point, such as 2500 feet and 200 
knots. In conventional jet takeoff, it 
took one and one-half minutes to attain 
pre-selected altitude and speed. 

In the XV-5A, Schaeffer arrived at 

the designated point in sfightly over 
two minutes, using vertical takeoffs, 
maximum translation to conversion, 
then conventional jet flight. 

The XV-5A hovered continuously 
in one test for 1 5 minutes to determine 
effects on the fan system for sustained 
operations. No noticeable effects were 
recorded during this test. 

The XV-5A flew sideways at speeds 
up to 30 miles per hour and backwards 
at 23 miles per hour in agility tests. 

Now enjoying the first "pause" in 
the exacting test program, the XV-5A 
has achieved a growing reputation as 
the "most advanced high performance 
jet V/STOL aircraft flying today." 


Micro-miniaturized, integrated cncttitiy 
reduces size and iveight of components. 






Manager, RCA Liaison Office 
Radio Corporation of America 

THE current Gemini flights and 
the preparations for the Apollo 
Lunar Expedition during this decade 
are clearly predictive of the future re- 
quirements for spacecraft navigational 
and maneuvering sensors. Indicated 
is a need for sensors that will be cap- 
able both of independent operation and 
cooperation with other spacecraft and 
which can function without assistance 
from Earth tracking stations. 

Until now, spacecraft have been 
Earth-orbiting satellites, bound by the 
Earth's gravity and dependent in space 
centers and tracking stations on the 


Lunar Excursion Module ivill still he docked ivith Command-Service Modules as Apollo spacecraft enters Lunar orbit. 

Landing on the Moon, however, re- 
quires both altitude and velocity of 
approach measurements, which should 
be obtained directly from the lunar 
surface to improve confidence. Sim- 
ilarly, at the time when the returning 
Lunar Excursion Module (LEM) 
docks with the waiting Apollo Com- 
mand Module, the precise maneuvers 
required to establish a successful 
safe-closing trajectory make directly 
measured range and range rate highly 
desirable. This closing maneuver de- 
mands a sensor of precision beyond 
the requirements of one which can ac- 
complish the mid-course maneuver. 

This description of the LEM radars 
illustrates the future role of spacecraft 
sensors. Interplanetary space guidance 
will continue to be largely done by 
the Manned Space Flight Network 
(MSFN) and spacecraft inertial/op- 
tical systems in the foreseeable future. 

But for close-in, short range ap- 
proaches to planets and for relatively 
short range guidance of two or more 
spacecraft maneuvering cooperatively, 
the radar sensor appears highly de- 

It may well be necessary to accom- 
plish a landing or rendezvous without 
communication with Earth. The space- 

craft may encounter environmental in- 
terference in planetary landing. Or the 
flying spacecraft may find Itself in a 
disadvantageous astronomical position 
relative to planets or space phenomena. 

These situations may also impose 
the need for direct measurements be- 
cause of astronaut reluctance to rely 
exclusively on automatic control in 
critical situations. 

A third consideration, that of "real 
time," arises as spacecraft operate far- 
ther and farther into space. Although 
the delays due to data transmission 
time and reaction of man/machine 
combination can be compensated for 


Manned LEM vehicle (upper right ) has ron/plcfeil its exploration of moon s sur- 
face and now maneuvers in lunar orbit for docking ivith Command Service Module. 

and applied within command and con- 
trol subsystems, the appreciable in- 
crease in transmission time to remote 
control stations on Earth as spacecraft 
probe deeper into outer space makes 
Earth-based control of landing and 
rendezvous impossible. 

Therefore, spacecraft of the future 
should contain their own radar sensors 
for planetary landings and space ren- 
dezvous. However, the characteristics 
of the required sensors pose some 

A single multi-purpose radar sensor 
capable of range and angle resolution 
at long ranges and precision at short 
ranges is, of course, the desirable goal. 
But it is also necessary to simultane- 
ously achieve accuracy and reliability, 
while restricting the power consump- 
tion and the weight of the sensor to 
compatibility with the spacecraft itself. 

Fortunately, our space technology 
has advanced to the point where avail- 
able mission equipments are capable 
of being transported by the spacecraft 
presently contemplated. 

The Rendezvous Radar and the 

Landing Radar now being developed 
by RCA and Ryan under RCA sub- 
contract to Grumman Aircraft Engi- 
neering Corporation are examples of 
presently avaUable sensors. 

However, as with all operating 
equipment, these radars must not only 
meet standards of performance but 
also must satisfy an evaluation of their 
contribution to mission success in com- 
parison with the requisites of their 
installation and support. This imposes 
the need for reducing volume, weight 
and power requirements in the de- 
velopment of present equipment. Fu- 
ture systems may require new and 
perhaps radical designs to make these 
systems even more compact. 

This requirement for minimizing op- 
erating equipment to the irreducible 
essential has led to a broader basis of 
participation in overall goals by the 
industrial and scientific organizations 
involved in the design, development or 
manufacture of spacecraft hardware or 
subsystems. The rapidly advancing and 
changing parameters which, now and 
for the near future, will govern the 

functional performance of various ve- 
hicles in space will best be met by a 
responsible cooperative approach to 
common utilization or common prob- 
lems. Systems of varying manufacture 
will be required to operate in conjunc- 
tion with one another and at times, for 
and in heu of each other. This inter- 
change involves greater insight by sub- 
contractors and more constructive re- 
view by succeeding contractors or 
consultants than in the past. 

This philosophy of cooperation has 
been demonstrated in the development 
of the two radar sensors for the Grum- 
man-built Apollo LEM. The Rendez- 
vous Radar (RCA) and the Landing 
Radar (Ryan under subcontract to 
RCA), are independent developments 
for separate purposes, yet both have 
utilized a common approach to the 
problems of weight and power. 

To minimize weight, a new method 
of either reducing or consolidating the 
parts count of subassemblies was re- 
quired. This led to investigation of the 
integrated circuit. Developed was a 
new solid state device capable of re- 


Ryan-RCA interchange of technical knowledge and cooperation is 
an important element in the design-development of LEM systems. 

placing from 10 to 15 discrete parts, 
but which was micro-miniaturized to 
less than 1 /300th of one cubic inch 
in volume. 

The reliability and low cost, as well 
as the light weight of the integrated 
circuit, was very attractive. But it was 
also necessary to devise a means of 
minimizing the high density wiring that 
would be involved in coupling the in- 
tegrated circuit chip to connections or 
other circuits. The solution was the 
use of the printed wiring circuit which 
had proven successful with cordwood 

Similarly, the desire to maximize 
reliability prompted selection of a solid 
state, frequency multiplier chain mic- 
rowave energy source for the Landing 
Radar as well as for the Rendezvous 
Radar. The RCA Electronic Compon- 
ents and Devices Division had such a 
device which could be developed for 
the particular service by the time re- 
quired for the RCA/RYAN subcon- 
tract; design, therefore, had to be based 
on expected performance. 

Ryan and RCA accepted the future 
use of the device and incorporated the 
RCA-designed multiplier chain in an 
experimental model of the Landing 
Radar and Rendezvous Radar. This 

model is now operating under test at 
the Grumman Aircraft plant at Beth- 
page, Long Island. 

The research, experimentation and 
engineering effort that resulted in these 
two accomplishments deserves greater 
presentation than is given in this art- 
icle. It must be said, however, that 
only through this interchange of tech- 
nical knowledge and cooperation can 
the stringent requurements of the over- 
all LEM system be satisfied, and the 
beginning for spacecraft sensors in- 

This is not to say that the job is 
complete; indeed, it has only begun. 
The ability of the new components to 
withstand the shock and vibration of 
rocket operation has yet to be proved. 
Difficulties of electronic interference 
and thermal dissipation in the high 
density packaging of the final flight 
configurations are being anticipated. 

But performance has been demon- 
strated. The forthcoming models of 
both radars can now proceed through 
the continuing improvement of test 
and integration to their ultimate con- 
figuration for the Apollo mission. 

Likewise, the ultimate utilizations of 
the Landing and Rendezvous Radar 
sensors are not yet fixed. Conceived 

One of tivo astronauts aboard Lunar Excursion Module gathers samples of Lunar 
surface. One astronaut is in the LEAl vehicle while a third is orbiting Moon in CSM. 

RCA Rendezvous radar assembly provides 
communications betiveen LEM and CSM. 

originally for the specific purposes of 
controlling LEM descent to the lunar 
surface and LEM trajectory to rendez- 
vous, these sensors — either in com- 
bination or supplementation — can pro- 
vide additional safeguards to the ac- 
complishment of the ApoUo mission. 
One such use is to crosscheck the 
guidance systems or direct display of 
measurements for manual rendezvous 
in event of primary system failure. A 
second use is the cooperation of the 
sensors with a lunar marker or beacon 
to improve landing accuracy. 

These uses are not only available, 
but are also indicative of the possibili- 
ties of future sensor functions. Such 
functions can be exploited for specific 
missions or developed to cooperate 
with other control or guidance sub- 
systems to reduce hardware or improve 

In summary, it is evident that space- 
craft of the future wiU need their own 
short range sensors for guidance and 
control. The selection of radars for the 
LEM/Apollo mission was based on 
the reliability and flexibility of this 
form of sensor as well as the experi- 
ence with these sensors in aircraft and 
satellites. Although they have advanced 
the state of the art, the LEM radars 
are but a beginning. The future of the 
radar sensor in space is yet to be re- 
alized. The task ahead will require 
maximum effort and cooperation in the 
fields of science and industry. The 
challenges of the future must not be 
constrained by the accomplishments 
nor the disappointments of the past. 
Rather, they must be analyzed as they 
arise and must be answered with the 
combined forces of imagination and 





HOWLS OF glee went up aboard 
the cruiser USS Columbus as 
the order was barked out, "Cease 
Fire!" The ship's sharpshooting gun- 
ners scored what appeared to be a bril- 
liant "kill" against a Ryan Firebee. 

The time was March 30, 1964, and 
the Columbus' firing exercise — held off 
the coast of San Clemente Island — fol- 
lowed exercises in which the USS Con- 
stitution aircraft had fired air-to-air 
missiles at the jet-powered target. 

Stricken from the Navy's inventory 
after awarding a "kill" to the Colum- 
bus, the episode of the Firebee "8351" 
could have ended that Spring day like 
countless others held throughout the 

More than two years later, however, 
and some 3,600 nautical miles from 
San Clemente Island, Firebee "8351" 
has been recovered by the USS Talla- 
dega, bobbing in reckless abandon 
across the broad expanse of the Pacific! 

Authorities piecing the saga of the 
wayward Firebee together, speculate 
that a Columbus missile's near-miss 
may have caused a flameout which 
could have gone undetected by con- 

This action would have been counted 
as an actual "kill," since the system's 
automatic recovery device was acti- 
vated. Descending slowly by parachute 
over the horizon and out of sight, Fire- 
bee "8351" was never seen again until 
April 5, 1966. 

Ensign Hugh L. Webb, ofEcer-of- 
the-deck aboard the attack cargo ship, 
USS Talladega, was the first to spot 
the bright orange object, floating some 
6,000 yards from the ship's position. 

En route from Western Pacific areas, 
the ship was 1700 miles southwest of 
the Hawaiian Islands bound for Long 

Captain John F. Davis ordered his 
ship into position for a mid-ocean pick- 
up, put a small boat crew into the 
water and, within 45 minutes, was back 
on speed and course on his homeward 
bound voyage. 

Examined by Ryan Field Service 
technicians at Barber's Point, Hawaii 
where the "8351" had been turned over 
to Composite Squadron Five, officials 
said the self-contained electronic sys- 
tems were in "remarkably good condi- 

"After decontamination and installa- 
tion of electronic components, I 

wouldn't be at all surprised if '8351' 
could be flown again," reported Ryan 
Base Manager Bill J. Sved in Hawaii. 

How the Firebee reached its rendez- 
vous point with the Talladega wifl 
never be known for certain, but offi- 
cials say it could have drifted South 
and West from its splashdown point. 
The speed of currents in this area aver- 
ages between 8 and 12 knots per day. 

Based on this information, it is pos- 
sible that No. 8351 drifted some 3,000 
to 5,000 miles during its epic voyage! 

Rugged design and construction 
techniques of the Ryan Firebee, which 

been launched by the NAS Roosevelt 
Roads facility in Puerto Rico. 

More than 200 miles off the coast 
of Southern California, the motor 
tanker St. Matthew, sailing under Pana- 
manian registry, recovered a Firebee 
BQM-34A while en route to Tacoma, 

The retrieved Firebee was turned 
over to the Navy authorities at Tacoma 
for return to Point Mugu where a Ryan 
field service crew is assigned. 

Still other Firebees have been re- 
covered in the North Atlantic and even 
in waters off Norway! In most in- 

Candid photos taken by a USS Talladega crewman document mid-Pacific recovery of 
truant Firebee "8331," missing from U. S. Navy's inventory since March 30, 1964. 

include flotation devices and water- 
tight sealed equipment compartments, 
are responsible for "835 1's" amazing 

Officials say that its 25-month voy- 
age is the record for Ryan Firebee dis- 

One Firebee was recovered 13 
months after splashdown in the Pacific 
and others have been periodically re- 
trieved after varying periods of time 
in the oceans of the world. 

The Venezuelan destroyer Almirante 
Brion spotted a Firebee drifting in the 
Atlantic some six months after it had 

stances, records indicate that the Ryan 
Firebees were rehabUitated for opera- 
tional use after recovery. 

In its 17th year of design-production 
of Firebee targets, Ryan Aeronautical 
Company has provided more than 2500 
of the remarkable, remote-controlled 
units to the Army, Navy and Air Force. 

Used as a primary vehicle for wea- 
pons training exercises and weapons 
systems research, development and 
evaluation, Firebees have acquired 
worldwide acclaim as one of the most 
effective airborne systems in existence 
in fulfillment of mission objectives. 


SI 19 

Ryan Systems 


Surveyor, Apollo 


Surveyor vehicle, encased m nose- 
cone, is "mated" to an Atlas-Cen- 
taur launch vehicle in San Diego test. 

RYAN Aeronautical Company delivered 
^ two key systems during the first quar- 
ter of 1966 that are designed for use in Sur- 
veyor and Apollo spacecraft in un-manned 
and manned soft-landings on the moon. 

The fourth flight assured model AM-4 of 
Surveyor's radar altimeter and Doppler vel- 
ocity sensor (RADVS) system was delivered 
to Hughes Aircraft Company, February 11, 
six days ahead of schedule. AM-4 is to be 
used as a spare system for the initial Sur- 
veyor launches scheduled for this year. 

Under direction of the National Aeronau- 
tics and Space Administration, the Jet Pro- 
pulsion Laboratory at California Institute 
of Technology is Surveyor program manager 
with Hughes Aircraft assigned the responsi- 
bility for spacecraft design, construction, 
check-out, and integration with the launch 

Under existing contract agreements to 
Hughes, Ryan will build ten RADVS sys- 
tems for use in soft-landing Surveyor space- 
craft on the moon. 

Similar in function to the Surveyor system, 
but more exacting, is the landing ladar sys- 
tem Ryan is building for use by the Lunar 
Excursion Module which will soft-land 
Apollo astronauts on the moon. 

The first flight configured system, now 
undergoing integration tests, was dehvered 
to Radio Corporation of America on Febru- 
ary 4. Under contract to Grumman Air- 
craft Corporation, RCA is responsible for 
the Apollo systems. 

One of the major functions of both the 
Surveyor and LEM RADVS systems will 
be to measure the spacecraft's distance from 
the lunar surface and guide the retrorocket 
actions that contribute to the actual soft- 

Through use of the Doppler velocity sen- 
sor function incorporated in the RADVS 
system, the Surveyor spacecraft's descent at- 
titude to the lunar surface will be maintained 
within tolerable limitations. 

Current schedules published by Aviation 
Week and Space Technology for Surveyor 
launches indicate that SC-1 will be launched 
in late May or early June; SC-2 in the third 
quarter of 1966; and the balance of the 
seven engineering models to be launched in 

The Surveyor spacecraft wiU be boosted 
into orbit by Atlas-Centaur launch vehicles. 


Surveyor's system is assembled and tested at Ryan under stringent "clean room" standards, adding reliability to system's junction. 

«1 19 

Ryan's high-priority cargo, the Lunar Excursion Module landing 
radar system, was escorted cross-country by Ryan's Paul Melton. 

RADVS antennas (lower left and right 
sides) irill be "looking doivn" on 
moon as vehicle makes its soft-landing. 


Please send address changes to: 


P. 0. BOX 311 ■ SAN DIEGO, CALIF. 92112 

Return Requested 


*. R. '*IBEa:J 




San Diego, Calif. 
Permit No. 437 





II 19 

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JULY/AUG. 1966 













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R Y A N 


Volume 27, No. 3 
Published by Ryan Aeronautical Company 
P. 0. Box 311 San Diego, California 92112 

Managing Editor Jack C. Broward 

Art Director ' Al Bergren 

Contributing Editors George Becker, Jr., Harold Keen 

Bob Battenfield, Chuck Ogilvie 

Staff Photographer Dick Stauss 

Staff Artist Robert Watts 

Surveyor I: A Bright New Vista 3 

"We Were Tiiere" 72 

Surveyor/Ryan Test Program 14 

Free Fall at White Sands 77 

Vertifan "Angel" 20 

XV-SA's Fan Club 24 

Flat-Hattin' the Fleet 28 

Stow the Tailhook 32 

Reporter News 35 

About the cover: Ryan artist 
Bob Watts was able to pro- 
vide what cameras could not 
in recreating Surveyor I's 
final seconds of the epic flight. 

Eerie shadow cast by Surveyor I in this 

self-portrait is the closest man could come in 

obtaining actual photos of vehicle 

as it rested on the Moon. 


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"This moment of triumph for all who have 
participated in the Surveyor project has 
heen well earned, for hack of Surveyor's 
perfect performance on this first flight are 
years of hard work, painstaking care, and 
hrilliant engineering. " 

President Lyndon B. Johnson 
June 2, 1966 

THE rough, somewhat porous, me- 
teorite-pocked face of the moon 
where NASA's Surveyor I soft- 
landed reflects radar energy close to the 
same degree as brushland here on earth. 
This is the report of data analysts at 
Ryan Electronic and Space Systems, 
where Ryan Aeronautical Company en- 
gineers designed and built the Radar 
Altimeter and Doppler Velocity Sensor 
(RADVS) that guided Surveyor I to a 
soft landing near the moon's equator 
June 1. 

Both rough-textured surfaces reflect 
radar energy at minus 16 decibels at 
an operating frequency of 1 3,000 mega- 
cycles. This is a measurement of the 
radar backscattering cross section per 

unit surface area, Ryan engineers say. 

Photographs of the Surveyor's land- 
ing site in the moon's Ocean of Storms 
have indicated a relatively level surface 
liberaUy strewn with lunar rocks. 
Ryan's radar has added a data-sup- 
ported measurement to what these ex- 
ceUent pictures have told space scien- 
tists about the crusty face of the moon. 

"The radar reflectivity properties of 
the moon were unknown when we de- 
signed our Surveyor landing radar. We 
had only a working model based on 
radar measurements from earth. Sur- 
veyor I has proven our mathematical 
calculations were correct, at least at 
the landing site," said E. Bruce Clapp, 
Surveyor program manager at Ryan. 

Striking photos from Surveyor's on-board camera disproved presence of 
dust and displayed in its place the pebble-strewn terrain in Ocean of Storms. 

Ryan RADVS system has four major components: two antennas housing Doppler 
velocity sensor and radar altimeter, klystron power source modulator (box at left) 
and signal data converter (right box). The system was key to Surveyor I success 

One of Surveyor's three vernier rocket engines. 

The successful soft-landing of Sur- 
veyor I proved the feasibility of allow- 
ing a spacecraft to land under the auto- 
matic control of its own on-board radar 
"eyes" rather than by blind command 
signals from earth. A similar "closed- 
loop" automatic landing system — in- 
cluding a sister Ryan-built landing ra- 
dar — will control the descent trajectory 
of the Apollo astronauts in their Lunar 
Module (LM). 

In a very real sense, therefore, this 
first lunar test of Ryan's landing radar 
has added new confidence to the even- 
tual success of the Apollo manned 
moon exploration program. 

Surveyor I also demonstrated : 

• The capability of General Dy- 
namics/Convair Atlas-Centaur 1 
launch vehicle — which was on its 
first operational flight — to inject 
the Surveyor on an accurate lunar- 
intercept trajectory; 

• The capability to perform an earth- 
directed midcourse correction 
maneuver with graceful precision 
employing stabilization rockets and 
sun and Canopus star sensors; 

• And the capability of the Surveyor 
communications system and the 
Deep Space Network to maintain 
communications with the space- 
craft during its flight and after the 
soft landing. 

Because this first mission called for 
a direct descent to the landing site, ra- 
dar reflectivity data was obtained at 
only two angles relative to the moon's 
surface. Only two points can be estab- 
lished, therefore, rather than a curve. 
Data from the radar altimeter beam es- 
tablished a point directly beneath the 
spacecraft; the three velocity sensing 
beams marked a point at a 25 degree 
slant from the Surveyor's descent path. 

If later Surveyor missions approach 
the moon at steeper descent angles be- 
fore landing, radar measurements will 
be taken at a number of different 
angles, according to Ryan engineers. 

"Although we have only two points, 
rather than a series of points through 
which we could draw a curve, these 
points are significant because they fall 
within the reflectivity model which we 
selected," Jack Eshleman, Ryan test 
supervisor said. Eshleman accomplished 
the analysis of radar data. 

Tom Lund, now a senior project en- 
gineer on Ryan's Lunar Module land- 
ing radar, selected the reflectivity model 
for the Surveyor RADVS nearly five 
years ago during early planning stages. 

"Our first experimental data was 
drawn from reflectivity curves obtained 
by the Lincoln Labs at the Massachu- 
setts Institute of Technology, with the 
84-foot radar dish at Millstone," Lund 

said during a post-Surveyor briefing. 

This data, taken at 400 megacycles, 
indicated an angular dependence which 
followed a cosine of the three-halves 
law, the cosine being the cosine of the 
angle of incidence of the radar striking 
the curved surface of the moon. 

"Through our own calculations, we 
decided to step this up to cosine squared 
to provide a safety factor of several 
decibels at the higher angles of inci- 
dence," Lund continued. "This gave 
us a reflectivity model which closely 
paralleled Lambert's Law of the re- 
flectivity of light, which is a 200-year 
old mathematical principle of physics." 

Later data was obtained at X-Band 
using the Lincoln Lab radar complex 
at Pleasanton, California, which at 
8,350 megacycles, presented a reflec- 
tivity model closer to Ryan's chosen 
operating frequency of 13,300 mega- 
cycles. This data indicated a cosine to 
the first power angular dependence, 
Lund noted in his analysis. 

After breaking down the recorded 
data from Surveyor I, Eshleman said, 
"It turns out we were above our Lam- 
bert Application Curve by two to three 
decibels — right on the money." 

Lee Reel, project engineer, pointed 
out another important finding shown by 
the radar data provided by Surveyor I. 

"All three velocity sensors locked 

Ryan RADVS system (arrows) served as "eyes" of Surveyor I as it descended to successful landing on the Moon. 

onto the lunar surface almost simul- 
taneously," Reel stated, "demonstrat- 
ing they could 'see' the lunar surface 
even in the presence of the plume, or 
exhaust, of the main retro rocket." 

Reel explained that Ryan was con- 
cerned that the high energy gases in 
the main retro rocket plume — com- 
bined with the high electron density — 
might cause attenuation and partial re- 
flection of the radar energy. 

In addition, radar data has revealed 
the ejected retro casing passed through 
one of the velocity sensor radar beams, 
causing it to unlock its lunar return 
signal momentarily. This possibility 
had been considered by Ryan engineers 
in the design of the sensor. Since the 
retro casing was moving away from the 

spacecraft, instead of toward it as was 
the moon, the tracker electronics with- 
in the antenna sensed this erroneous 
signal and an automatic circuit rejected 
it, Eshelman explained. 

Even more important, according to 
Eshleman, the very next sweep of the 
tracker reacquired the moon. 

"Without this built-in capability to 
reacquire the true return signal from 
the moon, erroneous signals would have 
been given to spacecraft control," Eshle- 
man noted. "Most likely, these false 
signals would have brought on erratic 
firing of the vernier engines and thrown 
Surveyor off its descent attitude. It 
might not have recovered in time to ac- 
complish the soft landing." 

The successful soft landing of the 

596-pound mooncraft was the high 
point of more than four years of pio- 
neering technical work by scientists 
and engineers of the National Aeronau- 
tics and Space Administration, the Jet 
Propulsion Laboratory of the Califor- 
nia Institute of Technology, Hughes 
Aircraft Company, General Dynamics/ 
Convair, Pratt and Whitney, Honey- 
well, and more than 30 subcontractors, 
including Ryan Aeronautical Company. 
For Ryan's Surveyor team, the suc- 
cessful soft landing capped years of ef- 
fort in which the "state of the art" of 
radar Doppler sensing was advanced 
to new levels. The radar system pro- 
duced by Ryan for the Surveyor pro- 
gram is the lightest weight, most accu- 
rate radar sensing system ever flown. 




Below are listed the subcontractors 

whose products were purchased by 

Ryan for the Surveyor RADVS system. 

Each component part played an 

important role in system success. 

Allen-Bradley Co. 

Milwaukee. Wis. 

Bendix Corp. 

South Montrose. Pa. 

Collins Radio 

Los Angeles, Calif. 

Continental Devices Corp. 

Hawthorne, Calif. 

Corning Glass 

San Francisco. Calif. 

Delevan Electronics 

E. Aurora, N. Y. 

Dickson Electronics Corp. 

Scottsdale, Ariz. 

Electra Lab 

Encinitas, Calif. 

Electra Mfg. Corp. 

Independence, Kan. 

El Minco (Arco Pacific, Inc.) 

Pasadena, Calif. 

Fairchild Semiconductor Corp. 

Mountain View, Calif. 

Fenwell Electronics, Inc. 

Framingham. Mass. 

Formica Company 

Los Angeles. Calif. 

General Electric, 
Semiconductor Products 

New York, N.Y. 

Gudeman Co. (Bowser, Inc.) 

Chicago, 111. 

* Hoffman Electronics Corp. 

El Monte. Calif. 

Hughes Semi-Conductor 

Newport Beach, Calif. 

Kemet Dept, 
(Union Carbide Corp,) 

Cleveland, O. 

Mallory Capacitor Co. 

Chicago, 111. 

McCoy Electronics Co. 

Mt. Holly Springs, Pa. 

MEPCO, Inc. 

Morristown, N.J. 

Motorola Semiconductor 
Products, Inc. 

Phoenix, Ariz. 

Nytronics Inc., 
Esse.x Electronics Div. 

Berkley Heights, N.J. 

Raytheon Co., 
Semiconductor Div. 

San Francisco. Calif. 

Sage Electronics Corp. 

Rochester, N.Y. 

Solitron Devices, Inc. 

Tappan. N.Y. 

Sprague Electric Co. 

North Adams, Mass. 

Texas Instruments 

Los Angeles. Calif. 

Texas Instruments Supply 

Dallas. Tex. 

Transitron Electronic Sales Corp. 

Wakefield. Mass. 

TRW Semiconductors, Inc. 

Los Angeles, Calif. 

Varian Associates 

.San Francisco, Calif. 

Vitramon Inc. 

Bridgeport, Conn. 



Hughes Aircraft Company technicians assemble Surveyor spacecraft for its historic voyage. 

And, indisputably, it is tlie most so- 
phisticated radar system to ever "set 
foot" on the moon. 

Chairman of the Board, T. Claude 
Ryan, told San Diego area news media : 

"This was a demanding program, re- 
quiring a best effort from all. Our task 
was to design, build and test the lunar 
landing radar system for the space- 
craft, then after proving it flightworthy, 
integrate it with other electronic sys- 
tems in the spacecraft. 

"Designing the system," he con- 
tinued, "pushed us into previously un- 
charted engineering areas. Creating a 
lunar environment in our test labora- 
tories in which to prove the system was 
equally demanding." 

Mr. Ryan offered special congratu- 
lations to J. R. (Dick) Iverson, vice 
president for Electronic and Space Sys- 
tems, and his imaginative engineering 
staff. "They have invested long hours 
and great individual effort in this pro- 
gram," Mr. Ryan said. 

NASA's top man on the Surveyor 
project applauded the "genius" of the 
many individuals who worked on Sur- 
veyor. Said Dr. Homer E. Newell, as- 
sociate administrator for Space Science 
and Applications; 

"Surveyor I is a monument to the 
genius, the imagination, the dedication, 
the perseverence, the intimate coopera- 
tion of a team of thousands of people 
... It is a monument to engineers, sci- 
entists, managers, to the legislators who 
provided support for the program, in- 
deed to the country that supported this 
effort which has produced Surveyor, 
and now landed it on the moon." 

Praise for the efforts of individual 
designers, assemblers and testers also 
came from Lawrence A. Hyland. vice 
president and general manager of 
Hughes. He called the feat a victory 
not of technology but of people. 

"Surveyor's achievement involved 
hundreds of thousands of complicated 
parts that worked against incomprehen- 

sible odds, all because of the infinite 
patience and attention of men and 
women who were determined that every 
single part should work as intended," 
Hyland said. 

Prime mission of NASA's Surveyor 
program is to survey possible landing 
sites for the manned Apollo moon ex- 
plorations which will follow, perhaps 
as soon as 1968. 

Surveyor I met its mission objectives 
so satisfactorily that Robert F. Barbar- 
ini, deputy associate administrator for 
NASA's Space Science and Applica- 
tions, was moved to declare: 

"It had been anticipated it would 
take three to four flights to get the 
spacecraft operational," Barbarini said. 
"This very fine flight puts us ahead, I 
feel, approximately one year . . . We 

now have more spacecraft available to 
carry out site surveys." 

Barbarini also stated Surveyor I had 
provided "greater confidence that the 
landing system being used on the Apollo 
LM win work." 

In response to a press conference 
question, Benjamin Milwitzky, NASA 
program manager for Surveyor, credited 
the Surveyor radar landing system as 
being "much more sophisticated" than 
the capsule delivery system used by 
Russia's picture taking Luna 9, which 
was released at a pre-set altitude from 
a hard-landing probe. 

Prior to the June 1 landing (June 2, 
Greenwich Mean Time), hopes were 
not too high for Surveyor to hit a grand 
slam homer on its first trip to the plate 
in the Big Leagues. 

Honeywell inspector takes critical look at 
inertial guidance system used by Surveyor. 

Surveyor I's "footprint on the Moon" was relayed back to JPL via its on-board camera as a testimonial to those responsible for soft-landing. 



Surveyor I's Moon flight is depicted in sequence, from Atlas launch 
on through separations and finally assuming its landing configuration. 

In the Journal of the Armed Forces, 
James J. Haggerty Jr., editorialized: 

"One is forced to be pessimistic 
about the chances of the first Surveyor 
. . . The success or failure of No. 1 will 
be an indicator of what can be expected 
from the remaining nine flights. The 
odds are against a perfect soft landing, 
but if it comes off, it will be a very big 
step toward an early moon visit." 

And it did "come off." 

The radar-measured, rocket-thrust- 
ing flight control subsystem demon- 
strated it could slow the moon-rushing 
spacecraft to a "walk" of about 3 mph 
before engine shut off and a virtual 
chair-jump free fall to the lurain. The 
actual impact — at roughly IV2 mph — 
is comparable to the force of a para- 
chutist's touchdown on earth. But 
since the moon's gravity is far less than 
the earth's, JPL scientists are compar- 
ing the force of Surveyor I's actual 
lunar landing with the force created by 
jumping to the earth from the height of 
a chair. Moon-weight of the nearly 
600-pound spacecraft is about 100 
pounds, according to JPL. 

Four separate packages comprise 
Ryan's radar system: two antennas, 
one of which contains a radar altimeter 
and a Doppler velocity sensor, and the 
other, two Doppler velocity sensors; a 
Klystron Power Supply/Modulator; 
and a Signal Data Converter. 

A continuous-wave, frequency modu- 
lated (CW/FM) radar technique is 
employed. This means measurement of 
altitude and speed is continuous, in- 
stantaneous. There are no "holes" in 
the radar data. 

The antennas put out and receive 
microwave radio energy along four 
pencil-thin beams, which are directed 
at the moon in precisely oriented angles. 
One beam measures altitude, or range; 
the other three — angled at 25 degrees 
from the descent path — take velocity 
measurements which are converted to 
velocities along the craft's three axes. 
The system senses both fonvard speed 
(vertical velocity) and drift to either 
side (lateral velocity). 

Power for the two antennas is drawn 
from the Klystron Power Supply/ 
Modulator (KPSM). This is a trans- 
mitter which converts the 22-volt energy 
from the Surveyor's main battery to 
500, 800 and 1200 volt supplies. At 
these higher voltage levels, the klystron 
tubes generate microwave energj' for 


the antennas, which radiate signals to 
the lunar surface. 

Measured is the Doppler shift of 
each velocity beam; that is, the antennas 
detect the shift in frequency between 
transmitted and received signals as the 
spacecraft speeds toward the moon. 
This shift in frequency is proportional 
to changes in velocity. Altitude is meas- 
ured by use of frequency modulation 
which produces a shift between trans- 
mitted and received frequencies. This 
shift is proportional to range. 

Return data from the two radar dish 
antennas is summed in the Ryan signal 
data converter (SDC), which automa- 
tically seeks out the reflected signals 
along a planned frequency spectrum. 
Converted into meaningful numbers, 
range and velocity data is then fed to 
gyros and gating logic units in the flight 
control computer, which dictates thrust 
signals to the verniers. 

This trio of gold-plated throttleable 
liquid fuel vernier engines were the 
first of their generation to be used in 
space, according to Thiokol. Two were 
installed in fixed positions; the third 
was gimballed to act on radar informa- 
tion for roll control. By differential 
throttle action, all three engines re- 
spond to radar data for pitch and yaw 
corrections. Each engine was capable 
of being throttled from 27 to 104 
pounds of thrust. 

For the Ryan lunar landing radar, 
the terminal maneuver turned out to be 
a piece of the proverbial cake. 

By feeding altitude and velocity 
measurements signals to a Hughes flight 
programmer and analog computer, 
which in turn acted on the thrusting 
jets of the vernier engines, the Ryan 
RADVS was master of spacecraft speed 
and drift. 

The descent maneuver began with a 
series of ground commands, commenc- 
ing at around 1000 miles from the 
moon, to align the main retro rocket 
with the "velocity vector" or descent 
flight path. Flight data indicates it was 
5.87 degrees from a true vertical at the 
conclusion of this maneuver. Inertial 
sensors maintained attitude control. 

At approximately 200 miles, the last 
earth command was given: to turn on 
Hughes' altitude marking radar, which 
at 60 miles, started the flight control 
programmer clock. At about 52 miles, 
the programmer pulsed rapid com- 
mands to ignite the main retro and 

vernier engines, and switched on the 
RADVS. The klystron's high voltage 
power indicated "on" 20 seconds later, 
as specified. 

The big fist of Thiokol's main retro 
was the primary braking power. The 
solid propellant rocket fired for 38 
seconds with a force of 9,000 pounds 
of thrust to slow the Surveyor from 
about 6,000 mph to 267 mph. 

Radar data shows the velocity sen- 
sors acquired return signals from the 
moon at an altitude of approximately 


■K If 

* * 
t RYAN t 
■t< ♦ 

-K Credit for the flawless operation of *• 

i the Ryan RADVS on Surveyor I J 

^ goes to this team of engineers who 4. 

* planned and "proved out" the ♦ 
i landing radar system: J 

-t( If 

->< Bruce Clapp j^ 

•¥ Program Manager 3f 

M 3f 

-K Bob Beaudine 4- 

-K Program Administrator 3f 

■k If 

M Lee Reel 4- 

•¥ Project Engineer )f 

-k 4- 

M Frank Chandler 4- 

■k Project Engineer(Special Projects) 3f 

-K Fielding Hedges 4- 

■k Receiver/Transmitter 3f 

■¥ )f 

* Gerry Cooley 4- 

-K Signal Data Converter If 

% Sam Hatchett J 

^ Klystron Power Supply/Modulator 4. 

J Vernon Phoels J 

■^ Systems Analysis jf 

J H. J. Eshleman J 

^K Systems Test jf 

J Bill Cleveland J 


Roger Wiggans 


Del Thompson 

Product Design 

Archie Moss 

Contract Administrator 

■^ In addition, much credit is due many 4- 

j managers and foremen in quality J 

J assurance, manufacturing, product J 

-K test, space electronics, if 

j and electronics manufacturing. ♦ 

55,000 feet, or about IO1/2 miles. Sur- 
veyor I was then traveling at 2200 
mph. At approximately 3 6,000 feet 
the altimeter sensor acquired. 

With these acquistion signals, the 
programmer automatically switched to 
the RADVS for spacecraft control. 
And, significantly, within two seconds, 
the radars corrected the craft's 5.87 
degree deviation from the true velocity 
vector, post-mission reports note. 

At around 33,000 feet, the thrust 
level of the main retro slipped below 
3.5 g, closing the inertia burnout 

switch and generating a signal to the 
programmer to command jettisoning of 
the retro. 

Ryan's radar system was in full 
command. The bright face of the 
moon floated in space just six miles 
away. In two minutes, it would all be 
over: a soft landing, or an impact at 
"terminal velocity." 

At 1000 feet, the RADVS gave the 
on-board flight control a pre-program- 
med altitude mark. Reacting to radar 
information, the verniers further slowed 
the Surveyor within 1 8 seconds to about 
five mph at 45 feet. 

Right by the book, this rate of de- 
scent decreased within the next seven 
seconds to 2.9 mph at 14 feet. This was 
better than the specification of 3.4 mph. 
The RADVS then sped a special signal 
to flight control to turn off the tough 
little verniers, thus eliminating the pos- 
sibility of stirring lunar dust or frag- 

The intrepid tripod then dropped the 
short distance to a gentle touchdown. 
The time was 11:17:35 PDT. The 
lunar coordinates were 2.356 degrees 
south latitude and 43.36 degrees west 

Strain gauge readings from the three 
landing legs recorded a "second touch- 
down" less than one second later, indi- 
cating that the spacecraft bounced 
about four or five inches. 

Surveyor I was within .6 degrees, or 
less than nine miles of its planned land- 
ing site and well within the "Apollo 
band" of potential maimed landings. 

The moon's Ocean of Storms took 
the spacecraft's punch with nothing 
more than a dimple at each footpad; 
the feared lunar dust never appeared, 
even when tickled a few days later by 
a jet of nitrogen gas. 

Once on the lurain, its mission com- 
plete, the Ryan RADVS was turned off 
along with the flight control subsystem. 
Battery power was conserved for the 
triumphant photo mission ahead in 
which 10,338 pictures were taken in 12 
days and 10 hours of operation. 

Ryan Aeronautical Company had 
performed a major role in a highly signi- 
ficant event in American space history. 
A springboard to the future had been 
provided through Surveyor Fs success. 

Ahead: at least six more Surveyor 
unmanned moonshots — and the aU- 
important manned Lunar Module of 
Project Apollo. ^^^IH 



vt .^..^ 

J. R. Iverson, Vice President, Ryan Electronic and Space Systems, 
confers witli Jet Propulsion Lab's Dr. William Pickering on Surveyor I. 

"We Were There ... Our 

£. Bruce Clapp. Ryan Surveyor Program Manager, was 
in JPL audience to share emotions of relief felt by all. 



Ryan photos by DICK STAUSS 

landing Radar System Performed Beautifully" 

By i. B. \mSQH 

Vice President, Electronic and Space Systems 

THE first-shot success of Surveyor 
I was one of the greatest thrills of 
my life, as I'm sure it was for 
many of my hard-working compatriots 
at Electronic and Space Systems. 
Thirty years from now, when space 
travel will be a fairly routine thing, we 
will take great pleasure in knowing that 
we were there when it all started. We 
saw the curtains first part, and we 
heard the first applause. 

Our landing radar system performed 
beautifully. It took over in the last 
few minutes and held the spacecraft's 
rate of descent right down the descent 
profile. The system did everything it 
was supposed to do — and even better. 
The spec called for a velocity of 3.4 
mph at 14 feet; an analysis of our radar 
data shows Surveyor I was moving at 

2.89 mph at this altitude. 

Radar reflectivity off the moon's sur- 
face fell within the parameters of the 
lunar reflectivity model which we had 
developed as the basis of our design. 
And as more Surveyors are flown and 
additional radar reflectivity information 
is gathered at different landing sites, we 
expect that our radar data will assist 
NASA's determination of the surface 
strength characteristics of potential 
Apollo landing sites. 

Reflectivity at the site where Sur- 
veyor I landed indicates that particular 
portion of the lurain is rough and 
somewhat porous, and similar in tex- 
ture to brushland here on earth. 

But the real "story" in Surveyor Fs 
success, as far as Ryan is concerned, is 
that this was very much a victory for 

our continuous wave approach to a 
planetary landing radar system. 

Now with the Surveyor system an 
unrivaled success, and with our Lunar 
Module landing radar system in pro- 
duction for Apollo, we are the recog- 
nized leader in this important field 
of space technology. We will have to 
work, and continue to refine our sys- 
tem, to maintain our lead. But no other 
company has a better opportunity than 
Ryan does to achieve a commanding 
role in the United States' post-Apollo 
plans for exploration of our solar sys- 

Surveyor I is the trump card. From 
here on out it will be an exciting hand 
for us to play. A tremendous, awe- 
some, magnificent challenge stretches 
before us. 


Hughes-Ryan engineers conduct vibration-acoustic tests on 
tfie Ryan Radar Altimeter Doppler Velocity Sensor System 


How do you test a moon-landing veA/c/e Aere on eartli? 
ffyan engineers faced tliis problem, tlien answered the 
question by creating a lunar environment in wliicli Surveyor 
Vs RAOyS system could be checked with fool-proof accuracy. 














THERE is nothing on earth that is 
quite like the moon. Earth-bound 
scientists and engineers have faced 
unique problems in building systems 
and vehicles which will tolerate the in- 
tense "g" forces, extreme heat and cold 
and potential radiations of space. 

Ryan Aeronautical Company, de- 
signer and builder of the altitude and 
velocity radar system which controlled 
the descent of NASA's Surveyor I 
spacecraft to the moon, created a series 
of lunar environment hurdles for its 
radar to jump. 

Of course, the initial design called 
for compactness. Special heat-dissipa- 
tive or heat-absorbent coatings cover 
individual components and sub-com- 
ponents. A honeycombed aluminum 
shell encases each of the two antenna 
assemblies. The system is comprised 
of two antennas, one signal data con- 
verter, and one klystron power supply 

First hurdle was to prove Ryan's 
design and structural concept met the 
contract's specifications, that its radar 
altimeter and Doppler velocity sensor 
(RADVS) would qualify. 

"To show it would survive the shock 
of impact, the radar system was 
mounted on a plate and dropped from 
different heights into a bed of raked 
sand," Jack Eshleman, Surveyor test 
program supervisor, said. "Dropped 
straight down, on its thrust axis, the 
system absorbed a series of six shocks 
at a force of 10 g's, each of a duration 

of 10 milliseconds. On its yaw and 
pitch axis, the system was dropped four 
times, at a force of 6 g's for 12 milli- 
second durations," Eshleman said. 

"In vibration tests, the RADVS was 
subjected to a force of 1 8 g's in a non- 
operational test, and to a 9 g force in 
tests while turned on," Eshleman 
added. Centrifuge acceleration tests 
were conducted as well. 

Placed in the Deep Space Chamber 
at Ryan's Electronic and Space Sys- 
tems facility, the radar system operated 
at varying temperature levels. A deep 
space vacuum was created by sealing 
the door to the chamber and "taking" 
the system "up" to an altitude of 400,- 
000 feet by use of roughing pumps and 
diffusion vacuum pumps. A pressure 
vacuum of 5 x 10'' millimeters of mer- 
cury was reached. 

All temperature tests were conducted 
with the RADVS assembled in flight 

Qualification tests were completed 
with a radio frequency interference 
series and a temperature storage test. 
Ross Curry conducted these tests. The 
latter trial demonstrated the system 
would still operate after prolonged stor- 
age. Supervisor Eshleman pointed out. 

"Flight acceptance tests followed," 
Eshleman continued. "Each component 
was vibrated while operating to the 
equivalent of 2 g forces. In bench 
tests, the system was electronically run 
through the parameter extremes speci- 
fied in the contract. 

Thermal conditions faced by Surveyor I on tlie Moon were simulated in Ryan test chambers. 

"Each unit was given thermal checks, 
from a low of -50'^ to +4(y^ C," he 
said. "Then the assembled radar was 
tested in a thermal vacuum of deep 
space pressure equivalent to an altitude 
of 400,000 feet." Under the direction 
of Larry Anderson, environmental lab 
supervisor. Norm Seeley accomplished 
most of the Surveyor vibration work. 
Thermal vacuum tests were conducted 
by Marty Weidinger. 

Ryan's third step in perfecting the 
system was to build six sets of RADVS 
test equipment. Some test units could 
be purchased from commercial sources; 
as much as 30 per cent of the test 
gear had to be specially designed by 
Ryan engineers and tested itself, how- 
ever, to achieve test objectives. 

Ryan engineers devised several spe- 
cial treatments. Eshleman continued: 
"It was found that while vibrating the 
radar antennas, noisy mechanical vi- 
brations were fed back along the micro- 
wave guide which coupled the antenna 
to the test equipment. We replaced the 
rigid wave guides with flexible ones 
packed in heavy commercial putty." A 
patent disclosure has been filed for this 
technique by Tom Lund, now senior 
project engineer on the LM, and Fred 
Schoelkoph, a test engineer. 

Another innovation was the design 
and fabrication of test gear to simulate 
the "Doppler shift" effect of the con- 
tinuous wave (CW) radar's low fre- 
quency radio return signal from the 
moon. By a unique assembly of band 
pass filters, noise generators, crystal 
oscillators and standard amplifiers, 
Ryan test engineers were able to 
"shape" a radio frequency signal which 
matched the expected radar return pro- 
file of the moon. 

"In effect, we caught the radar in 
various static positions along the Sur- 
veyor's anticipated approach path to a 
soft landing," he explained. 

Throughout the development and 
perfecting of the Surveyor RADVS. 
Ryan drew upon its long experience in 
the radar-altimeter/Doppler navigation 
field. The San Diego-based company 
began building radar systems during 
World War II, and has now built more 
than 2500 radar sets for 33 different 
types of helicopters or aircraft. 

And now, with the successful soft 
landing of Surveyor I, Ryan has power- 
fully demonstrated its mastery of radar 
technology. li^^HlHi 


BREAKFAST was a mug of strong black coffee and a 
day-old doughnut at 4 a.m. in an all-night truck stop 
on Highway 58 between Alamogordo and Holloman 
AFB. Wonderingly, the weary-looking waitress watched 
us as we exchanged gripes about the early hour. Four pale- 
skinned men with clean hands, we certainly weren't truck 


Technicians race to drop zone at White Sands where test vehicle has descended under own power to soft-landir 


One of the photographers volunteered the information; 
"We're going over to Holloman to photograph a Surveyor 
descent test," he told her. 

She smiled weakly and turned away to busy herself 
with wiping out a stack of dirty ash trays with a blue- 
striped cloth. 

She hadn't the foggiest notion of what we were talking 
about. But then, she had probably seen a great many 
kooky people in her time, here in her truck stop GAS and 
EAT cafe on the rim of White Sands Missile Test Range 
in New Mexico, here on the rim of space. 

As we neared the descent test area, we could see in 
the dawning light that the helium tether balloon was filled 
and up. "Good. That means the test is go," said Frank 
Bristow, public information writer for the Jet Propulsion 
Laboratory of the California Institute of Technology. 

JPL is administering the Surveyor program for NASA. 
Bristow has witnessed several other descent tests, simulat- 



Waves of heat boil up from desert floor at White Sands as Surveyor test vehicle nears terminal phase of drop test. 

ing the earth-landing at an altitude of 
500-600 feet, coming to a hover and 
then deploying parachutes for the de- 
scent to the ground. 

Today's trial was to be the first de- 
scent of the 225-pound Surveyor test 
vehicle in which it would fall free, un- 
aided by recovery parachutes, to a 
radar-controlled soft landing on the 
hard desert floor. 

Frank turned off the pavement and 
onto a dirt road. A guard raised his 
hand. "Bristow of JPL and Battenfield 
of Ryan." The guard checked his list 
and waved us in. 

Behind us were two other cars, one 
driven by Russ Varney, a young 
photographer with NASA's Western 
Operations who was to take telephoto 
pictures of the descent for release in 
Albuquerque to the press wire services. 
Thor Willat, the motion picture man 
of Metrotone News Films, drove the 


third car. His film was to be carried to 
Los Angeles by Bristow later that day, 
and that night, seen coast-to-coast on 
Walter Cronkite's CBS News. 

Technicians clad in yellow iire-fight- 
ing suits were busy with attaching the 
descent vehicle to the lifting gondola. 
Each man had a specialty; propulsion, 
electronics, emergency parachute. A 
westerly breeze rippled the two-mil 
thick polyethylene balloon, sounding a 
whisper at our "press platform" 1000 
yards away from ground zero. Gordon 
Brooks, Hughes test facility supervisor, 
had wheeled in a flatbed truck. On it, 
Varney and Willat pinioned their tri- 
pod-mounted cameras. They took read- 
ings with their light meters from time 
to time as the sun toned the northwest 
sky from ultramarine to a desert azure 
as it rose over the Sacramento Moun- 

From the control building, Larry 

Steffan, chief of the descent tests for 
Hughes, read through the pre-drop 
check list via microphones to the tech- 
nicians at the gondola. Dick Mesnard, 
JPL's group supervisor for the Sur- 
veyor project, manned the seat to Stef- 
fan's right. Nine other technicians 
busied themselves — six console opera- 
tors and one specialist each for opera- 
tions, data, range control, and the 

At 5:35 a.m. Steffan announced 
that the winds over the test area were 
"go" up to 1800 feet; temperature aloft 
was 5 1 degrees. Five minutes later, the 
test vehicle was raised free of its ground 
tether; the yellow fuel truck, crane 
truck, fork lift, and jeeps peeled off 
and rolled single file from ground zero. 
All was in readiness. White Sands 
range control cleared the drop for be- 
tween 6:45 and 7:45 a.m. 

The countdown proceeded. At 6; 20 

Scant feet from touchdown, test vehicle retains perfect alignment. 

Successful soft-landing paved vi/ay for initial Surveyor Moon mission. 

a.m. the three tether lines began slow- 
ly playing out; the helium balloon 
mounted higher, the test vehicle sway- 
ing beneath it. Shaped like a tripod in 
the manner of its moon-bound broth- 
ers, the 225-pound test craft was a 
compact, scaled-down version contain- 
ing the Hughes flight control system, 
three Thiokol vernier engines, and the 
Ryan radar system: two RADVS an- 
tennas, a klystron power suppl> modu- 
lator and a signal data converter. 

It was also equipped with special 
propellant tanks, an aerodynamic bal- 
ancer, and an emergency parachute 
system which could be deployed if 
necessary, to save the vehicle from an 
"uncontrolled descent." In addition, 
three large yellow inflatable air bags 
served as landing cushions. 

Twice the winds built in intensity, 
forcing the balloon below test altitudes. 
The countdown was held, then re- 

sumed, then held. At 7:10 a.m. the 
winds calmed and began to shift. The 
bafloon rose to 910 feet. The count 
was resumed at 7:12; T minus 7 was 
marked at 7:15. The RADVS was 
tested on/ofl". It was normal. T minus 
two. At T minus one the RADVS test 
fixture, a Hughes device, verified the 
RADVS was operating and in a puff of 
smoke, was jettisoned with its own lit- 
tle red and white parachute. 

And then the vehicle was loose, fall- 
ing, roaring with its three small retros 
increasing in propulsive intensity as it 
reached and passed its mid-way point. 
Then, in a seeming trick against grav- 
ity, it began to slow to retard its fall. 

At the eye-piece of his motion pic- 
ture camera, Willat exclaimed: "It's 
really slowing down. Looks like a slow 
motion film." Bristow said: "I don't 
believe it." 

The roar from the descent rockets 

seemed to increase in pitch as it neared 
the desert floor, seemed to pulsate as 
the rebounding sound waves mixed in 
our ears. 

It ceased as abruptly as it had 
started. Dust kicked up by the rockets 
billowed about the craft. But when the 
wind cleared it away, there the Sur- 
veyor model sat — 60 feet from the cen- 
ter of ground zero, unscarred, unde- 
feated, and still champion of its 
environment. It was 7:24 a.m. The 
actual descent had taken 35 seconds. 

A second free fall descent test was 
held the following week. And the 
morning of May 30, Surveyor I was 
launched in America's first attempt at 
the real thing. Sixty-three hours later, 
it soft-landed successfully on the moon, 
aided by the landing radar that won 
its wings at White Sands — Ryan Aero- 
nautical Company's unrivaled RADVS. 





IIHE U. S. Army XV-5A, a high 
performance jet aircraft that will fly 
at speeds of more than 500 miles 
an hour, yet hover, maneuver, land and 
takeoff like a helicopter, has demon- 
strated its adaptability as a jet strike, es- 
cort-rescue aircraft in recent flight tests 
at Edwards Air Force Base, California. 

The XV-5A made vertical landings 
and takeoffs at rugged unprepared sites 
in the Mojave Desert, operating from an 
alfalfa field and a simulated forward en- 
campment area on the golf course driv- 
ing range at the Naval Ordnance Test 
Station, China Lake, California. 

In an additional investigation of the 
aircraft as a rescue vehicle, the XV-5A 
performed hover tests over water, with 
floating life rafts, raised a 235-pound 
instrumented dummy while hovering 
over the Edwards Runway and hovered 
at varying altitudes while a live subject 
walked up to and under the aircraft. 

The XV-5A is the first jet VTOL 
(vertical-takeoff-and-landing) aircraft 
to demonstrate the ability to perform 
hovering rescue operations using a per- 
sonnel hoist, or to operate from rugged 
unprepared sites in simulated rescue 
and support missions. 

Paced by a car, it has flown back- 
ward at speeds up to 25 miles an hour 
and sideways at speeds up to 35 miles 
an hour. 

Based on the Ryan Vertifan concept, 
the XV-5A uses fans installed in the 
wings and nose for vertical takeoff, 
landing and hovering. The fans are 
driven by the jet thrust from two Gen- 
eral Electric J-85 turbojet engines 
mounted high in the fuselage. With the 
fans in operation, the aircraft will take- 
off and land vertically, hover and 
achieve speeds over 100 miles an hour. 
At that speed, the jet thrust is diverted 
from the fans then directed out the con- 
ventional tailpipes as the XV-5A as- 
sumes its high performance jet aircraft 

The XV-5A was designed, built and 
flight tested for the Army by Ryan 
Aeronautical Company, San Diego. 
California, in conjunction with General 
Electric, developers of the aircraft's lift- 
fan propulsion system. The U. S. Army 


Aviation Materiel Laboratories at Ft. 
Eustis, Virginia directs the program for 
the Army. 

The flight tests specifically keyed to 
remote area operations and rescue were 
conducted in January and February 

The overafl flight test and evaluation 
program began in May 1964. Con- 
tractor flight tests were completed by 
January 1965. The Army accepted the 
aircraft in February 1965, assuming di- 
rection of the extensive program stUl 
underway at Edwards. The Army is 
supported by Ryan and General Elec- 
tric flight test teams. Since May 1964, 
the XV-5A has logged over 127 hours 
of flight time in 337 flights. 

Test results indicate the combination 
of high speed conventional flight, 
coupled with the abflity to hover and 
operate from unprepared sites, would 
make a modified XV-5A an outstand- 
ing strike-escort aircraft. Performing 
vertical or conventional takeoffs and 
landings, the modified XV-5A will have 
the capability to escort attack aircraft, 
loiter near a strike area, and, in the 
event of emergency, descend rapidly to 
hover, recover downed crewmen, then 
evacuate the area at jet speeds, capa- 
bilities it has demonstrated. 

The modified aircraft would have a 
passenger compartment behind the ex- 
isting two seat side-by-side cockpit, a 
right side access door for the passenger 
compartment and a recovery hoist that 
wifl extend through the door during res- 
cue operations. 

The hoist, which would be operated 
by the observer seated on the right side 
of the cockpit, is capable of Hfting two 
people simultaneously. 

The strike-escort rescue version will 
have permanently instafled equipment 
for inflight refueling to meet extended 
mission requirements. After an inflight 
refueling, as an example, the aircraft 
could penetrate more than 200 nautical 
miles, hover for 10 minutes, or make 
a vertical landing if necessary to effect 
a rescue and return with the two res- 
cued crewmen. 

A further modification of the pas- 
senger compartment will give the air- 




Instrumented dunnmy is "rescued" by the XV-5A. 

Vertical takeoff, landing and hover operations in encampment area. 

Man walks beneath XV-5A to demonstrate feasibility of pick-up. 

craft the capability of carrying four pas- 
sengers or two passengers and one litter. 
High speed, high altitude jet per- 
formance is essential in penetrating 
hostile territory to locate and recover 
downed airmen, or to accompany the 
strike attack force. Additionally, the 
rescue aircraft must be able to land on 
or takeoff from unprepared sites. 

The Ryan Vertifan concept incorpo- 
rated in the VX-5 A gives high perform- 
ance jet operation and at the same time, 
achieves vertical takeoff and landing 
with the relative downwash or lift from 
the fans installed in the wings and nose. 

Using the atmospheric air, the Verti- 
fan concept multiplies the installed 
thrust in the XV-5A by 300 percent for 
vertical takeoff, landing and hovering 
maneuvers. Engines in the XV-5A are 
sized to meet conventional flight re- 

Significantly, the XV-5A requires no 
more fuel for vertical takeoff, vertical 
landings and hover maneuvers than is 
used in conventional flight. 

Ideally, each strike mission should be 
escorted by a rescue aircraft with com- 
patible jet aircraft performance charac- 
teristics, and capable of effecting an im- 
mediate retrieval of downed crewmen. 
This would permit rescue operations 
under an umbrella of suppressive fire 
provided by the strike group. 

Performance of the modified XV-5A 
will make it compatible with Navy or 
Air Force strike groups and with tanker 
aircraft. The aircraft would operate 
from ships and minimum VTOL land 
bases. Low downwash velocities and 
the capability of vertical operations at 
maximum allowable gross weight en- 
hances its operations aboard ship and 
eliminates requirements for special fa- 
cilities at shore bases. 

The primary mission of the modified 
XV-5A is timely rescue of air-crewmen 
downed in enemy territory. Speed is 
essential since completion of the rescue 
before the enemy can organize a con- 
certed effort to prevent it, vastly im- 
proves the chances of success. 

Added military missions which can 
benefit from the XV-5A performance 
are evacuation of critical medical cases 
from the battlefield, high priority per- 
sonnel transport and high speed de- 
livery of critical equipment. ^^^IBH 


Front view of Ryan's proposed Vertifan 
strike - escort and rescue aircraft illus- 
trates the new location of its landing gear. 

Vert/fan strike escort and rescue aircraft 
would incorporate general physical charac- 
teristics of highly successful XV-5A design, 
including vertical lift fans in wing and nose... 

In-fligfit refueling capability would be 
achieved through use of boom that ex- 
tends out from the left side of its cockpit. 

Evacuee compartment will be located 
immediately behind cockpit. Access door 
and winch located on left side of aircraft. 




Fifteen Men 
Have Flown 
onXV-SA 'Fans/ 
Some Claiming it 
Flies Like a 
Others Compare it 
With a High 
Performance Jet. 
Both Right... 

f%S part of an extensive V/STOL evaluation program being 
conducted by the U. S. Army Aviation Materiel Labo- 
ratories (AVLABS), Fort Eustis, Virginia, fifteen test pilots 
have been checked out in the Army's XV-5A lift fan research 
V/STOL aircraft. 

A high performance jet aircraft which also has the hover 
and maneuvering capabilities of a helicopter, the XV-5A has 
been flown at Edwards Air Force Base, California by military 
pilots, government agency pilots and civilian contractor test 


pilots, one of the world's most unique teams. 

Designed and built for the Army by Ryan Aeronautical 
Company and General Electric, the XV-5A has been flown 
by pilots with extensive jet aircraft experience, but little heli- 
copter time and vice versa. During the first phase of the 
Army XV-5A program, Ryan test pilots Val Schaeffer and 
Lou Everett performed the flight tests. As part of the Phase 
II tests which were conducted from January to November, 
1965, U. S. Army Aviation Test Activity pilots Major Wil- 

Val Schaeffer, Ryan's Chief Engineering Test 
Pilot and the first to fly the XV-5A, served 
as flight instructor during training program. 

Army Maj. Tom West finds handshake awaiting him on completion of fifth flight in XV-5A at Edwards AFB. 

Ham Welter and civilian Bill Anderson 
flew the XV-5A. Major Paul Curry of 
AVLABS and Air Force Major Phil 
Neale were also checked out. General 
Electric test pilot Dick Scoles was the 
seventh member of the Phase II flying 

Following the Phase II tests, (eight 
more pilots went through the Ryan 
XV-5A flight simulator program at 
San Diego, preparatory to flying the 
XV-5A at Edwards. The pilots were 
checked out in the XV-5A over a two- 
month period, at a rate of five flights 
per pilot, with the aircraft making up to 
five flights a day and averaging over one 
flight per work day for the total period. 

Two Army pilots — Major Tom West 
and civilian Duane Simon of AVLABS, 
Air Force Pilots Major Robert Bald- 
win and Major David Tittle, Major Eric 

Larsen of the U. S. Marine Corps, Ron 
Gerdes of NASA-Ames and Robert 
Champine of NASA-Langley, and 
Carl Hansen of the Federal Aviation 
Agency all qualified on the aircraft. 
Each of the pilots began with a con- 
ventional jet take-off, flight and land- 
ing. This was followed by two hover 
and translation flights, climaxed by two 
transition and conversion flights. Since 
the co-pilot seat in the XV-5A is cur- 
rently filled with instrumentation equip- 
ment, all of the pilots simply got into 
the airplane and flew it. Considering 
the diverse backgrounds of the eight 
pilots, the debriefing sessions provided 
the hoped for analysis. All eight were 
unanimous in wanting to fly the XV- 
5A for more than the two-hour period 
allotted to each! Overall, the pilots 
considered the XV-5A an "easy learn- 

ing airplane, pleasant to fly." 

The results of the pilot's observations 
and evaluations are being compiled and 
studied by the Army for application on 
future XV-5A tests, and Army V/ 
STOL aircraft programs in general. 
The pilot familiarization program is 
just one of the many facets of the over- 
all Army V STOL flight evaluation be- 
ing conducted with the XV-5A aircraft. 
An extensive series of ground ero- 
sion tests were run at the end of the 
pilot check-out, including landings and 
take-offs from numerous unprepared 
sites — sod, alfalfa fields, desert floor, 
etc. These tests were climaxed by rais- 
ing a 235 lb. dummy on an electric winch 
to within 4 feet of the hovering XV-5A. 
No foreign object damage ingestion or 
operating problems were found during 
the intensive evaluation. ^^^BIB 


: L^'r;.ii.vie?tii3aa,>;. 

Ryan Senior reliability engineer Jay Wilcox (seated) briefs pilot team undergoing XV-5A flight simulator training in San Diego. 

Duane Simon, civilian pilot for AVLABS, gets instructions from Schaeffer. 

Instructor Schaeffer debriefs AF Maj. Robert Baldwin 
and USMC t\Aaj. Eric Larsen on flights. 





m Mlb E MmEmEm E 

Ryan's Development of Radar Altimeter Low Altitude Cuntrol System (RALACS) enables 
Firebees to Fly at Fifty-Foot Levels at 600 Miles An Hour. 


RYAN Firebee jet target drones 
have added a new element of 
realism to Navy fleet air 
defense training, utilizing a 
recently developed capability for low- 
level flight. 

The development, called Radar Al- 
timeter Low Altitude Control System 
(RALACS), enables the Firebees to fly 
at fifty-foot levels at 600 miles an hour. 
In a recent demonstration of this 
capability the RALACS Firebee was 

flown against the USS Norton Sound 
ofl" Pt. Mugu, Calif. The ship success- 
fully defended herself, using the Sea- 
spar missile as a primary weapon. 

Witnessed by an evaluation team, 
the Firebee RALACS mission began 
with air-launch from a Navy DP2E air- 
craft based at Pt. Mugu. Descending 
to its upper altitude reference limits of 
3500 feet, the Firebee was commanded 
to dive, dropping to 150 feet above the 
white caps. 

Reaching the outer limit of the 
Mugu range, the Firebee was com- 
manded by remote control to climb and 
turn in for its "hot leg" presentation. 

Controllers dropped the jet-powered 
target to 50 feet above the water for 
its run on the Norton Sound, roaring 
in some 150 yards from the Seaspar 
battery aboard the ship. 

Navy evaluators termed the mission, 
"Excellent." The RALACS Firebee had 
presented a perfect attack simulation. 


Navy DP2E based at Pt. Mugu approaches 10,000-foot launch altitude with 
Firebees slung under each wing. The second target is carried as a back-up. 

Target away I Flying under own power now, Firebee darts 
ahead of DP2E controlled by ground station or chase plane. 


And while the system is chronicled 
as a new development in Firebee tar- 
get presentation techniques, missions 
like the one at Pt. Mugu and locations 
at Roosevelt Roads, Puerto Rico and 
White Sands, New Mexico were made 
possible through Ryan's pioneering 
background in remote controlled flight. 

The RALACS unit operates with a 
radar altimeter sending pulses through 
its transmitter and antenna system to 
the surface of the sea. These pulses 

reflect off the surface of the water, 
returning to the point of origin. Alti- 
tude information is passed electronic- 
ally to the Low Altitude Control 
System, correcting the drone altitude 
through normal flight command system. 

Real time altitude readouts on the 
remote control operator's console 
make precise and instantaneous control 

Now in its 17th year of Firebee 
production, Ryan has supplied the 

Army, Navy and Air Force with more 
than 2500 of the jet-powered, high- 
subsonic Firebee targets. 

In the development of the RALACS 
capability, Ryan has continued its pol- 
icy of updating its Firebee systems to 
meet new requirements as they occur. 

Ryan is currently under contract to 
the Navy for the design-development of 
Firebee II, a supersonic, growth version 
of the conventional jet-powered drone 
now in use. ^HHIiH 



. . .After a half century of naval aviation 

it isn't easy to set a precedent. It took 

one whole day for the tri-service XC-142A 

to turn the trick. 

LTV Photos by Art Schoeni 

FOR the first time in American naval avi- 
ation history, a transport type airplane 
capable of flying more than 400 miles an 
hour in forward flight, has taken off and landed 
vertically from an aircraft carrier underway off 
the coast of southern California. 

The XC-142A tri-service V/STOL (vertical- 
short-takeoff-and-landing) transport, designed 
and built by the veteran aerospace team of 
LTV, Ryan Aeronautical Company and Hiller, 
accomplished the test May 18, aboard the 
USS Bennington. 

Results of the one-day intensive preliminary 
carrier evaluation have been released by the 
Navy Department. 

During the carrier operation 44 short take- 
offs and landings and six vertical takeofi's and 
landings were accomplished, including touch- 
and-go, full stop and go-around flight profiles. 
Landings and takeoffs were made from all 
sections of the ship's 889-foot flight deck. 

The carrier operations added to an already 
extremely successful test program that is con- 
tinuing at Dallas, Texas and Edwards Air 
Force Base, California. Air Force, Army, 
Navy and Marine Corps are joined with LTV 
Aerospace pilots, comprising the test and 
evaluation team that flies the XC-142A. 

More than 280 flights and more than 225 
hours of flight time has been logged since the 
initial plane made its first hop Sept. 29, 1964. 
Tests have been conducted over sod, desert, 
dry lake beds, pierced steel plank runways and 
membrane pads. 

The XC-142A, five of which have been built, 
has been operated from airspeeds of 35 miles an 
hour backward in hover to 400 miles an hour in 
forward flight and to an altitude of 25,000 feet. 

The Bennington program was to evaluate 
the XC-142A for shipboard operations in the 
V/STOL and STOL modes of flight with wind- 
over-deck varying from zero to 32 knots. 

Preliminary data was also gathered which will 
be used to formulate test plans for more exten- 
sive carrier trials scheduled for November 1966. 

Lt. Roger Rich, USN, and Maj. Eric Larsen, 


/Cey to XC-142A V,STOL flight capability is 67-ft. tilt-wing 
designed and built by Ryan. It can be tilted within 100 arc. 

Two decades of V/STOL experience, design-fabrication of 67-foot tilt-wing and component 
structures make Ryan a major contributor to XC-142A success. 

USMC, piloting the tilt-wing V/STOL, 
appeared over the Bennington at 8:52 
a.m., landing at 9:05 a.m., while the 
carrier was steaming off the coast of 
San Diego. The pilots made both STOL 
and V/STOL landings and takeoffs 
from the angle and straight sections of 
the flight deck. Short takeoffs and land- 
ings were accomplished utilizing only 
a couple hundred feet of the flight deck. 

During one test procedure the XC- 
142 A made a vertical takeoff, hovered 
above the flight deck for a few minutes, 
changed wing angle and sped away in 
conventional flight. In another, the 
plane made a 360-degree in-flight turn 
in the width of the flight deck before 
proceeding in conventional flight mode. 

Also flying the aircraft during the test 
program were Army pilots Lt. Col. Billy 


7 01 

Adneal and Maj. Bob Chubboy. Lt. 
Col. J. B. Jacobs, USAF, director of the 
tri-service test force, and his deputy, 
Navy Commander W. L. Cranney, were 
aboard the Bennington as observers. 

One of the major contributors to the 
overall success realized since the incep- 
tion of the XC-142A program has been 
Ryan Aeronautical Company. The 67- 
foot tilt-wing, a key to the aircraft's 
capability, was designed and built by 
Ryan, as were its aft fuselage sections, 
tail surfaces and engine nacelles. 

Two decades of background, repre- 
sented by Ryan's design-development 
of test aircraft that utilized deflected 
slipstream concepts for STOL and 
V/STOL flight, are of major signifi- 
cance to the program's advance. 

The XC-142A's mission as a swift 

transport of combat troops, equipment 
and supplies from assault ships or air- 
fields into unprepared areas under all- 
weather conditions, has been repeatedly 
demonstrated during its operational 
evaluation phases at Edwards Air Force 
Base and in Texas. 

The aircraft can carry 32 fully- 
equipped combat troops or 8,000 
pounds of cargo in an operational 
radius of 470 statute miles. Its ocean- 
spanning ferry range of nearly 3,000 
miles is facilitated through special 
internal fuel tank installations. 

LTV, Ryan and Hiller were awarded 
contracts for the design-development 
and production of the five existing XC- 
142 A aircraft in January 1962 by the 
Aeronautical Systems Division, Air 
Force Systems Command. ^^^IIB 


Two New 
Vice Presidents 
Named at Ryan 

R. R. Schwanhausser 

J. R. Iverson 

R. R. Schwanhausser and J. R. Iverson, directors of two of 
Ryan Aeronautical Company's principal fields of activity — target 
drones and electronic systems — have been made Vice Presidents. 

Director of Ryan target drone programs for the past six 
years, Schwanhausser joined Ryan after service with the Air 
Force as project officer on target drones. Virtually his entire 
aerospace career has been in positions of advancing responsi- 
bility within Ryan's specialized field of unmanned aircraft and 
target drone systems. 

Graduated from Massachusetts Institute of Technology, he 
joined Ryan in 1954 as Dayton representative. 

Iverson was graduated from San Diego State College, join- 
ing Ryan in 1952 in systems analysis. His studies in the basic 
phenomena and concepts of Doppler navigation equipment have 
contributed to Ryan's leadership in this field. 

Iverson heads the highly successful Surveyor lunar landing 
radar program — and the Apollo Lunar Module landing radar 
system — as director of Ryan Electronic and Space Systems. 

Both of the newly appointed Vice Presidents will retain 
their responsibilities as heads of the two facilities with which 
they have been associated. 

Dr. James H. Wakelin 
Appointed Ryan 
Chief Scientist 

Dr. James H. Wakelin, Jr., former Assistant Secretary of the Navy 
for Research and Development and an acknowledged authority 
in the field of oceanography, has joined Ryan Aeronautical 
Company as Chief Scientist. 

A Yale graduate, where he earned a Doctorate degree in 
physics. Dr. Wakelin filled the Navy's senior research and de- 
velopment post from 1959-1964. 

Dr. Wakefin was recently named Chairman of the Board, 
Oceanic Foundation, a research institute in Hawaii. He also 
serves as board chairman of the Research Analysis Corporation, 
McLean, Va. His other affiliations include: President of the 
Marine Technology Society; member of the Corporadon of the 
Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, Mass,, 
and Trustee of the National Geographic Society. 

Or. James H. Wakelin, Jr. 


Scores Firebee 'Kill' 

at 60,000 Feet 

To the distance-floating and flight-duration records set by Firebee target drones this year 
has been added yet another record reported this month by the Navy. 

The USS Oklahoma City, flagship of the Navy's mighty Seventh Fleet, destroyed a 
Ryan Firebee target off Okinawa at 60,000 feet altitude. It was the all-time altitude 
record for surface-to-air "kiUs" over a span of 17 years in which Ryan has built the Fire- 
bee targets. 

Composite Squadron Five (Baker Detachment) said the Firebee had been air- 
launched from one of its DP2E aircraft and was at 60,000 feet when the Oklahoma 
City unleashed two missiles at the simulated "enemy." 

The second missile found its mark scoring a "kill" on the target more than ten 
miles up and twenty-five miles from the ship. 





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'^nel ^'ll n f^et ."'s h^''^ stymie n^i'or 
''^heJ ^i-e i^^'^-cn^e L^'^SfP' ^yan^^ 




NOV./DEC. 1966 








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Volume 27, Wo.Hf 
Published by Ryan Aeronautical Company 
P. 0. Box 311, San Diego, California 92112 

Managing Editor / Jack G. Broward 

Art Director / Al Bergren 

Contributing Editors / George Becker, Jr., Harold Keen 

Bob Battenfield, Chuck Ogilvie 

Staff Photographer / Dick Stauss 

Staff Artist / Robert Watts 

Firebee Field Mobility 3 

•'Watch That Sink-Rate" 8 

Mission Attained 12 

Send PDG's 15 

Progress Report: Firebee II 78 

Ryan's Silent Partners 22 

V/STOL Heavyweights 27 

Reporter News 31 

Past the V/STOL Barrier 32 

^^ "msFm 

Army MOM-34D Firebee 
rockets into flight from 
mobile launch pad during 
Redeye firings at Fort 
Stewart-Knox ranges. Firings 
tested Ryan's Firebee field 

%' , VT 

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The wooded countryside at Fort Stewart, 
Georgia — Fort Knox, Kentucky, ectioed a 
strange, new sound as Ryan Firebees went 
up against thie Army's Redeye missile. Ttie 
test added a new dimension of capability to 
the time-proven, jet-powered Firebee's 

ONE of the stiflfest mobile support 
tests ever faced by Ryan Aero- 
nautical Company jet targets has 
been successfully concluded at mis- 
sile exercise areas adjoining Fort Stewart, 
Georgia and Fort Knox, Kentucky. 

The remote-controlled jets were used 
to evaluate the Army's new Redeye weap- 
on shoulder-fired guided missile under 
maximum combat simulation. 

The swamplands of Georgia and 
wooded hills of Kentucky were used as 
test-evaluation sites in a six-week pro- 
gram conducted by the U. S. Army Air 
Defense Board, under development con- 
trol of U. S. Army Missile Command, 
Huntsville, Alabama. 

Ryan field support personnel normally 
based at White Sands Missile Range, New 
Mexico, were transferred to test sites in 
Georgia and Kentucky as were Firebees, 
ground support equipment and a mobile 
launch platform. 

It was the first time in the 18-year 
history of the Firebees that the high per- 
formance jets were flown in such tightly 
confined air spaces. 

Firebees used in the evaluations were 
modified to the test specifications and 
transported nearly 1500 miles to the test 

A 50-man Army detachment and a 
civilian test support team were dis- 
patched by the Army to work with 
Ryan's support team during the program. 
Under a curtain of monsoon-like rains, 
the combined teams established field 
bunkers, communications, control instal- 
lations and Firebee launch facilities. An 
elaborate test installation was developed 
to record results of weapon effectiveness 
against the Firebee targets. 

Infrared augmentation devices were at- 
tached to the Firebee wingtips. These 
devices served as heat sources onto which 
heat seeking missiles could home in pref- 
erence to the target missile engine. 

The Firebees were also equipped with 
an acoustical scoring system to measure 
weapons accuracy. 

More than 2700 Firebees have been 
built by Ryan for use by the Army, Navy 
and Air Force in weapons research and 
development and training exercises. 

Firebee pre-flight checks are coordinated 
between Army outpost (top) and remote con- 
trol operator during rugged field mobility 
test. Ryan technicians teamed up with Army 
personnel for Redeye exercise. 


Luneberg radar reflectors mounted ir) 
tail of Firebees augmented tracl<ing 
control of jet targets during the Red- 
eye tests. Flares attached to Firebee 
wingtips decoyed heat-seeking mis- 
siles from let engine exhaust. Ryan 
technician conducts pre-flight check 
of system over field telephone with 
operator in radar control vans. 

Redeye missile firings against jet- 
powered Firebees on ranges at Fort 
Stewart and Knox were held to test 
newly developed weapon under real- 
istic environmental circumstances. 

Ryan's primary support role during 
operation included transfer of ten-man 
field service crew and the mobile 
launch pad from White Sands. 

Ryan crew positions Firebee atop 
launch pad (top photo) in preparation 
for flights which were tracked by radar 
in vans (bottom). 

Ryan radar control operator teamed 
up with Army personnel (at top) in 
tracking Firebees during presenta- 
tions. Redeye weapon crew (bottom 
photo) recount first "kill" scored dur- 
ing intense evaluation program. 

t'-^* ■^'V ■■*"•■ -> 

Increasing attention is being given to structural 
damages inflicted by accumulated "hard" 
landings aboard aircraft carriers. The big 
problem is that some of these damages aren't 
discovered until after an accident . . . 

'Watch That Sink Rate' 

THE introduction of a Ryan sink rate radar system in carrier air- 
craft operations could fill an existing information gap today that is 
being blamed for the loss of aircraft and lives. 

Ryan's MASTER (Miniaturized Sink Rate Telemetering Radar) is 
currently undergoing Navy tests at Patuxent River, Md. 

Meanwhile, the impact force generated when an aircraft spanks down 
aboard a carrier flight deck is still a matter of human judgment. And, 
this is permitting aircraft to be flown with undetected structural failures. 

Navy Commander R. L. Scully, a 16-year veteran Landing Signal 
Officer, states that the current radar altimeter and standard landing aids 
are not exact enough in their measurements of rate of descent. Besides, 
today's carrier pilots are much too busy by the time they hit the glide slope 
to concentrate on a sink rate dial. The landing approach and touchdown 
is the most critical point in carrier operations, according to officials. 

"Eyeball judgment is the best system we now have in determining 
when to give a pilot his 'cut' or a wave off," notes Scully, Landing Signal 
Training Officer for the Pacific Fleet Naval Air Force. 

For most carrier-based aircraft, a safe sink rate is estimated at 12 to 
14 feet-per-second. A pilot is pushing his luck at 18 fps and, 20 to 21 
fps means imminent structural damage or crash. 

While Scully's primary duty is to train Landing Signal Officers, he is 
actively interested in research and development that helps create improved 
landing aids, carrier operations and increased safety. 

The Ryan MASTER system, it is believed, could lead to a major ad- 
vance in all of these areas, adding measurably to operational eff'ectiveness. 

Featuring a solid-state circuitry, the three-pound system measures 
vertical descent rate of aircraft during landing approaches. A continuous 
wave beam is transmitted down from the underside of aircraft to the 
carrier deck or ground. 

Structural damages to plane experiencing a "fiard" 
landing are too often hidden from view, despite 
intense inspection by skilled technicians. 

Ryan sink rate system, employed during landings, provides 
continuous readouts during final approach and touchdown. 

Ryan's sink rate system could be applied to operations by carrier aircraft supporting war effort in Vietnam. 

A unit receiving this transmitted signal 
on board carriers or at airfields is de- 
signed to detect "hard" landings which 
could cause structural damage. Aircraft 
experiencing such landings would under- 
go rigid inspections prior to resuming 
flight operations. 

Comprising two units, MASTER sys- 
tems installed in aircraft transmit sink rate 
Doppler waveform to a receiver-process- 
ing unit. This sink rate data is processed 
and displayed in continuous form on an 
instrument panel for the Landing Signal 
Officer's immediate use. 

The Ryan system is designed to op- 
erate from zero to sixty feet with a tele- 
metering range of one-half mile. 

In addition to its value in detecting 
"hard" landings, the MASTER device 
provides a taped record of landing rate- 
of-descent data that could be applied to 
post-accident investigation, aviation safe- 
ty programs and pilot training. 

Completely self-contained, the system 
is applicable to aircraft of a variety of 
sizes and performance characteristics, 

ranging from carrier-based fighters 
through heavy transports to advanced, 
supersonic aircraft. 

The three-pound, solid-state radar sen- 
sor is comparable in size to a pint milk 
carton and is designed for flush mount- 
ing in the underside of an aircraft fuse- 
lage. A short stub or blade antenna 
transmits the modulated Doppler infor- 
mation to the receiver-processing unit on 
the flight deck or near a landing strip. 

Pilot initiation of the sensor is not 
required since the unit is automatically 
turned on as the aircraft's wheels are 

Receiving and processing equipment 
consists of an FM telemetry receiver and 
related recorder. Landing rate informa- 
tion is received, processed and displayed 
numerically on an indicator. FM tape 
recordings of the Doppler output can be 
obtained as well as remote displays and 
graphic chart recordings. 

In addition to its basic applications for 
carrier or land operations, the Ryan sink 
rate system can be used for impact test 

drops of airframes, modules, capsules or 
assemblies; to determine closure rates be- 
tween a large ship and fixed docks during 
broadside maneuvers: to determine clos- 
ure rates between aircraft during air-to- 
air refueling: to determine closure rates 
between a ship and fixed obstacles to aid 
in precise navigation through narrows, 
rivers or harbors. 

Beyond these projected applications, 
the Ryan system could be integrated into 
an aircraft automatic landing system to 
furnish vertical let-down rate during final 
approach to touchdown: register rate of 
descent of an aircraft during airframe 
flight test programs: and to record roll 
rate of an aircraft at a point of touch- 
down during a flight test, by mounting 
one system in the outer portion of each 
wing section. 

The Ryan Model 207 sink rate radar 
system will be delivered to the Naval Air 
Engineering Center. Philadelphia with 
test and evaluation functions performed 
by the Naval Air Test Center. Patuxent 
River, Md. ^^^a^ 


Mounted under fuselage, transmitter's 
signal is beamed to water or deck. 

Demonstrated by Ryan technicians, sink 
rate receiver records plane's descent. 

Plane in landing approach laces most critical point in carrier operations. 

Improvement of air safety in carrier operations is a continuing goal for Navy LSOs. 




RYAN Jet Firebee aerial target flight 
895 from White Sands Missile 
Range, New Mexico on October 1 1, 1966, 
closed an important chapter in the history 
of Ryan Aeronautical Company's famous 
family of Firebee jet-propelled, remote- 
control aerial targets. 

This was the last flight of the venerable 
Q-2A targets from WSMR. For 15 years, 
since the summer of 1951 when this 
series target made its first powered flight, 
the Q-2A"s have rendered yeoman service 
to the military. Superseded by the more 
sophisticated and advanced design of the 
current BQM-34A (formerly Q-2C) ver- 
sions, the workhorse Q-2A's have been 
gradually disappearing from the scene. 

Until recently only six remained in 

service at WSMR. Gradually they have 
been expended to perform a variety of 
missions over the White Sands Range. 

Old 895 went out in a blaze of glory. 
Her obituary is best stated in the terse 
language of the TWX which reported her 

"Q-2A FLT 895 at 1109 hours, 10- 
11-66. Launch, JATO separation, and 
c^imbout phases were normal. Mission 
ojjectives to support range missile sys- 
tem. One dry run made while target was 
climbing out to altitude. Target leveled 
at 29,000 feet MSL. One presentation 
and one firing. Target suffered direct hit 
and caught on fire. Target impacted and 
expended. Total flight time: 14.30 min., 
max. alt. 29.000 feet MSL. Mission 
objective attained." 

The long history of successful per- 
formance by the Q-2A Firebee began 
in the spring of 1951 with its first 
non-powered, glide flight tests. The first 
powered flights were performed in the 
summer of that year. An intense test 

By Chuck Ogilvie 

Firebees float like they lly, a capability developed in the early days of the venerable Q-2A. 




Q-2A Firebee drops away from mother plane's wing, surges forward under its own jet power and is flown by remote control during "tiot run." 


JATO ttirust rockets Q-2A from its pad into jet flight during ground-launch development test. 

Firebee "enemy" has served a continuing 

role of importance related to development of nation's 

arsenal of ground-to-air defense missiles. 



program was conducted at HoUoman Air 
Development Center, Alamogordo, New 
Mexico, under the cognizance of the U.S. 
Air Force Research and Development 

Many jet target firsts were pioneered 
through the Q-2A Firebee. Parachute re- 
covery was perfected with the exhaustive 
testing of the two-stage parachute re- 
covery system at HoUoman. This led to 
the reusability of the Firebee 
which is a standard operational 
technique for today's targets. 

An all-weather, environmental 
operations capability for the 
Firebee was tested and proven 
in a series of flight tests ranging 
from the Arctic to the deserts of 
the Southwest. The Royal Ca- 
nadian Air Force and the U.S. 
Army jointly operated the Fire- 
bee at Fort Churchill, Manitoba 
in an evaluation of the Nike- 
Hercules ground to air missile 
system under extreme cold 
weather conditions. 

Over-water operations and 
recovery techniques were pio- 
neered and developed by the 
Navy at Point Mugu, California, 
using Q-2As. At White Sand 
Missile Range, the Army spon- 
sored development of the first 
ground launch capability for the 
Firebee target system. This led 
to the present zero-length ground 
method which has proved both 
economical and efficient over the 

The Army began its use of the 
Firebee with tests to develop the 
full potentialities of the then lat- 
est antiaircraft weapon in use. 
This was the 75mm "Skysweep- 
er," a ten-ton automatic cannon with a 
built in radar system to pick up the target 
fifteen miles away. 

The Firebee flew many missions 
against this system during its evaluation 
and training phases. The Nike-Hercules 
ground-to-air missile defense system was 
still another of the emerging air defense 
systems to receive support from the al- 
ready established reliability Q-2A Firebee. 

Meanwhile, the Navy was busy with 
the Firebee at its Point Mugu facility 
testing and evaluating its defensive weap- 
ons systems against the Q-2A. Launch, 
recovery and flotation testing was accom- 
plished, proving the suitability of the 
Q-2A as an effective target for the de- 
velopment and operational evaluation of 
the Regulas and Sparrow missile systems. 

Significant among its many accom- 

Q-2A Firebee, forerunner to today's BQM-34A (Q-2C). intro- 
duced jet targets tliat couid be fiown by remote control. 

plishments, was the use of the Q-2A Fire- 
bee at the Air Force's first William Tell 
weapons competition in 1958. This was 
the first of many such Air Force com- 
petitions where fighter-interceptor groups 
pitted their skills Firebee targets. 

During the 1958 meet, more than 100 
Firebees were flown with only 20 actually 
knocked out of the sky by fighter pilots. 
However, the Q-2A, like its successor 

versions, was not designed to be knocked 
down. It contained scoring systems to 
record near misses close enough to count 
as "kills" on an actual "enemy." 

Recoverability and reusability capabili- 
ties of the Q-2A saved hundreds of thou- 
sands of dollars and subsequent versions 
of the Firebee Target system have pro- 
fited from the pioneering achievements 
of the Q-2A series. 

During its operational history, 
the Q-2A served the three mili- 
tary services with the opera- 
tional capability and flexibility 
for which the Ryan Firebee has 
become world famous. Not un- 
til the development of require- 
ments for a faster, even more 
sophisticated and efficient jet 
target, which brought forth the 
present-day Q-2C Firebee, did 
the Q-2A begin to phase out of 
military inventories. Testimony 
to its ruggedness and durability 
is the fact that it took fifteen 
years before the last Q-2A was 
dropped from the inventory. 
And only because it was ex- 
pended by a direct hit from a 
missile "attaining mission ob- 

That the Q-2A performed a 
magnificent service during its 
life span is now a part of history. 
Beyond its initial service in 
support of weapons develop- 
ment, evaluation, testing and 
exercises, the rugged Q-2A pro- 
vided yet another range of 

Within the growth processes 
related to Ryan's technical ad- 
vance, the Q-2A served as a ve- 
hicle by which much of today's 
technological refinements were achieved. 
From experience gained over its life 
span, the Q-2A is truly regarded as a 
platform for progress. 

The current Ryan BQM-34A (Q-2C) 
is a part of that continuing progress. The 
growth-version Firebee II, will add super- 
sonic speed capabilities to the spectrum 
of achievements already made famous by 
the pioneering Q-2A. 







50MEWHERE in the dense jungles 
of Vietnam, an infantry unit has 
been cut off from its lines of supply 
by the enemy. Without food, ammuni- 
tion and medicine the unit is doomed. 

Several hundred miles away, an assault 
team has been air-lifted behind enemy 
lines to seal off escape routes. Food, am- 
munition and medical supplies must be 
delivered to sustain the operation. 

These are hypothetical situations. But 
the magnitude and vitally important ele- 
ment represented by logistic supply in 
Vietnam today is one of a realistic 

Working with the Advanced Research 
Project Agency of the Department of 
Defense and Army, Ryan Aeronautical 
Company has designed, developed and 
tested the Precision Drop Glider (PDG) 
system for use in tactical assault and re- 
supply operations. 

One team of Ryan engineers and 
technicians is currently in a pre-produc- 
tion test program on the PDG system at 
the U. S. Army Test Station, Yuma, Ari- 
zona. When completed the $1,100,000 
Army Aviation Materiel Laboratories 
contract authorizes Ryan to build a quan- 
tity of the systems. 

The current program is the latest in a 
series that Ryan has conducted over the 
past four years. 

Officials point to more than 600 tests 
of the PDG using various configurations 
and payload requirements in basing their 

statement that the PDG system can "de- 
liver the goods." Numerous payload 
weights ranging from 300 to 
2,000 pounds were tested 
with a variety of Ryan 
"Flex Wing" sizes. 

The current Army 
PDG system model is de- 
signed for precision delivery 
of 500-pound, high priority 

Air launched from rotary or 
fixed wing aircraft at alti- 
tudes up to 30,000 f 
and speeds of 150 
knots KIAS, the 
PDG system has 
a glide ratio of 
three-to-one, or a 
glide distance three 
times the altitude at 

A static line actuates the PDG's drogue 
chute seconds after launch. The drogue 
chute deploys the Flex Wing which as- 
sumes its delta-wing configuration through 
inflation of its nonrigid keel and outboard 

The PDG system's on-board receiver 
and electronic package, contained in a 
control platform, is energized automati- 
cally by the static line. Homing on sig- 
nals transmitted from a lightweight, 
portable unit on the ground, the system 
descends in a gliding pattern to its pre- 
determined landing site. 

Folded and packed into chute size with de- 
flated keel and outboard members, Flex 
Wing will be attached to top of cargo con- 
tainer and inflated automatically after drop. 


Aerial delivery of supplies has been 
updated by the capability of the PDG 
system to emplace cargo in heavy cloud 
cover, darkness or other low visibility 
conditions. Pin-point accuracy has been 
repeatedly demonstrated in this delivery 

Because of PDG's automatic homing 
and glide capabilities — plus the fact that 
the size of the launch window increases 
with altitude — pinpoint navigation to 
the drop zone is not required. 

The configuration 
and cargo weight 
of the PDG sys- 
tem prevents 
dragging caused 
by high winds on 
the ground after 
Aircraft launching the 
PDG system assumes its 
J^lex-Wing shape auto- 


maticaliy and escapes the hazards of hos- 
tile ground fire normally associated with 
aerial delivery because of the launch alti- 
tude and distance from its predetermined. 
The PDG system has three major com- 
ponents: the delta-shaped. Flex Wing, 
made of lightweight fabric; a control 
platform that houses its electronic guid- 

ance system; and the cargo container. 

The wing-inflation and suspension 
system is a separate unit that can be pre- 
pared for flight and stored in a ready 
condition on the shelf in a facility re- 
mote from the control platform. The 
control platform, also a separate unit, 
can be prepared for flight and stored 
remotely from the other components. 

The wing-control platforms can be 
attached to the cargo container in the 
packaging area or even in the delivery 

Under existing contract agreements, 
Ryan will conduct a training program for 
military personnel in the use of the PDG 

As a member of the Ryan Flex Wing 
family of delivery systems, the PDG 
combines parachute with glider capabili- 
ties, incorporating a high glide ratio, 
good control responses and an automatic 
guidance system. 

Ryan officials point to a broad range 
of potential PDG applications, well be- 
yond its exclusive use in tactical military 
applications for re-supply. Isolated com- 
munities or disaster-stricken areas could 
well utilize the air-delivered cargo carrier 
with assurance. 

When the requirement is a life-or- 
death matter, when no other means of 
delivery exists and where pin-point ac- 
curacy to the delivery area is demanded, 
the solution is now available: 

Send PDGs! _ 





Fabrication of wing attachiment fittings for Firebee II 
is underway (right) in Ryan's main plant. 

Full scale mockup draws emphasis to supersonic design characteristics of Ryan's growth-version, jet powered Firebee II. 

RYAN Aeronautical Company's Firebee II, a growth- 
version jet target drone that adds supersonic speed to 
existing Firebee target presentation capabilities, is in initial 
fabrication stages following release of production designs 
to manufacturing, according to R. R. Schwanhausser, Ryan 
Vice President, Drone Programs. 

The supersonic Firebee II is being developed and built 
under a contract awarded to Ryan by the Navy's Air Sys- 
tems Command. Four prototypes and one static test Fire- 
bee II were ordered under the contract. 

Scheduled sub-assembly of major airframe components 
began in October. 

Schwanhausser said flight control system breadboard 
items have been completed and are undergoing simulation 
tests in Ryan's Flight Simulation Laboratory. 

Antenna prototype development testing for the Firebee 


Sub-assembly of major airframe com- 
ponents (above) started in October. 

Top level Ryan-Navy program managers reviewing Firebee II progress characterize spirit 
of teamwork that prevails in development of Ryan's growth-version supersonic system. 

Fabrication, sub-assembly progress is 
traced on flow charts (above). 

Fabrication of supersonic Firebee II 
fuselage skin (right) is on schedule. 


Wing forming tool (above) will shape 
sharply swept wings of the Firebee II. 

Assembly jigs take shape, awaiting 
manufacture of growth-version target. 

Ryan's growth-version Firebee II development program undergoes scrutiny of Ryan-Navy reviev/ team. 

II is complete, with qualification testing 
of vendor produced components, includ- 
ing antennas, now in progress, his re- 
port noted. 

Advance preparations for ground and 
static tests are nearing completion. The 
first flight test of the prototype Firebee 
II is currently scheduled for mid- 1967 at 
the Navy Missile Center, Pt. Mugu, Calif. 

Ron A. Reasoner, Firebee II program 
manager, said the Navy has purchased 
ten follow-on Firebee II, pre-production 
prototype vehicles for further evaluation. 

The supersonic Firebee II, designated 
XBQM-34E, is a high performance, re- 
mote-controlled, successor to the subsonic 
BQM-34A Firebee. The growth-version 
target has a designated speed of 1,000 

miles an hour which will be coupled to 
the existing Firebee's basic features and 
will utilize many of the same components. 

A three-day joint Navy-Ryan review of 
Ryan Aeronautical Company's supersonic 
Firebee II developmental program was 
concluded at San Diego September 29. 
A Navy review team from the Naval Air 
Systems Command joined Ryan program 
engineers in a routine examination of 
progress on the program. 

The 60-man review team studied the 
current development status of the engine, 
flight test parameters, ground support 
equipment, avionics, performance char- 
acteristics, tooling, manufacture and fiscal 
status during its program in San Diego. 

The Naval review team was led by 

Commander Fred Wilder, Navy Targets 
Project Manager and Bill G. Dowell, 
Target Project Engineer, both represent- 
ing the Naval Air Systems Command. 

Already built for the Army, Navy and 
Air Force are nearly 3000 high-subsonic 
Ryan Firebees over the past 18 years. 
The remote-controlled target drones are 
used in the research and development of 
weapons systems, test and evaluation and 
weapons exercises. 

The Navy has projected a long-range 
weapons program in ordering Ryan to 
develop the growth-version Firebee II. 
Much of the existing ancillary electronic 
systems and ground support equipment 
used with subsonic Firebees can be ap- 
plied to the Firebee II, engineers state. 



.... * ^^? ., - ■■■ 

.. mm 

« '"^ 

;>' -•■' 

' 1 


Ryan^s Silent Partners 

LONG before the spectacular mission 
success achieved by Surveyor I, 
Ryan Electronic and Space Systems 
verified the design and performance cap- 
abilities of the spacecraft's landing radar 
system through the use of advanced com- 
puter technology. 

Similar analyses were conducted to 
profile the landing trajectory of Apollo's 
Lunar Module, for which Ryan is also 
building the landing radar system. 

Several years before the first actual 
flight of the Ryan XV-5A V/STOL re- 
search aircraft, Ryan devised a computer 
program to assist in the final design that 

established optimum configurations for 
the lift-fan aircraft. 

Ryan's growth-version Firebee II, a 
jet-powered, supersonic drone scheduled 
to begin its flight test program in 1967 
at Pt. Mugu, has already been given up- 
checks following exhaustive computerized 
simulation of its flight systems, design 
and configuration. 

These are but samplings of today's 
refined computer applications at Ryan, 
where pioneering introductions of ma- 
chine-supported information management 
began more than a quarter-century ago. 

In search of faster, more accurate and 

economical payroll and labor distribu- 
tions techniques, Ryan acquired its first 
electronic accounting equipment in 1939. 

Increased applications required addi- 
tional equipment from 1940 to 1952. 
Machine use, originally limited to data 
processing, was expanded in 1952 with 
the acquisition of an electronic calculator, 
which included the capabilities for multi- 
plication and division. 

Ryan management recognized that 
placement of such functions as inventory, 
accounting and payroll under computer 
control required careful planning and or- 
ganization. This led to the establishment 

IBM 360 computer system, in use above, was installed by Ryan 
in 1966 for use in scientific engineering or business programs. 

Ryan's EAI 8900 fiybrid system serves as 

a major component in Fligtit Simulation Laboratory. 


Ryan's IBM System 360 installation (background) adds new dimension 

of capabilities to its computer complex. 

Computer support was used in developing 
Lunar Research Vehicle's navigation system. 

in 1952 of a "Mechanization Plan." 

An IBM 650 was installed in 1955 for 
engineering and scientific applications. 
This system was replaced in 1961 with 
an IBM 704 computer which is now be- 
ing phased out. 

To this growing inventory of computer 
equipment was added an IBM 1410 
punched card system in 1962, which, in 
turn, was updated a year later to a tape 
system and an IBM 1401 used as periph- 
eral equipment to the IBM 1410. 

Ryan's evolution to a third generation 
electronic computer resulted in the 1966 
installation of an IBM System 360. This 
computer system was selected because of 
its capabilities for applications in scienti- 
fic-engineering and business use with the 
building block technique; its design 
philosophy allows flexibility for growth to 
handle increased volume or completely 
different applications. 

With the installation of its Control 
Data Corp. Transacter system in 1959, 
Ryan became the first commercial firm to 
apply this automatic data collection sys- 
tem to manufacturing. The system makes 
production information immediately 
available to work-in-process files. 

Transacter's first application, shop 
order status, resulted in a cost savings of 
approximately $50,000 for the first year 
of operation. 

To optimize system design of flight 
articles and pilot familiarization pro- 
grams with such aircraft as the XV-5A, 
Ryan established its Flight Simulation 
Laboratory in 1962. using an analog 
computer as an electronic mathematical 
model of the system in simulation. 

The Laboratory was updated in 1966 
through the installation of an EAI 8900 
hybrid computer, expanding the system 
to include a digital section for com- 
putation, data storage and applications. 

Data collection communication links 


Computerization systems at Ryan are saving 
company and customers time and money. 

Five axes numerical control system has been applied to Ryan production. Computers play major role in Ryan's space programs. 

were established between the Ryan main 
plant at Lindbergh Field in San Diego 
and its Electronic and Space Systems and 
Kearny Mesa plants in 1963. Future 
plans include installation of small com- 
puters at these satellite plants for small 
engineering problems and as part of the 
communications link to the large com- 
puter system at the main plant. 

Thus, has the total spectrum of com- 
puter capabilities been developed in 
evolutionary stages at Ryan. Most signifi- 
cant has been the accompanying philoso- 
phy which guided this plan for computer 
development, refinement and expansion. 

Ryan management regards all of its 
refinements — even the newest and most 
sophisticated computer system — as noth- 
ing more than a power plant which sup- 
ports and extends skills in various forms 
of information management. Rather than 
functioning as an "electronic brain," com- 
puter systems at Ryan extend the mental 
capabilities of its human resources. The 
computer capabilities allow engineers to 
design systems faster and more accurately 
with economical application. 

This careful blend of human elements 
with machine capabiUties is being applied 
today over a broad spectrum of programs 
in all facets of Ryan productivity. 

Computer techniques are employed 
in the design-development of vehicles, 
systems and component equipment. Ryan 
has even used its computers to design a 
computer: a digital computer design sim- 
ulation of an air or spaceborne device to 
calculate trajectory during flight. 

Computer apphcations cover the entire 
array of design tasks involved in the de- 
velopment of aerospace systems, system 
analysis, determination of design para- 
meters, performance prediction, trajec- 
tory analysis and prediction, design 
optimization, structural design, vibration 
and flutter analysis, stability and control 
studies, weight and center of gravity de- 
termination, thermal control, circuit de- 
sign, antenna pattern testing and related 
areas of overall development functions. 

Computer support has made substan- 
tial contributions at Ryan to its success 
in developing spacecraft landing radars 
such as that used in Surveyor I and the 

missions that lie ahead. 

Examples of structural design problems 
solved through the use of computers in- 
clude the LM landing radar and Mariner 
C solar panels. Structural integrity 
indicated by computer data was later 
verified by subjecting actual fabricated 
articles to vibration tests. Such tests not 
only verify solutions to problem areas, 
they prove application of special com- 
puter programs to stress analysis of an- 
tennas, solar panels and other space flight 

Addition of the EAI 8900 hybrid com- 
puter to an already well-equipped Flight 
Simulation Laboratory keeps Ryan 
among the leading companies in its capa- 
bility to simulate advanced aerospace 
vehicles and systems. 

In the hands of Ryan's skilled engi- 
neers and programmers, the 8800 analog 
section of the computer system is set up 
and operated as an electronic, mathe- 
matical scale model of the system under 

For flight simulation, actual flight con- 
ditions and environment are created 


through the use of high-speed, high-per- 
formance computer systems, fully instru- 
mented cockpit and a panoramic screen 
on which is projected typical landmarks 
as seen from the air. 

The visual result of the equations of 
motion produced continually on the 
screen is the product of pitch, roll and 
yaw movements of the flight vehicle com- 
bined with the earth coordinates. These 
combined elements produce the sensation 
of movement although the cockpit re- 
mains stationary in the darkened labora- 

Fifteen service and government test 
pilots completed XV-5A flight familiari- 
zation training programs in 1965 and 
1966 using the Ryan Flight Simulation 
Laboratory. And, Ryan test pilots "flew" 
the Vertifan aircraft in the darkened 
laboratory room for a period of 18 
months — long before takeoff on the first 
actual flight at Edwards Air Force Base, 

This application of computerization at 
Ryan clearly demonstrates the feasibility 
of its Flight Simulation Laboratory for 
pre-flight training in extensive use as the 
world's aerospace sources move toward 
the era of V/STOL flight concepts. 

Numerical control applications in man- 
ufacturing has distinguished Ryan as one 
of the small number of companies to 
adapt computer technology to its produc- 
tion lines. 

Ryan uses two, three and five-axis, tape 
controlled machines to fabricate struc- 
tural parts for its Firebee II production. 

Machine tool operations are automati- 
cally directed and controlled, including 
cutting and drilling, through application 
of the numerical control system. 

Automatic methods in use at Ryan 
completely process a design from blue- 
print to finished, machined part as an 
application of this system. 

These total computer capabilities con- 
tribute measurably to Ryan's reliability 
achievement. Incorporating the advan- 
tages of vast data storage and rapid data 
retrieval capability, the computer func- 
tions as a reliability reference library. 

By means of tapes and punched cards 
the computer maintains complete per- 
formance files on hundreds of individual 
components built into vehicles and sys- 
tems, providing documentary records of 
the parts functioning together as a 

One of the computer's most significant 

contributions at Ryan, as it affects all 
companies involved in the free enterprise 
world of commercial competition, is the 
savings of time and expense in produc- 

Through use of mathematical models 
of actual systems, computer programs 
predict performance characteristics, indi- 
cating potential errors. Predictions can 
be compared with specified design cri- 
teria and eventually, with actual vehicle 

Necessity for redesign often can be 
anticipated before actual hardware fab- 
rication, reducing modification require- 
ments. Close correlation between pre- 
dicted and actual performance means 
that costly physical tests can be held to 
minimum levels. 

And, this time saved in system develop- 
ment through computer analysis not only 
reduces costs: it is an important factor 
in getting the job done in time to meet 
schedule commitments. 

In this respect, the computer has and 
is serving Ryan today as a disciplinarian: 
it compels users to think through a prob- 
lem until they clearly see. not only their 
immediate objective, but where they in- 
tend to go from there. 



WhenXe-142A pilots call for a "tilt" the reference 
is to Ryan's 67-foot four engined tilt wing, the key to 
theaircraft V/STOL flight capabilities . . . 





/ - , » I* i. - . '*.- -air' 


'S*— ^4 


With engines at higt) tilt angle, XC-142A disgorges 1 ,000-lb. cargo containers in demonstration of air delivery technique. 

assault and resupply operations 
were conducted by a trio of XC- 
142A aircraft at Edwards Air Force 
Base, California in late October, an event 
that reflected a new measure of capability 
in the world's largest V/STOL transport's 

Built by the veteran aerospace team of 
LTV, Ryan and Hiller, the XC-142A is 
rounding out 18 months of an opera- 
tional evaluation programs and has al- 
ready achieved: 

V/STOL operations aboard an aircraft 
carrier; numerous cross-country flights 
between Dallas and Edwards, a span of 
some 1200 miles; rescue missions; aerial 
resupply missions; in addition to a broad 
array of capability demonstrations for un- 
prepared landing site operations. 

The recent field demonstration at Ed- 

wards, witnessed by some 200 ranking 
military officers and industrial representa- 
tives, included high-speed formation fly- 
overs at 250 KIAS, a performance that 
amply demonstrated conventional flight 
characteristics of the snub-nosed aircraft. 

Re-supply demonstrations by gravity 
drop techniques placed four, 1,000-pound 
cargo containers within yards of each 
other in the drop zone. In an impressive 
display of vertical-short-landing capabili- 
ties, the combined aircraft alternately 
delivered quarter-ton artillery field 
pieces, a 105 Howitzer, three-quarter ton 
truck and fluid transporters, using the 
rear ramp for offloading. 

In a dramatic display of search and 
rescue capabilities, a dummy parachute 
drop was executed over the drop zone 
using the forward hatch as an exit. The 
same dummy was then retrieved by winch 

and cable as the aircraft hovered at ap- 
proximately 100 feet. A ground crew- 
man, assuming the role of a paramedic, 
attached the cable to the dummy's rescue 

One of the three aircraft, in demon- 
strating taxi capabilities in unprepared 
sites, rode roughshod over deep gullies 
and raw desert in an uphill area, then 
reversed its path for a downhill taxi run. 

Scheduled operations before the end of 
1966 include open sea rescue tests in the 
Pacific and expanded carrier operations. 

Acclaimed as the world's biggest, new- 
est and most advanced concept in the 
V/STOL transport field, the XC-142A is 
designed for rapid movement of troops 
and supplies into unprepared areas under 
all-weather conditions. It can take off 
from an area no larger than a tennis 
court, cruise at speeds topping 430 miles 


T* •».'''*' "^^ 

an hour and span a distance of 3800 
miles with special fuel tanks. 

Ryan Aeronautical Company's partici- 
pation in the XC-142A program includes 
the design and fabrication of the aft 
fuselage, tail surfaces, engine nacelles and 
construction of the 67-foot tilt wing. 
Much of the technology developed by 
Ryan over the past quarter century, re- 
lated to deflected slipstream and vertical 
lift, is represented in the flight concepts. 

While its primary area of application 
lies in the military field, the XC-142A 
offers a broad range of potential uses, in- 
cluding city-center to city-center trans- 
portation, delivery of vital supplies to 
inaccessible disaster areas, rescue opera- 
tions, recreation and exploration of 
remote areas, all utilizing V/STOL 

Paul Thayer, president of LTV Aero- 

\ *l >s,» 

World's biggest V/STOL transport shattered the Mojave 
Desert calm in demonstrations of assault capabilities. 


space Corporation, predicted that the XC-142A 
concept will make contributions to "virtually all 
facets of civil aviation," in fulfilling its military 

The tilt-wing, deflected slipstream transport is 
powered by four turboprop engines linked to- 
gether on a common shaft so that even a single 
engine can turn its propellers and tail rotor. 

The aircraft achieves vertical flight by tilting 
its wing and engines skyward while the fuselage 
remains in a horizontal position. Increasing the 
effectiveness of this technique, the airstream is de- 
flected by flaps during transition from hover to 
forward flight to prevent separation of the air- 
stream, giving excellent wing stall characteristics. 

When the aircraft reaches desired altitude, the 
wing and engines are gradually tilted forward to 
provide forward speed and transition to conven- 
tional flight modes. 

Its Ryan-built wing can tilt through an angle of 
100 degreees to maintain a level fuselage when 
hovering even in a tail wind. For overboard gross 

weight, the wing is placed in a variety of tilt posi- 
tions to achieve short takeoffs and landings. 

Designed to carry 32 fully-equipped troops or 
8,000 pounds of cargo in an operational radius of 
from 230 to approximately 470 statute miles, the 
XC-142A has a ferry range of nearly 3800 miles. 

Its troop and cargo area is 30 feet long, seven- 
and-one-half feet wide and seven feet high. 

The five aircraft built began an exhaustive 18- 
nionth operational evaluation program at Edwards 
in mid- 1965, pitting the new V/STOL transport 
concept against the most rigorous tests of com- 
bat capabilities experienced by any other aircraft 
of its kind. 

Its test programs at Edwards and aboard the 
aircraft carrier, USS Bennington, marked the first 
U. S. V/STOL concept to move into operational 
evaluation with undergoing feasibility trials. 

The XV- 142 A program development is directed 
by the Department of Defense and managed by 
the Air Force's Aeronautical Systems Division at 
Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Dayton, Ohio. 

CO • 

Jeep-mounted recoilless rifle in foreground was alr-deiivered to target area. 
















The XV-5A, combining high performance jet speed with the 
ability to hover for extended periods has demonstrated its 
capability to perform rescue missions, successfully lifting 
a 235 pound instrumented dummy during extensive flight 
tests at Edvi/ards A.F.B. 

It can escort attack aircraft, loiter near the strike area and 
in the event of emergency descend rapidly to a hover, re- 
cover downed airmen and evacuate the area at jet speed. 

A modified XV-5A would have a passenger compartment, 
side access door and recovery winch. In flight tests, the 
XV-5A also demonstrated its unique ability to operate from 
unprepared sites by performing vertical take-offs and land- 
ings on raw desert, an alfalfa field and grass. Further tests 
over water with floating life rafts proved the feasibility for 
water retrievals. 






ran J ^11 1 rP ^^et^^'^'s h^'Usty^'e n^yor 




Ryan Flight Data Systems 
Ordered for NASA'S LLTV 

Ryan flight data systems will be used to 
train astronauts in landing on the Moon 
under a contract awarded by NASA for a 
number of the Ryan systems to be used 
aboard Lunar Landing Training Vehicles. 

As a forerunner to Apollo Moon landings, 
astronauts will train in the LLTV. 

The flight data systems provided by Ryan 
will include a Doppler radar velocity sensor 
and altimeter and display indicators for 
speed and altitude. The LLTV is a modifi- 
cation of the Lunar Landing Research 
vehicle which has been engaged in test 
programs at Edwards Air Force Base since 

Ryan suppKed a Doppler velocity sensor 
system for the earlier vehicle which was 
first designed in 1956 and used in heli- 

For the new training vehicle, Ryan will 
provide even more accurate radar, Model 
547. A new altimeter, the Model 602, will 
be used in the new flight data system, which 
is an outgrowth of the principle of contin- 
ous radar measurement that Ryan developed 
for Surveyor and Apollo's Lunar Module 

Space Age Ingenuity Applied by Ryan Engineers 

A vacuum chamber once used for plating 
bottle caps is filling a vital role at Ryan 
Electronic and Space Systems in applying 
aluminum thermal coatings on electronic 
components for the Surveyor and Apollo 
Lunar Module programs. 

Small clips of pure aluminum are literally 
fired at the parts to be coated through a 
process developed by Ryan senior manufac- 
turing engineer James H. Hosmer. 

The aluminum is suspended on tungsten 
filaments in the chamber in which a vacuum 
is created by a pumping process. Power is 
then applied to the filament to heat them, 
resulting in melting and vaporizing the 
alumimun to all exposed surfaces. 

Ryan crew at Puerfo Rico readies Firebees for target mjssion. 

All Navy Firebee Target Record Set at Atlantic Fleet Weapons Range 

compares with the average, world-wide op- 
erational loss rate of one for each 9.62 

He stated that the AFWR Firebee record 
could not have been achieved without VC- 
8"s complete cooperation and "high state 
of readiness and operational proficiency." 
The Squadron is led by Commander James 
H. Foxgrover, USN. 

VC-8 aircraft carry the Firebee jet targets 
aloft for launch operations after which they 
are remote-controlled in flight by Ryan con- 
trollers during "hot" runs and to retrieval 
areas. The Firebees are retrieved by VC-8 
helicopters and returned for rehabilitation 
at the Ryan base. 

Manceau heads up a 28-man Ryan field 
support crew at Roosevelt Roads. 

The AFWR has flown 154 Firebee mis- 
sions during the past 12 months, (Novem- 
ber 1965 -October 1966) with 152 "mis- 
sion objectives attained" flights. This num- 
ber includes 18 Firebee "kills" by missile 
attacks and 7 operational losses for a mis- 
sion reliability record of 98.7 percent. 

Ryan has maintained the bulk of Firebee 
operational support at Roosevelt Roads 
since April 1962. 

Surface ships and aircraft use the AFWR 
as its primary re-training area, exercising 
against the Firebee as a main target vehicle. 

Now in its 18th year of Firebee produc- 
tion, Ryan provides the high, subsonic jet 
targets for use by the Army, Navy and Air 
Force. Recent developments in flight con- 
trol systems enable the Firebee to be flown 
at from 50 to 60,000 feet levels and per- 
form a full spectrum of evasive high 'g' 

An all-time, all-Navy record for Ryan 
Firebee jet target operations has been set 
by the Atlantic Fleet Weapons Range 
(AFWR) which has conducted 100 consecu- 
tive missions without an operational loss. 

R. F. Manceau, Ryan Base Manager at 
Roosevelt Roads, Puerto Rico, said this is 
an all-time Navy record which will con- 
tinue to mount until an operational loss 

The Atlantic Fleet Weapons Range, com- 
manded by Captain Charles E. Healy, USN, 
utilizes Fleet Composite Squadron-Eight for 
its Firebee launch and recovery operations. 
The Navy DP2E Neptune aircraft is em- 
ployed for in-flight target launches. 

Reporting on the new operational record, 
Manceau said the annual average operation- 
al loss rate has been reduced to one Firebee 
for each 22 missions at the AFWR. This 

Alumlniied LM Landing Radar Antenna. 




Ryan's Vertifan aircraft is a proven 

concept, proven in more than two years 

of flight tests. iVIore than that, it has 

advanced man's knowledge and skills well 

into the new era of V/STOL flight . . . 

Ryan Aeronautical Company is playing a 
major role today in the overall develop- 
ment of high performance jet V/STOL 
(Vertical-Short-Takeoflf-and-Landing) technol- 
ogy through its application of the Vertifan 

The concept, demonstrated successfully over 
the past two years by the Ryan XV-5A V STOL 
research aircraft, is the most advanced technique 
yet applied in the V/STOL field. 

Vertically installed lift-fans in the wings and 
nose of the XV-5A provide capabilities for ver- 
tical takeoff, landing and hovering maneuvers 
expected only of a helicopter. In conventional 
flight it is a high performance jet aircraft. 

Engines in the Vertifan aircraft are sized for 
cruise, with thrust augmentation supplied by fans 
for vertical flight and hovering requirements. 

Engaged in a continuing series of flight test 
programs since January 1965, Ryan XV-5A air- 
craft have completed 368 flights, logging nearly 
1 50 hours of flight time. 

During its flight test programs, 1 5 inter-agency 
government and military pilots completed flight 
training in the XV-5A and Ryan's XV-5A Flight 
Simulator Laboratory in San Diego was used to 
provide pre-flight instructions for scores more of 
military pilots. 

In one series of environmental flight tests the 
XV-5A conducted vertical takeoff's, hovering and 
landing operations over a broad range of terrain 
conditions, including raw desert, loose, rocky 
soil, freshly plowed fields, a golf course driving 
range and over water. 

This test program pitted the Vertifan concept 
against operational environments well beyond 
the initial design requirements of the aircraft. 
The measure of success it achieved is best re- 
flected in the substantial flight test data and ex- 
perience generated for further applications and 
advance of the concept. 

Significantly, the XV-5A completed each seg- 
ment of the environmental test program without 
incident or unfavorable characteristics. 

As an adjunct to the test program, a 235- 
pound anthromorphic dummy, instrumented to 
reflect stress and temperatures, was lifted by 
standard winch and cable techniques by the air- 
craft during simulated air rescue exercises. 

Posed in the role of a high performance jet 
strike escort rescue (S.E.R.) aircraft for a test 
program conducted in October 1966. the XV- 
5A once again demonstrated its capabilities for 
lifting downed flyers during simulated rescue 

Flying a S.E.R. mission, the Vertifan aircraft 
could operate from remote, unprepared facilities, 
accompanying strike aircraft on missions. It 
would loiter out of ground fire range as the 
strike aircraft conducted the attack. 

In the event of a pilot being downed, the Ver- 
tifan S.E.R. would descend rapidly to a point of 


Ryan X-13 'yertijet" 
pioneered jet V/STOL aircraft. 

YO-51 "Dragonfly" (beiow) was built by Ryan for the Army in 1940. 


Higti performance jet V/STOL stril<e aircraft using Vertifan concept, could actiieve supersonic speeds for combat role. 

pickup, hover over the crewman for 
winching operations, then evacuate the 
area at high performance jet speeds. 

Strike aircraft would provide suppres- 
sive ground fire during rescue operations 
of this type. 

Beyond its proven capabilities as an 
S.E.R. aircraft, the Vertifan concept could 
be applied to conventional strike aircraft 
of the supersonic regimes through instal- 
lation of lift fans and the Vertifan propul- 
sion system. 

XV-5A aircraft are powered by two 
General Electric J-85 turbojet engines 
mounted high in the fuselage. Thrust from 
this central propulsion source is diverted 
to turn the wing and nose fans during ver- 
tical flight and hovering modes. This same 
thrust is directed out the aircraft's tailpipes 
in horizontal or conventional flight. 

Lift fans and propulsion systems, used 
in combinations of both wing fans and 
fold-out fuselage fans, could be applied 
across the full spectrum of aircraft design 
as effectively as the initial concept has 
been proved, according to Ryan engineers. 

Pointing to thrust augmentation pro- 
vided through use of the lift-fan technique, 
passenger and cargo transports would per- 
form city-center to city-center service with 
minimum support requirement and oper- 
ate from terminals no larger than a 
rooftop of a building, engineers state. Pro- 
jecting well into the Mach 3 designs of 
transports, they add that the compatibility 
between Vertifan systems and high per- 
formance jet aircraft compliment each 
other in operational applications. 

The lift fan propulsion system used in 
the XV-5A, for example, multiplies the 
aircraft's installed thrust three times, sup- 
plying lift power ideally suited for heavy, 
transport type aircraft. 

As a major bonus feature, no more fuel 
is required in achieving vertical flight 
than conventional, horizontal modes of 
operation, an aspect that eliminates the 
heavy penalties other V/STOL aircraft 

The salient advantage of the Vertifan 
concept is that it permits the installation, 
in a V/STOL aircraft, of only that amount 

** "^ 




Ryan Vertifan XV-5A V/STOL research aircraft lias proved itself over past two years. 

of jet engine thrust which is normally re- 
quired for conventional flight. 

A pioneering leader in the design and 
production of high speed V STOL air- 
craft, Ryan engineers have accumulated 
well over three-million manhours of 
V/STOL experience. Significant Ryan air- 
craft produced in this field include the 
YO-51 Dragonfly, X-13 Vertijet, VZ-3RY 
Vertiplane, XC-142A and XV-5A. 

Today's question, according to T. 
Claude Ryan, Board Chairman and Chief 
Executive Officer of Ryan Aeronautical 
Company, is, "Which V STOL system 
will prove to be the most efficient and most 

"We believe the answer has already been 
provided in the Vertifan concept, repre- 
sented so successfully by our XV-5A over 
the past two years." 


Jef passenger airliner using Vertifan concept for V/STOL capabilities, would fly city-center to city-center. 

XV-5A Vertifan aircraft assumes higfi performance jet profile. 


Plesse send address changes lo.- 


P. 0. BOX 311 ■ SAN DIEGO, CALIF. 92112 

flewr/i Requested 

38930 S 

9103 MOLLY *JO.;S A7F.. 
LA MEiiA, CALIf. 92041 



San Diego, Calif. 
Permif No. 437 






In the final minutes before the historic touchdown of Surveyor I, 
Ryan's Lunar Landing Radar System took complete controL 
Without this accurate radar information, Surveyor I would have 
impacted on the moon's Sea of Storms at terminal velocity. 
Continuously, instantaneously, Ryan's radar measured velocity, 
altitude, and drift to control rocket thrust and spacecraft atti- 
tude. From 6.2 miles up and a speed of 280 mph, to the final 
free fall from 14 feet at a near-hovering 3.4 mph, the radar's 
precision measurements were the electronic keys to mission 
success. It was the high crest of years of planning and direc- 
tion by NASA, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, and Hughes Aircraft 
Company. In the next big step of America's space exploration 
quest— the manned Apollo Lunar Excursion Module (LEM)— 
Ryan-conceived, Ryan-built Lunar Landing Radar will again be 
on board, assuring that the descent and landing proceed as 
programmed: soft. 




JAN./FEB. 1967 

m^: -«* , 



.':^^^^^f .iiiili'iMilHit 


' ** 







Volume 28, No. 1 
Published by Ryan Aeronautical Company 
P. O. Box 311, San Diego, Calitornia 92112 

Managing Editor / Jack G. Broward 

Art Director / Al Bergren 

Contributing Editors / George Becker, Jr., Harold Keen 

Bob Battenlield, Chuck Ogilvie 

Staff Photographer / Dick Stauss 

Staff Artist / Robert Watts 

Lantflex 66 3 

Echoes in Space 70 

Targets Unlimited 14 

Firebee It's First Team 78 

Navigation By OMEGA 24 

Shoot To Kill 30 

Firefish Away! 35 

Supersonic shape and form 
of Ryan's Firebee II assumes 
identity as fabrication of 
static testing model nears 
completion. Flight tests are 
to begin this year at Navy's 
Pt. Mugu l^issile Center. 


Ryan's Jet-powered Fwebees assumed the role of "enemy'' as the Atlantic Fleet 

flexed its muscles in the biggest exercise of the year. . . 



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Marines of 16th Expeditionary Brigade storm 
beaches of Vieques Island in demonstration of amphib- 
ious assault techniques during LANTFLEX 66. 

Well Done message from Vice 
Admiral Bernard A. Clarey, Com- 
mander U.S. Second Fleet, to all 
ships and units who participated 
in LANTFLEX 66. 

"The planning and execution 
during your participation LANT- 
FLEX 66 was outstanding in 
every respect. In sum, your im- 
mediate efforts made a signifi- 
cant contribution to LANTFLEX 
66 and Fleet readiness. 

"My personal congratulations 
for a complex job extremely Well 


RYAN Aeronautical Company's jet Firebee tar- 
gets filled major roles of support last December 
during the Navy"s largest sea-air-land exercise of 
the year. Dubbed LANTFLEX 66, the operation 
involved more than 42,000 men, 90 ships and 19 
squadrons of Navy and Marine Corps aircraft. 

Assuming wartime realism, the exercise ranged 
from the mid-Atlantic Ocean to waters of the Carib- 
bean Sea off Puerto Rico. 

Vice Admiral B. A. Clarey, Commander of the 
U.S. Second Fleet, commanded the maneuvers from 
his flagship, the guided missile cruiser USS Newport 

The 21 -day exercise, designed to test the combat 
readiness of participating forces, included oflfensive 
strike force, carrier strike force and major amphib- 
ious operations. Assault landings by a 5,000-man 
Marine Corps force, designated the 16th Marine 
Expeditionary Brigade commanded by Brigadier 
General Edwin B. Wheeler, climaxed the exercise. 

Task force commanders assigned to the major fleet 
operations included Rear Admiral John M. Alford, 
Commander Cruiser-Destroyer Flotilla Two; Rear 
Admiral Dick H. Guinn, Commander Carrier Divi- 
sion Four; Rear Admiral William P. Mack, Com- 

Anti-submarine warfare exercise, as part of LAN! FLEX 66, unfolds as aircraft tracking "enemy" sub 
relays course and speed information to other units of Hunter-Killer team ttiat will close in for "kill." 

mander Amphibious Group Two; and 
Rear Admiral Leslie J. O'Brien, Jr., Com- 
mander Cruiser-Destroyer Flotilla Ten. 

Ryan's field service team, based at 
NAS Roosevelt Roads, was responsible 
during the exercise for the maintenance 
and operations of the jet Firebee targets 
used. The Ryan unit flew 17 missions 
during the exercise, establishing a new 
Navy record of 110 consecutive BQM- 
34A flights without an operational loss. 

A total of 32 missile and 3 gunfire 
Firebee presentations were made, with 
four Firebee "kills" achieved by ships and 

Acclaiming Ryan's support role. Cap- 
tain C. E. Healy, Commander of the At- 

lantic Fleet Weapons Range on which the 
exercise was conducted, said the success 
of LANTFLEX 66 was attributable to 
the essential role played by support units, 
and, "in particular, Ryan Aeronautical 
Company personnel assigned under the 
drone support contract. 

"The performance of Ryan personnel 
in this exercise was excellent in all re- 
spects," he noted in his official com- 

LANTFLEX 66 was the most ad- 
vanced and difficult multi-ship, multi- 
target missile exercise yet conducted on 
the Atlantic Fleet Weapons Range, ac- 
cording to Captain Healy. 

Ryan's team, under the direction of 

Mission complete, Firebee gets a lift home. 



Richard F. Manceau, worked in unison 
with Navy Composite Squadron Eight, 
whose DP2E aircraft were used to air- 
launch the Firebees into flight. Under 
Commander James H. Foxgrover, VC-8 
is the Navy's key air support unit based 
at Puerto Rico. 

Admiral Alford's support force con- 
ducted offensive and defensive surface 
and antisubmarine operations against op- 
position forces under Admiral O'Brien. 
His units were also responsible for sup- 
porting the amphibious operations and 
supplied mobile logistic requirements of 
ships participating in LANTFLEX 66. 

From his flagship, USS America, the 
Navy's newest attack aircraft carrier, Ad- 
miral Guinn directed his task force ships 
and air units in strikes against "hostile" 
forces. His units also supported the am- 
phibious assault landings on Vieques 

It was the amphibious force under Ad- 
miral Mack that embarked and trans- 
ported the landing force of Marines from 
Morehead City, N.C. to the Caribbean 
assault area. 

Many of the 5,000 Marine landing 
force were veterans of fighting in Viet- 
nam and supplied firsthand knowledge of 
the counter-insurgency warfare tech- 
niques employed during the exercise. The 
Brigade under General Wheeler was com- 
posed of elements of the 2nd Marine Di- 
vision and 2nd Marine Air Wing and 
force troops. 

LANTFLEX's opposition task force 
under Admiral O'Brien tested the skills 
of participating units in antisubmarine, 

Landing craft (top ptioto) await signal from 
command sliip to land troops on Vieques Is., 
while carrier conducts underway replenish- 
ment exercise with destroyers (center photo) 
then returns to port in San Juan, Puerto Rico. 

Ryan technician controls Firebee in flight. 

Support technician checks Firebee systems. 


Equipped with Ryan Doppler navigation system, 
Navy lielicopter engaged in anti-sub 
warfare exercise dips sonobuoy beneath surface to track 
"enemy" as other units of team close in. 

anti-air, mine warfare and ampiiibious 
assault tactics. 

In addition to the five task force com- 
manders, task group commanders taking 
part in the operations included Rear Ad- 
miral Paul E. Hartmann, Commander 
Carrier Division Twenty; Rear Admiral 
Roy G. Anderson, Commander Amphib- 
ious Group Four; Rear Admiral Harvey 
P. Lanham, Commander Carrier Division 
Two; Rear Admiral Emmett P. Bonner, 
Commander Cruiser Destroyer Flotilla 
Si.x; Rear Admiral Percival W. Jackson. 
Commander Carrier Division Fourteen; 
Captain Alan Ray, Commander Service 
Squadron Two; Captain Harold E. Rice. 
Commander Submarine Squadron Six; 
and Captain Jack L. Koons, Commander 
Mine Squadron Eight. 

A three-ship force of Canadian de- 
stroyers, units of Canadian Escort Squad- 
ron Five, participated in LANTFLEX 66 
as part of the support force. 

In this test of combat readiness. Ad- 
miral Thomas H. Moorer. Commander- 
in-Chief, U. S. Atlantic Fleet, was able 
to measure a new dimension of capability 
of the forces engaged in LANTFLEX 66. 
Each phase of the exercise unfolded with 
tactical precision and effectiveness, ac- 
cording to Navy officials assessing the 
values of the maneuver. 

LANTFLEX 66 could have been the 
real thing. If it had. the Atlantic Fleet 
proved it was ready. 

Support of LANTFLEX 66 exercise by Ryan included broad range 
of maintenance depicted by technician (upper left), Firebee 
controllers and decontamination crew (above) that was respon- 
sible for dis-assembly, washing salt water from components, 
reassembly and engine-flight system checkouts. Firefish sur- 
face targets (below) scheduled for use during Atlantic Fleet 
exercise, were carried by destroyers supporting maneuver. 



«. # 

AN INTERESTING area of scientific 
inquiry — radar reflectivity is ex- 
panding with the use in space of radar 
devices which sense speed and distance. 

Microwave radar energy will "echo" 
at different levels of amplitude when 
beamed at different surfaces, or when 
beamed from different angles at the same 
surface. In general, a beam directed ver- 
tically at a smooth surface creates the 
strongest radar echo, or reflection. 

By measuring the radar reflectivity of 
a given surface — desert, forest, ocean or 
even the meteorite-pocked face of the 
moon — curves can be constructed to in- 
dicate comparative textures, angles of 
slope, levels of moisture, density of plant 
growth, and other information. 

Performing a major service in this area 
is Ryan Aeronautical Company. 

More than 12 years ago, Ryan began 
studies of the measurement of surface 
radar reflectivity as it developed its tech- 
niques for continuous-wave Doppler nav- 

igation systems for helicopters and fixed- 
wing aircraft. 

In the past year, NASA electronics 
engineers have gathered a considerable 
library of reflectivity measurements on 
magnetic tape from a wide variety of ter- 
rain using the Ryan Scatterometer, a 
unique fan-beam radar antenna, installed 
in a NASA aircraft. 

Ryan's new reflectivity target: the 
lurain — the wizened, crusty face of the 

Objective of the NASA-supported 
measurements has been to build a catalog 
of reflectivity models of earth surfaces to 
compare with data obtained by the un- 
manned Surveyor flights to the moon. 
Since the Surveyor series is intended to 
"survey" possible sites for manned lunar 
landings, these comparisons between 
earth and moon reflectivity will help 
build a statistically supported model for 
operating the landing radar which will 
guide the Apollo astronauts to a safe, soft 

Lunar Orbiter II gives oblique views of Moon 
that would be achieved via radar reflectiv- 
ity system designed and developed by Ryan. 

Measurements by surface radar reflectivity 
began more than a decade ago at Ryan. 
Now, a new reflectivity target has been sighted: 
the surface of the moon. 


Lurain characteristics such as 
those at right, could be measured by a 
system designed-developed by Ryan. 

landing in the Lunar Module (LM). 

Both systems use beams of microwave 
radar. The change in frequency between 
transmitted and received energy is pro- 
portional to the change in velocity or 
altitude. Measurements are continuously 
fed into flight control computers which 
regulate the thrust of the spacecraft de- 
scent rockets. 

"It can be seen, therefore, that the 
operation of this automatic, 'closed-loop' 
descent system in the critical final mo- 
ments before landing, depends upon an 
accurate calculation of the amount of 
radar energy bouncing back from the 
lunar surface," noted Charles J. Badewitz, 
chief engineer at Ryan Electronic and 
Space Systems. 

Robert R. Hively, advanced design 
engineer adds: "Accurate reflectivity data 
is vital to the optimum design of a lunar 
landing radar. For instance, the altitude 
capability depends on the value of reflec- 
tivity at its beam incidence angle, while 
the accuracy of a Doppler velocity sensor 
depends on the shape of the reflectivity 
characteristic across the radar beam." 

Measurements from earth using even 
the large, 85-foot antennas were only 
rough estimates of lunar reflectivity, be- 
cause they yielded average values for 
large areas. Radar guidance systems 
aboard Surveyor and Apollo landing ve- 
hicles on the other hand, illuminate rela- 
tively small areas. 

Led by T. J. Lund, now senior project 
engineer on the LM radar, Ryan engi- 
neers calculated a reflectivity model for 
the Surveyor series. 

"Surveyor I proved our calculations 
were correct, at least at the landing site," 
Lund said. "Surveyor missions which 
make their descent at an angle relative 
to the moon's surface will give us more 

Reflectivity data from Surveyor I indi- 
cated that the moon reflects radar at a 
level close to the same degree as dry, 
arid land here on earth. 

"Both rough-textured surfaces register 
at around minus 16 decibels at the Sur- 
veyor radar system's operating frequency 
of 13,000 megacycles," Lund said. 

Ryan data analysts look forward to 
receiving new data from future Surveyor 

They also look to future applications 
of radar reflectivity. 

William L. Floyd, the Ryan engineer 
working with the Ryan Scatterometer, 
us2d by NASA to make reflectivity meas- 
urements on earth, believes radar reflec- 
tivity can serve in planetary exploration 
as well. 

"By increasing our knowledge of radar 
signatures of various earth surfaces, we 
can predict characteristics of planetary 
surfaces by comparison of reflectivity 
measurements," Floyd asserted. 





^7 ' 



Earth characteristics as viewed from Gemini XI. 

Ryan Scatterometer would measure Moon retlectivity. 

Dr. George E. Mueller, NASA Manned Space Flight 

official (center) reviews Ryan's Surveyor and Apollo programs. 


Radar tracking facility in upper left 
photo monitors range operations, 
feeding data via microwave link to 
Range Operations Control Center 
at Roosevelt Roads. Solid rock 
cliff facing on Culebra Is. (upper 
right) runs several hundred feet 
beneath water, enabling subs to 
fire live "fish" against cliff in train- 
ing and test programs, providing 
Navy with one of its most unique 
ranges. Commander of the Atlantic 
Fleet Weapons Range, Captain 
Charles E. Healy, states that "For 
dollar value, this is one of the 
Navy's all-time bargains." 


Its investment in the Atlantic 
Fleet Weapons Range was an 
all-time bargain for the U.S. 
Navy. After three years, it is 
now one of the world's 
biggest and most advanced 
shooting galleries . . . 


THE NAVY'S age-old philosophy of training to maintain its fighting 
edge is dramatically reflected on the Atlantic Fleet Weapons Range 
( AFWR), a sprawling, two-ocean complex that stretches from the mid- 
Atlantic Ocean to the Caribbean Sea. 

Commanded by Captain Charles E. Healy, AFWR is performing 
a space-age mission that includes the broad range of Navy requirements 
in fulfilling its defense readiness. 

Divided into two sectors — ALPHA in the North and BRAVO in 
the South — the complex represents an area nearly the size of Texas. 
Land facilities under AFWR are situated on ten islands dotting the 

This twin-range capability, according to Captain Healy, permits 
broader training activities with minimum conflict between ships, planes 


Ryan field support unit based 
at Roosevelt Roads since early 
1962. is a key element in op- 
erations of the Atlantic Fleet 
Weapons Range. Responsible 
for fligfit control and mainte- 
nance of Firebee jet targets 
used in weapons exercises and 
test programs, ttie Ryan tech- 
nicians at right are checking a 
Firebee's flight and engine sys- 
tems following decontamination 
of the target. Turn-around times 
in Firebee maintenance, from 
end of mission to re-use, has 
been achieved in four to six 

Headquarters of Atlantic Fleet 
Weapons Range, situated on 
hill overlooking Naval Air Sta- 
tion. Roosevelt Roads, is the 
nerve center for activities that 
are conducted beneath, on the 
surface and above the seas. 
Once posed as evacuation 
headquarters for the British 
Navy during bleak days of WW 
II, building complex was re- 
furbished and placed in com- 
mission as AFWR headquarters 
in July 1963. It is currently 
undergoing modernization pro- 
gram that includes an extensive 
microwave system. 

Range Operations Control Cen- 
ter located in AFWR headquar- 
ters maintains contact with all 
activities through an elaborate 
communications data system 
now being updated. When com- 
pleted, ROCC will have a simul- 
taneous monitoring capability, 
providing "playback" process 
enabling exercise commanders 
to evaluate operations as they 
occur on the Range facilities. 
Communications link will trans- 
mit voice conversation and data 
to ROCC from facilities scat- 
tered over a 240.000 square 
mile area. 


Ryan support services on Atlantic Fleet Weapons Range are now in fifth 
year of operations at Naval Air Station, Roosevelt Roads. As a working 
partner of Fleet Composite Squadron — 8, Ryan team bears prime respon- 
sibility for maintenance and flight control of Firebee targets which are 
launched and recovered by Aircraft of VC-8, a key unit attached to AFWR. 

and drone targets engaged in simulta- 
neous use. The design concept of the 
range facilities provide greater volume 
for shipboard and aircraft guided missile 
firings, he notes. 

As one of its major support elements, 
Ryan Aeronautical Company maintains 
a fully-staffed field service team at the 
Naval Air Station, Roosevelt Roads, 
Puerto Rico, adjacent to Captain Healy's 
command headquarters. 

Under Richard F. Manceau, Ryan 
Base Manager, the team is responsible 
to the Navy for all Firebee maintenance 
and flight control operations utilized on 
the Range, an area of activity that spans 
surface-to-air and air-to-air weapons de- 
velopment, test and evaluation through 
weapons exercise requirements. 

High subsonic Firebee targets, offering 
an "enemy" realism unmatched by any 
other existing system, are air-launched 
from Navy DP-2E aircraft attached to 
Fleet Composite Squadron-8, also based 
at Roosevelt Roads and a working part- 
ner of the Ryan unit. 

This working partnership between 
Ryan and VC-8 is instrumental, accord- 
ing to Captain Healy, in the continued 

advance and successful attainment of his 
command's mission. Characterizing the 
compatibility of this civilian-military re- 
lationship, Ryan personnel fly each Fire- 
bee mission as crewmen in the launch 

As weapons exercise or test programs 
evolve, the success of the mission is 
shared by both partners. 

"We realize that one element compli- 
ments the other. And this mutual respect 
is responsible for the records we've been 
able to achieve," notes Manceau. 

Two Firebee operational marks were 
set on the Atlantic Fleet Weapons Range 
late last year, topping all-time. Navy-wide 
activities related to the jet-powered tar- 
get's use. 

The latest was achieved at the close of 
LANTFLEX 66 when the 110th con- 
secutive Firebee was flown without an 
operational loss. 

This capability, according to Manceau, 
was possible largely because Ryan per- 
sonnel assigned to the Range operations 
have a constant awareness of the import- 
ance of the work they do. 

In its third year of operations today 
and making rapid strides of progress, 

Captain Healy's ocean-island command is 
viewed as one of the Navy's most im- 
portant facilities of its kind. 

Weapons and fleet exercise programs, 
ranging in scope from undersea, surface 
ships, mine warfare and carrier aircraft 
operations to amphibious assault land- 
ings: all of these requirements use the 
Ranges as a common source of supply. 

As the Navy makes technological ad- 
vances in its capabilities, facilities of the 
Range are updated to meet these chang- 
ing requirements. 

The role filled by Ryan's team at 
Roosevelt Roads fits snugly into the op- 
erational plan now and in the future, 
according to Manceau. New drone facili- 
ties providing expanded ground support 
capabilities are under construction. Re- 
cent development by Ryan engineers of 
new Firebee flight systems, broadening 
target capabilities, will be available for 
mission requirements as they arise. 

Localizing the efforts of his own unit 
in support of the Range complex, 
Manceau notes, "This is one team we're 
proud to be a part of." 


NEARLY two centuries of aircraft 
assembly-fabrication experience is 
represented by a nucleus team involved 
today in the initial production of Ryan 
Aeronautical Company's growth -version 
Firebee II. 

The static test model of the supersonic 
Firebee is scheduled for completion in 
late February. The first flight model, 
designated XA-1, will come off produc- 
tion lines in mid-April. 

Merle K. Gorham, general foreman of 
the initial production program, empha- 
sizes the degree of quality workmanship 
represented in early production models, 
states, "Firebee II is one of the best built 
and cleanest concepts I have worked on." 

A background of 27 years experience 
in the aerospace industry gives Gorham's 
statement qualified authority. "And, this 
is the finest team of experts I've ever been 

associated with," he adds, noting that 
most of the problems common to any 
new production program have been 
solved primarily, "by the seasoned experi- 
ence of our team." 

Firebee II's "first team" includes vet- 
eran aircraft assemblers like Sam Arrisi, 
with a quarter-century of experience; 
Russell R. Hanson, another 25-year vet- 
eran; James H. Madill, whose association 
at Ryan includes assignments to all of the 
company's aircraft concepts; Kenneth 
Osborne, a 15-year man; P. J. Pedersen, 
whose 12 years' experience have been 
gained over a wide assortment of assign- 
ments; one of Ryan's "Deans" of the 
production lines, Clarence H. Day. 

All with experience ranging from ten 
to twenty years, the team also includes 
Bud Hemmerly. Harold Perkins, Jim 
Langley, George Miller, Leon J. Davey 


First Team 

Engineering concepts pave the way for 
technical advance, but the master craftsmen of 
progress in Ryan's Firebee II production are the 
skilled hands of the assembly fabrication team. 







.#-*■ ^ 




Shape and form of Firebee II are rapidly assuming identity on Ryan's 
production floor, accompanied by a trade mark of spirited teamwork. 


and electricians Al Brotherton and Ed 

Each was selected from Ryan's total 
work force on the basis of knowledge, 
experience and demonstrated skill, ac- 
cording to Gorham. Individually, they 
express an uncommon pride in being as- 
sociated with Ryan's and the world's 
newest aircraft of its kind. 

William K. Leitch, assistant foreman, 
offers more than 20 years of Ryan service 
to the total effort in helping guide the 
assembly-fabrication phase with the sure 
confidence of a concert master. 

Tolerances seldom encountered in air- 
craft production at Ryan have been met 
in "routine"" fashion, according to Leitch. 
Explaining that the supersonic speed de- 
sign demands more stringent standards in 
fabrication-assembly techniques, he said 
it is the most sophisticated Firebee in 
Ryan's history. 

"She'll be the cleanest and best built 
aircraft to come off of our lines," exudes 

Under contract to the Navy, Ryan will 

Aerodynamic design of supersonic Firebee II 
is checked in wind tunnel tests using scale 
model configuration (top left) while assem- 
blers K. S. Osborne and P. J. Pedersen drill 
rivet holes in ribs of XA-1 airframe before 
pre-shaped aluminum "skin" is attached. 
Porcupine-like "skin" is held against frame 
by upright clamps as James H. Madill checks 
alignment before drilling holes for rivets. 

build fourteen flight test, prototype 
models of the Firebee I and one static 
test version in the initial program. The 
first scheduled for completion, the static 
test model, will undergo stress and en- 
vironmental trials. Instrumented with 
sensors at each key point, information 
provided in this phase of the program 
will be incorporated with other verifica- 
tion data. 

Included in the ground test program 
are 12 major phases related to antenna 
environmental evaluation. A major share 
of this phase is complete. Ryan engineers 
used a full-scale mockup of the Firebee 
II, mounting it atop a forty-foot mast at 
the Ryan Electronic and Space Systems 
facility on a bore sighting range for radi- 
ation pattern and related checks. 

Test programs designed to examine the 
functional performance of Firebee II 
systems, including electrical, hydraulics, 
dynamics and instrumentation are in vari- 
ous stages of completion currently. Also 
scheduled in late February is the para- 
chute recovery test in which dummy 

Progress of Firebee II fabrication schedule 
is plotted by program martagers huddled in a 
status meeting (above right) as elements of 
overall vi/ork go forward. Assembler drills 
rivet holes in XA-1 frame as others fit the 
newly designed jet engine into a mockup for 
plumbing and test engineer checks sensor in 
nose for static test. Final series of wind 
tunnel testing is now scheduled for April. 

Full-scale Firebee II on 40-foot mast is 
moved on tracks to varying distances 
from transmitter for antenna pattern test. 

configuration payloads will be used for 
gathering information. 

Firebee ITs recovery system will in- 
clude a 76.4-foot main canopy that auto- 
matically deploys at the completion of a 
flight mission. 

The new Firebee will also have a pro- 
pulsion system to match its new spectrum 
of requirements. Continental engineers 
have developed the J69-T-6 turbo-jet 
engine, boasting 1840 pounds of thrust 
as the power plant. Already given "up- 
checks" at Continental, the growth- 
version engine combines the reliable 
elements of high, subsonic Firebee pro- 
pulsion with new design concepts that 
provide higher, faster and more reliable 

Hands of productivity symbolize progress of 
Ryan Firebee II program, moving rapidly now 
toward static ground and flight test phases. 


flight characteristics. 

M. S. Sevelson, Firebee II Project En- 
gineer and Ron A. Reasoner, Program 
Manager, predict performance capabili- 
ties of the supersonic target that will ex- 
ceed designed specification requirements. 

"Like all new concepts, we anticipate 
the requirement for an orientation period 
in which those who maintain and fly the 
Firebee II must adjust to its higher per- 
formance characteristics. From that 
point on. I'm convinced that it will lead 
in the remote-controlled aerial target 
field." states Sevelson. 

Designed for sub and supersonic speed 
regimes, Firebee II will incorporate an 
external fuel pod for use during subsonic 

missions. This pod will be jettisoned up- 
on completion of the subsonic mission 
and internally stored fuel will then be 
used for supersonic dash missions. 

The first flight tests of Firebee II will 
begin at the U. S. Navy"s Pacific Missile 
Range, Pt. Mugu, California in mid- 
1 967. Designated by the Navy as the 
XBQM-34E, the growth-version concept 
of Ryan's conventional Firebee will uti- 
lize much of the same ground support 
equipment and existing flight control sys- 
tems now used by the subsonic jet Fire- 

Matching the skilled workmanship be- 
ing invested in Firebee II's production to- 
day. Ryan itself has de\eloped nearly two 

Swivel on mast permits Firebee II mockup to 
be positioned in wide variety of flight modes 
in simulation of actual flight operations. 

decades of experience in the target field. 
More than 2700 high subsonic Firebees 
have been produced by Ryan for use by 
the Army, Navy and Air Force. 

Used in the development, evaluation 
and test programs for nearly every major 
weapons system in the U. S. arsenal to- 
day, operating forces of the military also 
regard the Firebee as the most realistic 
target vehicle now available for weapons 
exercise and training programs. 

This background of integrity, the close 
partnership between Ryan and those who 
maintain the military posture of the 
country, combined with the increasing 
demands for broader, more sophisticated 
applications of airborne systems, imposes 

unprecedented high standards for Fire- 
bee II performance. 

Confident that these standards can be 
met is R. R. Schwanhausser, Ryan Vice 
President of Aerospace Systems, the man 
responsible for Firebee IFs ultimate ac- 
ceptance and operational success. 

"The engineering design and early de- 
velopment programs are now a part of 
the past. Our preliminary test data veri- 
fies the validity of our design in meeting 
its requirements. Fabrication-assembly 
phases are moving ahead with exceptional 
assurance that our schedules will be met. 

"These are elements of the program al- 
ready proved. Add to these elements the 
fact that we have the finest quality work- 

manship available today and the program 
assumes its first qualities of a successful 
personality," he adds. 

Supporting this feeling of confidence 
is the power of motivation which helped 
spawn the Firebee IFs initial concept. As 
the military's weapons systems assume in- 
creased technological sophistication, the 
advance must be matched by suitable 
mediums for testing their reliability and 

From its point of inception on through 
each milestone of progress, the Ryan 
Firebee II is being custom tailored to ful- 
fill this mission. 

Supersonic wing of Firebee II rests in jig 
where it is mated to centerbody that will 
also serve as a fuel cell during operations. 


Man's newest advance in the ageless art of navigation is OiVlEGA 

Precise, reliable world-wide OMEGA naviga- 
tion system would be applied to the Navy's 
missions such as open sea rendezvous for 
replenishment of aircraft carrier and her 
screen ships. On-station patrols in Gulf of 
Tonkin impose continuing requirements for 
open sea rendezvous between support and 
combatant ships, operating in all-weather 
conditions and under cirmumstances in which 
precision navigation is crucially important 
in attaining operational success at mission. 



OMEGA, a world-wide navigation system 
developed over the past 15 years by the U. S. 
Navy, is undergoing sea trials today using Ryan 
Aeronautical Company receiver units to guide ships 
safely to their destinations. 

Engineers engaged in the development say the fully 
operational network of OMEGA stations would pro- 
vide a common navigation aid for ships, submarines 
and aircraft on a global scale, the first time in history 
this has been achieved. 

in electronic system that offers global coverage under, on and above the sea. 



<S4%-' i^k Ml^ 

- ^ i^ 

5530 NM 


Current OMEGA system in operation provides coverage 
for 20-million square miles through signal transmission 
by four existing stations depicted on chart at left. Sig- 
nals are detected by Ryan OMEGA units (above) that are 
now under trials by Navy aboard a research ship. 


Omega navigation, using ftyan receiver unit, 
Vifss demonstrated during informal trials by 
W. H. Flarity, Ryan project engineer, aboard 
Navy gunboat USS Gallup. LCDR VJ. T. Spane, 
sl<ipper of jet-powered ship, checks position. 

Four of the projected eight OMEGA 
stations have been in operation for the 
past year, providing navigation coverage 
over 20-million square miles. Located in 
Norway, Forestport, N.Y., Trinidad and 
Hawaii, the stations transmit Very Low 
Frequency signals on a continuing, pulsa- 
tion schedule. 

These VLF signals are transmitted on 
a series of constant and precise frequen- 
cies governed by a cesium beam atomic 
standard accurate to one part in one 
billion. The accuracy and precision ele- 


ments of the system are comparable to a 
clock that loses or gains one second in 
3,300 years. 

Each station signal is transmitted for 
approximately one second every ten 
seconds. Detected by shipboard Ryan 
OMEGA receivers, the signal is auto- 
matically measured for difference in 
phase between two pairs of stations or, 
the difference in phase between signals 
in the three-pair combinations from three 

Counter displays of lines of position 

(LOP) are produced from these meas- 
urements which represent contours of 
constant phase difference between station 
pairs. Each LOP can be identified on an 
OMEGA navigation chart by a pre- 
plotted lane number. 

The ship's position is at the intersec- 
tion of the indicated LOPs on the 
OMEGA chart. 

The Ryan OMEGA system is currently 
under evaluation aboard a Navy research 
vessel on the Eastern Seaboard and under 
testing at the Navy Research Laboratory. 

ASW destroyer fires "kill" depth charge on 
"enemy" sub during drill, a wartime mission 
that would demand precision navigation, 
the kind offered by the Navy's new OMEGA 
system, now in 15th year of development. 

USS Gallup crewmen take visual fix on navi- 
gation aid to compare with fix given by a 
Ryan OMEGA receiver unit during informal 
demonstration. Receiver uses signals from 
four existing OMEGA stations to plot fix. 

It can be modified for use ia aircraft, 
offering bonus features in its designed 
weight of less than 30 pounds and overall 
size of 7%" X 12" x 12". Integrated cir- 
cuitry and solid state components are two 
of its key features, coupled to uniquely 
simple design characteristics. 

A graphic recorder can be furnished 
to provide a permanent, continuous rec- 
ord of LOP information. The recorder 
would also reflect any off periods of sig- 
nal transmission. 

Training in the use and maintenance 

of the Ryan receiver will involve mini- 
mum requirements because of its sim- 
plicity, according to Ryan engineers, who 
state that military electronics technicians 
would be fully capable of performing 
OMEGA receiver maintenance. 

Ryan's test program of the breadboard 
receiver-indicator accumulated hundreds 
of operating hours. Using a simple, 10- 
foot whip antenna, the unit detected 
signals from ground OMEGA stations in 
Norway, a distance of nearly 6,000 miles. 

It is this feature of VLF signals — a 

mainstay of Navy communications since 
1918 — that serves as a key to the op- 
erational effectiveness of the OMEGA 
system. The eight ground transmitter 
stations situated around the world will 
provide global coverage. 

In additional tests, the Ryan receiver 
unit was recently placed aboard the 
Navy's newest combatant ship, the gun- 
boat USS Gallup. Based at San Diego 
under the Amphibious Force, U. S. Paci- 
fic Fleet, the Gallup conducted a full day 
of operations off Southern California, 


USS Gallup and sister ships 
will revive Navy gunboat era. 

Control of USS Gallup quicl<- 
ens as ship hits high speed. 

Close inshore missions make 
precise navigation essential. 

Aluminum-hulled USS Gallup, one of 24 gunboats now under construction, hits 40-knot speed ranges under thrust of jet turbine engine. 



i mJ 




sailing at speed ranges up to 35 knots 
and at varying distances from the coast 
up to 40 miles. 

The ship's position was identified 
through the OMEGA receiver from the 
time it cast off lines at the dock until 
returning to port. Warren H. Flarity, 
Ryan project engineer, said his compari- 
son checks between surface radar and 
OMEGA receiver fixes of the ship's po- 
sition matched almost precisely. 

The 160-foot, aluminum hulled ship 
operated in conditions of up to sea state 
four with no discrepancies registered in 
the OMEGA readings. The receiver unit 
had been placed atop a chart table and 
lashed down to prevent it from falling 
during heavy pitch and roll character- 
istics of the ship. 

LOPs during this trial were established 
by signals obtained from OMEGA trans- 
mitter stations in Hawaii, Trinidad and 

Initial development of the OMEGA 
navigation system began in 1951 by the 
Navy and has since been conducted joint- 
ly by the Navy Electronics Laboratory 
and the Navy Research Laboratory under 
direction of the OMEGA Project Office 
in Washington. This office reports direct- 
ly to the Office of Naval Materiel com- 
manded by Vice Admiral I. J. Galantin. 

Captain Mavis Polk serves as Navy 
Project Manager in Washington. It is 
under a contract awarded to Ryan 
through the Ships System Command that 
the evaluation OMEGA receiver sets are 
being produced. 

Lowman Tibbels, OMEGA Project 
Manager at the Navy Electronics Labora- 
tory and one of its early-day project engi- 
neers, says a fully-operational OMEGA 
system would give man his first global 

coverage by a common navigational aid 
of its type. 

Existing Loran navigation signals, 
transmitted on medium frequencies, are 
detected only a few hundred miles from 
points of origin. Some ninety Loran sta- 
tions now in operation could be replaced 
by the projected eight OMEGA stations. 

The operational OMEGA system, now 
pending acceptance by the Department of 
Defense, would include relocation of one 
station in the Northern Hemisphere and 
establishment of three new stations in the 
Southern Hemisphere. 

The four existing stations are now pro- 
viding coverage over half of the Northern 
Hemisphere by the Navy. 

Developed primarily for use by mili- 
tary ships and aircraft, OMEGA's utiliza- 
tion is projected over a broad spectrum 
of existing circumstances. These range 
from mine warfare operations in which 
precise navigation is crucially important 
to carrier operations involving aircraft 
launch sometimes hundreds of miles from 
the point of recovery. 

The navigator of a submarine tender 
based on the West Coast and now sup- 
porting operations for a flotilla of subs, 
stated that such a system as OMEGA 
could be readily applied to wartime op- 

"Open sea rendezvous with submarines 
for replenishment, repairs, transfer of 
medical cases or critically skilled person- 
nel would demand precision navigation 
such as that offered by OMEGA," he 

The obvious values of OMEGA could 
be applied to standard sea replenishment 
operations now conducted in the Gulf of 
Tonkin where U. S. warships are con- 
stantly on station for uninterrupted pe- 

riods. Underway refueling; resupply of 
food; ammunition and essential supplies; 
transfer of injured or skilled personnel; 
even morale-boosting mail; each of these 
requirements could be executed with 
more precision and effectiveness. 

Of equal importance in the spectrum 
of military application is the broad area 
of anti-submarine warfare operations in 
which aircraft, ships and subs must con- 
verge at sea to counter hostile sub threats. 

Elements of this rendezvous require- 
ment, essential to the success of an ASW 
mission, could be provided through the 
OMEGA navigation system. 

A pioneering leader in the aircraft 
navigation field, Ryan's demonstrated 
effectiveness in providing military and 
commercial aircraft with navigation sys- 
tems over the past 15 years serves as a 
rich background of qualified authority for 
the development of its OMEGA receiver 

J. R. Iverson, Ryan Vice President of 
Electronic and Space Systems, regards 
the development of the OMEGA receiver 
as an extension of existing capabilities. 

"We adapted our engineering experi- 
ence and skills to advancing require- 
ments, designed electronic components 
according to current disciplines and ap- 
plied these elements to the Navy's needs," 
adds Iverson. 

One Navy official, appraising the 
projected use of OMEGA system by 
submarines, surface ships and aircraft, 
matched the broad range of existing mis- 
sion requirements to the solutions offered 
by the new navigation system. 

"The basic elements of the system 
coupled to the capabilities it promises 
could add measurably to the attainment 
of missions we face today." 



This is the standard order under which 
pilots of Tactical Fighter Squadron-25 
go up against the most elusive 
jet Firebee target yet developed. 

nNE of Tactical Air Command's top MIG killers 
during the Korean conflict is waging another 
kind of war over the Gulf of Mexico today, a battle 
in which Ryan's souped-up jet Firebee serves as the 
mortal enemy. 

Engaged in operational evaluation of the Falcon 
weapon system. Tactical Fighter Squadron-25 pilots 
under Lieutenant Colonel Ethan A. Grant are 
pursuing their mission under the grim reality of 
actual war. 

Some half-dozen of the squadron's F4D Phantom 
pilots are recent veterans of aerial combat in 
Vietnam. They and their fellow pilots have 
introduced into the evaluation program a strong 
feeling of aggressive determination: Every shot is 
for real. 

Ryan Firebees, utilizing the Improved 
Maneuverability Kit, are ground launched from 
Tyndall Air Force Base's facilities by men of the 
4756th Drone Maintenance Squadron. Controlled 
out over firing ranges in the Gulf of Mexico, the 
Firebees are commanded through a spectrum of 
aerial maneuvers that duplicate enemy MIG combat 

Characteristic of these tactics is a recent mission 
in which the Firebee executed I 80 degree turns at 
430 knots in steep bank angles. Altitude ranges were 
up to 12,000 feet as the elusive jet target danced 
through an evasive pattern of maneuvers. 

The designed capabilities of the Improved 
Maneuverability Kit include a flight envelope of up 
to 5g turns and short radius bank angles at 75 to 
78 degrees without loss of altitude or airspeed. 

Now in operational use with the Navy and the Air 
Force, developmental tests of the IMK Firebee 
were conducted at the Naval Missile Center, Pt. 



Ryan Firebee with Improved Maneuverability Kit (IMK) zooms from launch pad at Tyndali 
AFB, Fia., in test against Falcon weapons system while 50 miles northwest, Tactical 
Fighter Squadron-25 sl<ipper, Lt. Col. Ethan Grant and Operations Officer, Lt. Col. Lloyd 
Ulrich, review program. Capt. L. E. Williams returns in F4 Phantom from Firebee mission. 


Falcon vs. Firebee mission lies ahead for TFS-25 pilots. 

Pilots seldom get this close to Firebee "enemy" but dis- 
play sets the target for Falcon pilots engaged in program. 


Mugu; Naval Ordnance Test Station, China Lake, 
Calif.; Atlantic Fleet Weapons Range, Puerto Rico; 
AFMDC Holloman AFB, New Mexico; and 
Tyndall AFB, Fla. 

The joint efforts of the Navy and the Air Force 
were teamed with those of Ryan field support 
engineers in this developmental test program. 

Commenting on the results of this joint effort, as 
it applies to the current Falcon evaluation program. 
Captain L. E. Williams, the first TFS-25 pilot to 
score a Firebee "kill" in his unit, said, "There is no 
more realistic target available today than the 

One of the lead project pilots assigned to the 
program, Williams emphasized the demands for 
maximum reality during the evaluation of the 
weapons system, explaining that this is the final phase 
before it goes into operational use. The lives of 
pilots and the weapon's effectiveness in combat are 
focal points in the evaluation process of weapons 
systems such as the Falcon. 

Ryan engineers project bonus advantages of the 
IMK Firebee target in such programs. These include 
the obvious improvement of maneuverability at 
both low and high altitudes, reduced range 
area required in the target operations because of 
tight control capabilities, the increased capability to 
control the target away from restricted areas and 
reduction in range time. 

More than two dozen Firebees equipped with 
Increased Maneuverability Kits have been flown 
in suport of the Falcon missile system evaluation, 
beginning with test flights last October. 

By late January 1967, three "kills" had been 
scored by the Eglin based fighter squadron out of 
14 operational missions in which Firebee jet targets 
served as the "enemy." 

Tactical Fighter Squadron-25's evaluation program 
is one of the first operational events in which the 

Realism is theme of Falcon evaluation 
program as TFS-25 crewmen ready Phantom 
jets for mission and project pilots (at far left) 
review flight plan. Ordnance personnel load 
racks under w/ings of aircraft with lethal 
Falcon missiles to be used against 
IMK-equipped Firebee jet targets. 



IMK is represented. Performance characteristics 
generated by this program will be applied to the 
continuing efforts of Ryan in improving the realism 
of its Firebee targets. 

Organized in the early 1940s, TFS-25 drew its 
first blood in skies over war-torn Europe and served 
in the China-Burma-India theater and Pacific combat 
areas before the war drew to a close. 

Flying F-80s and F-86s during the Korean conflict, 
pilots of the squadron achieved one of the highest 
MIG kill records of Air Force fighter squadrons 
engaged in combat. 

About half of its pilots today are assigned directly 
from flight training while the balance are recruited 
from operational commands throughout the world. 

Lieutenant Colonel Lloyd C. Ulrich, Operations 
Officer and a seasoned combat pilot, explained 
the need for a continuing emphasis on reality, noting 
that the squadron's mission at Eglin includes 
operational combat training. 

"Many of our pilots will go into operational 
combat with their next duty assignment. Like the 
weapon system we are evaluating, we regard this 
program as a finishing course for our pilots." 

The .squadron's official mission is terse: "To 
attack and destroy enemy forces." Pilots engaged in 
the evaluation program add a three-word objective 
to this mission assignment: "Shoot to kill!" 

..?*#^. 'i ' 


Activity at Eglin AFB, home of TFS-25, bristles with wartime 
realism as unit charged with evaluation of Falcon weapon 
system goes through paces of "Search and Destroy." 



Ryan Firefish target boats like that 

at right are now in world-wide 

use by the U.S. Navy, simulating 

enemy PT boats in weapons training. 

ANEW order for modified Ryan Fire- 
fish target boats has been placed 
with Ryan Aeronautical Company by the 
Na\y following its first two years of op- 
perational use in the fleet. 

The updated target boats will be 
delivered to units in the Atlantic and 
Pacific fleets starting early this year. 

Introduced initially in early 1965, the 
17-foot craft simulates enemy PT boats 
in weapons exercises. Capable of 30-knot 
speeds, the Firefish system employs re- 
mote control for day or night operations. 

The system was designed and devel- 
oped by Ryan shortly after North Viet- 
nam PT boats attacked U. S. ships in 
the Gulf of Tonkin in late 1964. The 
U. S. Navy subsequently assigned a num- 
ber of high speed target boats to Atlantic 
and Pacific Fleets for use in developing 
anti-PT boat defenses. 

All surface ships in the Pacific Fleet 
now conduct firing exercises using Fire- 
fish as the primary exercise vehicle. Dur- 

ing 1966, the Pacific Fleet sunk five Fire- 
fish targets over an exercise period that 
spanned 348 hours with 163 ships and 
aircraft firing at the elusive craft. 

Since the target boat's introduction 
Navy-wide, 16 units have been destroyed 
by missiles or gunfire from ships and air- 
craft. Included in this number is a sink- 
ing by a New Zealand destroyer and one 
by a Chinese Nationalist ship. 

In world-wide use now, Firefish target 
boats are serving with the Royal Navy 
and units are scheduled for delivery to 
the Argentine, Australian and Chinese 
Nationalist navies this year. 

Several of the key modifications made 
in the new production order include alt- 

eration of the boat's transom angle that 
will provide smoother running. Complete 
waterproofing of all electrical and elec- 
tronic components has also been achieved. 
The boat's bow is now reinforced with 
foam for greater operational capabilities 
in high sea states. A new guidance sys- 
tem has been installed which increases 
control efi'ectiveness and a new rudder 
servo component adds greater reliability 
in remote control procedures. 

Powered by an inboard engine coupled 
to an inboard/ outboard drive shaft, Fire- 
fish weighs 1650 pounds, incorporating 
armor-plated fuel tanks, waterproof pack- 
aging of all systems and a receiver- 
decoder system completely transistorized 
that offers twenty control channels. 

The boat can be remote-controlled at 
distances up to six miles. Its twin 18- 
gallon fuel tanks enable Firefish target 
boats to be operated up to six hours at 
30-knots. It has been operated in sea 
states two and three at speeds of 20 knots. 


What are my chances 
for advancement? 


Three questions every engineer must ask himself 

IFind the challenging position you 
. really want, at Ryan. We're first in 
target drones, space electronics, world 
leader in Vertifan V/STOL. Over 90% 
of our contracts are prime. We offer di- 
verse projects: programs in electronics, 
lasers, optics, infrared. 


2 Ryan offers salaries and fringe bene- 
. fits second to none . . . plus other 
forms of compensation. Example: 
your contributions are recognized, for 
we have 800 engineers on staff, you're 
not lost in a shuffle of 8,000. Too, you 
develop at Ryan. We're developing tech- 
nical skills that will make us a leading 
innovator in electronics. 

3 Move to Ryan, move up faster. Get 
• set ... in on the ground floor. Con- 
tinental Motors Corporation is a ma- 
jority-owned subsidiary of Ryan: we're a 
$300-million corporation in sales — 
288th in the nation's top 500. And we've 
a huge backlog of long-range work, over 
$100-million worth in San Diego. 




























Ryan Is A Better Place To Work 


2701 Harbor Drive, San Diego, California 92112 

An Equal Opportunity Employer 


MAY/JUNE 1967 







Rare photo of Lindbergh was taken 
in 1927 at Ryan plant during con- 
struction of the "Spirit of St. Louis." 




Four decades ago Charles A. Lindbergh 

opened the modern era of aviation in 

his Ryan-built "Spirit of St. Louis". 

Ryan is filling another vital role today 

as man reaches for the Moon . . . 

To RELIVE Lindbergh's historic landing in 
Paris and set the stage for United States par- 
ticipation in the 1967 Paris Air Show, a replica of 
the Ryan "Spirit of St. Louis" monoplane will land 
at Le Bourget airport, Sunday, May 21. It will he 
the 40th anniversary of the Lone Eagle's famous 
1927 flight from New York to Paris. 

The 1967 version of the "Spirit" will he the only 
accurate replica of the aircraft ever built. The orig- 
inal, designed and built in just 60 days by Ryan 
Airlines. Inc., in 1927 now hangs in the Smithso- 
nian Institution, Washington, D. C. At Charles A. 
Lindbergh's request, it will never be moved. 

In Paris, to welcome the aircraft, together with 
U. S. and European dignitaries will be T. Claude 
Ryan. Chairman of the Board of Ryan Aeronautical 
Company and founder of Ryan Airlines, San Diego, 
California, where the original "Spirit" was built. 

Frank Tallman. a well-known motion picture 
pilot, will be at the controls of the "Spirit." He is 
president of Tallmanlz Aviation of Santa Ana. the 
firm that built the replica for the Paris Air Show 
participation. Following its arrival at Le Bourget 
it will be mounted on a flying pylon at the entrance 



Volume 28. No. 2 
Published by Ryan Aeronautical Company 
P. O. Box 311, San Diego, California 92112 

Managing Editor / Jacl< G. Broward 

Art Director / Al Bergren 

Contributing Editors / George Becl<er, Jr., Harold Keen 

Bob Battenfield, Chuck Ogilvie 

Staff Photographer / Dick Stauss 

Staff Artist / Robert Watts 

From the "Spirit" to Space 2 

Hot, Cold and Empty 8 

Black Magic's New Look 11 

Sea Sensing By Radar 13 

Reality ...A Law of Learning 17 

A New Relative in Ryan's Family 19 

Aerial Resupply 23 

Pacific Assignment 25 

Swan Song of (he Marlin 29 

Ryan's Array Rolls Out 34 



With "Spirit of Lindbergh" 
as theme. United States ex- 
hibit at Paris Air Show next 
month will have replica of 
Ryan-built "Spirit of St. 
Louis" as focal point. Ob- 
servance will mark 40th an- 
niversary of historic flight. 




46 FT 


7 FT 


319 SO FT 




2,150 L3S 






49-71 MPH 








pf==5°.?!"^^^ ™SE FUSELAGE TRUSS 





Cutaway drawing of "Spirit of ( 
Louis" illustrates the austere desii 
specified by Lindbergh. Seated b 
hind mam gas tanks in fuselag 
his only forward vision came frorri 
periscope and side glances out w| 
dow. "Spirit" was of same baJ 
design configuration as Ryan I 
monoplane but had broader wi 
span and slightly larger fusel^ 








Cutaway drawing of "Spirit of St. 
Louis" illustrates the austere design 
specified by Lindbergh. Seated be- 
hind main gas tanks in fuselage, 
his only forward vision came from a 
periscope and side glances out win- 
dow. "Spirit" was of same basic 
design configuration as Ryan M-2 
monoplane but had broader wing- 
span and slightly larger fuselage. 





Reprinted through courtesy of AIR PROGRESS Magazine, 
copyrighted 1967, the Condg Nast Publications, Inc. 





Transatlantic Monoplane 


Fuselage of the "Spirit of St. Louis" is towed from 

tfie Ryan Airlines factory by T. Claude Ryan's open roadster to 

ttie company flying field located on Dutcfi Flats. 

to the United States Pavilion. The U. S. 
government has dedicated its participa- 
tion in the Paris 1967 exhibition to "The 
Spirit of Lindbergh." U. S. exhibits will 
highlight contributions to aviation in the 
40 years since Lindbergh spanned the 

The Ryan "Spirit of St. Louis" mono- 
plane will be flown from California to 
Paris as cargo in an Air Force cargo air- 
craft, where it will fly down the Seine 
and circle the Eiffel Tower before land- 
ing at Le Bourget — as near the original 
landing site as possible. 

Aviation has made vast strides in the 
four decades since the "Spirit of St. 
Louis" completed the historic non-stop 
flight. Lindbergh's feat in spanning the 
Atlantic electrified the entire world and 
served to convince the skeptics, who 
thought it couldn't be done, that the air- 
plane was indeed here to stay. 

In 1927, Ryan Airlines, which had ear- 
lier operated a daily passenger airline be- 
tween San Diego and Los Angeles was 
building Ryan model M-1 and M-2 mono- 
planes for the first airmail lines. Founded 
in 1922 by T. Claude Ryan, the company 
was new and small and not well-known. 
Its hangar and flight operations were at 
"Dutch Flats" and its small factory was 
located in a former fish cannery on the 
waterfront near downtown San Diego. 

Weeks before the "Spirit" project be- 
gan, Ryan sold his interest to his partner, 
B. F. Mahoney, but stayed on as general 
manager to mind the business affairs of 
the company. 

Recalling the action packed 60 days 
it took to build the Spirit in 1927, Ryan 

several years ago observed in a letter to 
Charles A. Lindbergh: "I like to recall 
the circumstances of the receipt of your 
first wire. It was brought to me at our 
tiny oflice at our flying field on Dutch 
Flats — ■ then our business headquarters. 
I talked briefly with Donald Hall (our 
first full-time engineer whom we had 
hired some weeks before) about it. He 
maneuvered his slide rule a few times 
and we decided the requirement wasn't 
impossible, so I simply worded and sent 
the direct answer you received." 

In San Diego on February 3, 1927, T. 
Claude Ryan, was handed a telegram. 
The historic wire, which was to set into 
motion a chain of events opening a new 
era in American life read: 


Ryan, after consultation with Don Hall 

sent this reply: 


The Ryan crew was startled — as was 
everyone else — that Lindbergh intended 
to span the Atlantic alone. Lindbergh's 
comment was, "I'd rather have the extra 
gasoline than an extra man." He sum- 
med it simply. Thus the "Spirit of St. 

Louis." Ryan model NYP (New York 
to Paris) was born. License number 

Ryan explains that the "Spirit" was 
the same basic design configuration as 
Ryan M-2, but a larger fuselage and 
greater wing stretch. Significantly the 
450 gallons of fuel required for the trans- 
Atlantic flight was carried forward of 
the cockpit in a large main gas tank, and 
in three tanks located in the wing. 
"Lone Eagle" Trained in M-2 

An atmosphere of tension pervaded the 
small Ryan factory as construction of the 
plane got underway. Lindbergh was 
everywhere, peering over workmen's 
shoulders and checking every detail. Fre- 
quently he would go out to the Ryan 
Airlines field and fly one of the Ryan 
M-2 planes to learn the characteristics 
of high wing monoplanes. 

Sixteen and eighteen hour days became 
commonplace as the entire factory rushed 
to meet the 60-day production deadline. 

In late April, the plane was ready, and 
on April 28, 1927, exactly 60 days after 
work on the "Spirit" began, Lindbergh 
test flew the plane over San Diego Bay. 

Twenty test hops were flown in the 
San Diego area between April 28 and 
May 10, 1927, operating from Dutch 
Flats, Rockwell Field on North Island 
and Camp Kearny, where the gasoline 
loading tests were conducted. Lindbergh 
made all test hops himself. A Ryan M-1 
was used as the chase aircraft during the 
test flights. 

On May 10, 1927. Lindbergh left San 
Diego from North Island's Rockwell 
Field, bound for Lambert Field, St. Louis, 


"Spirit of St. Louis" monoplane at Vail Field, Los 

Angeles Sept. 21, 1927 was displayed during Lindbergh's tour 

of the United States following his historic flight. 

Mo. The Ryan M-1 chase aircraft es- 
corted the "Spirit" as far as the Laguna 

The St. Louis Globe Democrat in re- 
porting the San Diego to St. Louis flight 

"At 3:15 in the afternoon of May 10, 
Lindbergh hopped off from Rockwell 
Field for St. Louis, his first stop. Four- 
teen hours and five minutes later he came 
to a stop in St. Louis having negotiated 
the 1550 miles between the Pacific and 
Mississippi River in three hours less than 
scheduled time." 

According to Lindbergh's flight log, he 
left Rockwell Field at 3:55 p.m. Pacific 
Time, May 1 1 arriving over Lambert 
Field, St. Louis at 8:00 a.m. May 11 
Central Time. He landed at 8:20. 

Lindbergh's log also reports him leav- 
ing St. Louis at 8:13 a.m. May 12, Cen- 
tral Standard Time and landing at Curtiss 
Field, Long Island, New York at 5:33 
p.m. Eastern Standard Time. Elapsed 
time seven hours and twenty minutes. 

Both the San Diego — St. Louis and 
the St. Louis — New York flights were 
records for their day. 

Lindbergh made six test hops with the 
"Spirit of St. Louis" from Curtiss Field, 
the last a 10-minute check flight on May 
1 5 of the Wright Whirlwind. At the con- 
clusion of this flight, the "Spirit of St. 
Louis" had flown 32 flights to compile 
a total flight time of 27 hours and 25 

Vertical flying X-13, produced by Ryan in 
1957 as the world's first jet VTOL aircraft, 
culminated ten-year program of research 
and design paving way for V/STOL era. 

Ar 7:52 a.m., Eastern Standard Time 
the "Spirit" left Roosevelt Field, Long 
Island for the 33 hour and 30 minute 
flight to Le Bourget Aerodrome, Paris, 
France. In darkness, Lindbergh landed 
the "Spirit" at 10:22 p.m. French time — 
May 21st. 

Years later on the 25th anniversary of 
the New York to Paris flight, Aero Di- 
gest magazine carried a special article, 
much of it provided by George Mc- 
Laughlin, editor in 1927 of that magazine 
which carried much of the early informa- 
tion on Lindbergh's plane. The article 
observed: "Through a quarter-century it 
has been impossible to separate the spirit 
of Lindbergh from his Ryan monoplane 
and his constant reference to 'We' has 
rendered the two inseparable in the mag- 
nitude of the accomplishment. 

ing airplanes, operated the Los Angeles, 
San Diego airline, first year-round daily 
scheduled passenger service in the United 
States and continued to use that name 
after airplane manufacturing became its 
principal activity. 

Three months before the Lindbergh 
project, T. Claude Ryan sold his interests 
in Ryan Airlines to his principal financial 
backer, B. F. Mahoney, continuing to be 
employed as general business manager 
during the period of the construction of 
the "Spirit of St. Louis." 

By 1928, a St. Louis group including 
some of Lindbergh's original backers ac- 
quired control of the company and it was 
moved from San Diego to St. Louis. Its 
name was changed and the following year 
ownership was acquired by the Detroit 
Aircraft Corporation, During the great 

a position of leadership in the industry. 

Ryan is the world leader in the design 
and development of a very wide variety 
of sophisticated aeronautical, space and 
electronic products — such as remote 
controlled high performance Ryan Fire- 
bee jet target aircraft. Starting with de- 
sign, production and flight test of the 
X-13 Vertijet in the mid-1950's Ryan has 
long been recognized as the industry 
leader in the design and development of 
advanced high performance V/STOL 
(vertical and short takeoff and landing) 
aircraft. Latest is the Ryan Vertifan con- 
cept, successfully demonstrated in the U. 
S. Army XV-5A, next scheduled to be 
flight tested by the National Aeronautics 
and Space Administration. 

Ryan also designs and builds electronic 
navigation and positioning systems for 


- -^ _ — ' "■""'■ III "jt"^ 

Netherlands Navy used Ryan STM-S2 seaplane. 

Ryan "Dragonfly" was produced in 1940 for Army as a V/STOL observation plane. 

"The popular concept has long been 
that Lindbergh, by sheer human courage 
and luck, managed to hold a 'flimsy, rick- 
ety' airplane of sticks and cloth together 
long enough to make the New York-Paris 
flight. Lindbergh has always been the 
first to deny such an idea and while still 
in Paris said: "There's one thing I wish 
to get straight about this flight. They call 
me lucky but luck isn't enough. As a 
matter of fact, I had what I regarded and 
still regard as the Best E.xisting Plane to 
make the flight from New York to Paris. 
I had what I regard as the Best Engine, 
and I was equipped with what were in 
the circumstances the Best Possible In- 
struments for making such efforts. I hope 
I made good use of what I had." 

Ryan Airlines, before engaging in build- 

financial depression of 1929 it ceased 
operation and was dissolved. 

In the meantime, immediately after 
Lindbergh's flight in 1927, T. Claude 
Ryan founded the present Ryan Aero- 
nautical Company and in 1934 brought 
out the first of what has become a long 
line of new Ryan airplanes — the Ryan 
ST Sport Trainer. These were an immed- 
iate success. Twenty-three were built and 
delivered the first year. Many of the 
mechanics and other personnel of the 
original Ryan Airlines have been among 
the superintendents and managers of the 
Ryan Aeronautical Company's various 
manufacturing plants ever since. 

Today, Ryan's highly skilled manage- 
ment, engineering and manufacturing 
team continues to pioneer — maintaining 

fixed wing aircraft, helicopters and space- 
craft. The Surveyor spacecraft's first soft 
landing on the moon depended on Ryan's 
landing radar system, and the astronauts 
future landings on the moon in the Lunar 
Module will be aided by an advanced 
Ryan landing radar system. 

In the four decades since Charles Lind- 
bergh's "Spirit of St. Louis," Ryan has 
grown to become the 288th among the 
500 largest companies in the United 
States. Its majority owned subsidiary. 
Continental Motors Corporation ( Detroit 
and Muskegon, Michigan) is one of the 
world's largest independent engine pro- 
ducers, manufacturing piston and turbine 
engines in many different horsepower 
classes for a wide variety of land, sea and 
air vehicles and for industrial installations. 

World famous Ryan jet Firebee targets began with 1951 version. Supersonic model is now under development. 

Ryan FR-1 Fireball, world's first jet-plus-pro- 
peller aircraft, was built in 1945 for Navy. 

Surveyor spacecraft use Ryan landing radar 

system to control descent to Moon's surface. Ryan is 

also building Apollo landing radar system. 

Ryan XV-5A Vertifan V/STOL 

research aircraft completed three-year flight test 

program in 1966 at Edwards AFB. 


Alternately sun-hot and black space-cold, 
Ryan's Lunar Module radar antenna proved 
efficiency of its thermal design as it simu- 
lated its Apollo moon mission from within 
the solar thermal vacuum space chamber. 




A ROUGH trip is ahead for Ryan's 
Lunar Module landing radar anten- 
na — biting cold, searing sunlight, blaz- 
ing rockets, the vacuum of deep space. 

In the most realistic mission simulation 
possible on earth, the thermally coated 
antenna has been exposed to a tempera- 
ture range of more than 2600 degrees 
during a test series which ends this 
month. The full scope of temperature 
conditions that the antenna might exper- 
ience in the actual NASA Apollo mission 
to the moon have been simulated. 

Temperatures ranged from a liquid ni- 
trogen-cooled — 320 degrees F. to an elec- 
trically induced high of 2300 degrees F. 
above zero in the tests, which were con- 
ducted by Ryan and Boeing Space Cen- 
ter, Kent, Washington. A 20-foot high, 
10-foot diameter ultra-clean space cham- 
ber was equipped with lamps and mirrors 
to create the deep space environment. 

"This series began in January," J. R. 
Iverson, vice president for Electronic and 
Space Systems said. "Our purpose is to 
test the effectiveness of the Ryan-designed 
thermal control system, and reliability of 
the radar's electronic components." 

Thermal control is a key factor toward 
radar mission success. This is because 
the antenna is fixed externally beneath the 
LM descent stage. It must survive the 
full range of launch and spaceflight en- 
vironments en route to the moon, and 
function during the landing maneuver. 

The antenna itself is a computer-de- 
signed cluster of velocity and altitude 
sensors. Metal structural parts are 
of dip-brazed magnesium, which is 

Rotisserie-like, the Ryan LM radar antenna 
rotates to face a battery of quartz lamps 
and electrically heated coils during tests. 


extremely light weight. The structure and 
its mylar "thermal shroud" are covered 
by a thin coat of vacuum-deposited alum- 
inum, a process which is accomplished 
in a specially adapted chamber at Ryan's 
Lindbergh Field plant. Also, certain por- 
tions of the slotted array antenna facings 
are covered by strips of white paint. 

"This combination of paints and alum- 
inized surfaces furnishes the proper bal- 
ance of absorptance and emissivity of the 

maneuver, which may take 1 1 minutes to 
complete, the antenna will experience the 
heat of the high energy exhaust gases 
from the lunar surface. 

"At this point, this so-called plume im- 
pingement heating is equivalent to the 
heat of five suns," Lemke said. 

Yet, in spite of these conditions, the 
landing radar must feed accurate infor- 
mation on the module's speed and alti- 
tude into the LM guidance computer. 

Each production radar system passes a full 
range of qualification and acceptance tests 
at Ryan, including vibration while the an- 
tenna transmits its signals into free space. 

solar energy. A tiny, Ryan-designed 25- 
watt heater inside the antenna holds com- 
ponent temperatures within a prescribed 
range of 0-160 degrees F.," Lester C. 
Lemke, thermophysics group engineer, 

Lemke said that during the 110-hour 
flight to the moon, the antenna will alter- 
nately face the searing eye of the sun or 
the biting cold of the spacecraft's vac- 
uum-locked shadow. In the landing 

Computer programs have mathematic- 
ally proven the thermal design at Ryan" 
other qualifying vacuum tests have placed 
the radar system through its electronic 
hurdles. But Boeing's big chamber is the 
best equipped on the West coast for a 
full-fledged solar vacuum test, according 
to authorities. 

Within the Boeing chamber, a four- 
foot solar simulator creates the sun's heat 
and spectral distribution against the an- 


tenna, which is mounted on a rotisserie- 
like fixture. Thermal simulation of the 
descent rocket blast and the moon's ra- 
diant heat is beamed at the antenna by a 
bank of special quartz lamps. Peak tem- 
peratures of 2300 degrees F. are reached. 

During the "shadow" phase of the test, 
the chamber is a black vacuum with tem- 
peratures as low as —320 degrees. Liquid 
nitrogen cools the walls of the chamber. 

Sensors attached to various surfaces 

and components of the antenna furnish 
data to a 500-channel computer. Lemke 
said a correlation of two to three degrees 
from Ryan's mathematical model are 

"It was a realistic test," Lemke de- 
clared. "We demonstrated that our ap- 
proach to the thermal control problem is 
sound. The Ryan landing radar system 
is ready for the real thing — a manned 
landing on the moon." 

Ryan electronic and space systems engineers 

can control the temperature of moon-landing 

radars through the mastery of . . . 


by Lester C. Lemke, Jr. 

Therm ophysics Group Engineer 

With computer and physicist's logic, Ryan's Les Lemke, 
left, devises methods to control temperatures in space. 

SKEPTICISM has long surrounded 
the "black magic" of temperature 
control of space electronics. But at 
Ryan Electronic and Space Systems, a 
facility of Ryan Aeronautical Company, 
this skepticism has been replaced by an 
unbeatable sense of pride and success. 

The validity of Ryan's thermal man- 
agement technique was proved in the 
success of Surveyor I; other supporting 
thermal data was received from Survey- 
or B as it tumbled toward impact with 
the moon. Now, maximum performance 
of the more sophisticated Lunar Module 
Landing Radar during stringent tests in 
solar thermal vacuum chambers (see 
accompanying story) has crowned Ryan 
king in one of the newest state-of-the- 
art space technologies — temperature 

Temperature control used to be an 
extremely dull science. It could be 
ranked with pre-aerospace metallurgy 
and cake-baking. Just follow the age- 
old recipes, that is the way it was. 

For earth electronics, the electronics 

engineer designed his circuit, followed 
by a mechanical engineer who packaged 
the product in a black box. If some 
component burned out after a few tests, 
the problem was solved by poking holes 
in the case and letting the air flow in- 
side to cool it. 

Sound fantastic? Look at the back of 
a TV set. It has holes poked in the 
fiberboard back. What about the more 
esoteric designs, the so-called fancy elec- 
tronics of the '57 era — super circuits, 
computers, and the wonder boxes which 
perform miracles? These were blessed 
with more sophisticated cooling mech- 
anisms. What else but a fan? 

The fact that the fast flowing air pro- 
duced a turbulent boundary layer which 
increased the forced convection heat 
transfer coefficient was a mere inciden- 
tal. It worked well and kept the elec- 
tronics cool — just like the fan in an 

The indispensable factor in each case, 
venting holes or a fan, is air — hot and 
cold. And therein lies the key to the 


reason for a "new look" in space elec- 
tronic hardware. 

There is no air in space. Holes for 
venting are completely useless. 

To pressurize the electronics and 
carry earth air all the way to the moon is 
impractical because of the natural flow 
of air; convection depends upon density 
variations and displacement flow as a 
result of weight differences. Weight is 
meaningless in space: so-called free con- 
vection would be pre-empted by the en- 
vironment. The fan concept would be 
the only dependable answer using air 
as a cooling medium. But the weight 
and power penalty to carry and operate 
a fan aboard a spacecraft precludes 
incentives important in space travel. 

The "new look" involves the applica- 
tion of e.xotic surface coatings to space 
hardware and to associated electronics 
precisely packaged within. The only 
means by which an electronic system 
exchanges thermal energy in deep space 
is by radiative heat transfer. 

The "black magic" trick is to main- 
tain the radiative energy balance con- 
sisting of thermal energy in the neat 
ultra-violet, visible and infrared portions 
of the electromagnetic spectrum. The 
spacecraft "takes on" this radiative en- 
ergy at a certain portion of the spec- 
trum, warms up and then re-radiates 
this same energy in another portion of 
the spectrum. Since the wave lengths 
are so small in the visible and ultra- 
violet, special coatings are required on 
the spacecraft surface. These coatings 
call for exotic techniques in manufac- 
turing and handling. 

To solve the energy balance on the 
LM, various coatings of thin metal films 
and paints and less than a pound of 
Ryan-developed insulation, have been 
used to maintain the internal electronic 
parts at a temperature between F and 
160° F. Temperatures have been com- 
puter-predicted for over 4,300 parts 
during the entire 92-hour mission. To 
complete the analysis, nearly 5,000 ra- 
diation coefficients were calculated. 

The "new look" will continue for 
years to come. Virtually every space 
system used in the future will demand 
the use of temperature control paints 
and finishes to govern radiative heat 
transfer. As space journeys become 
commonplace, a traveller will orbit into 
a space service station much as he does 
now with his car. He'll have an over- 
heating problem. The only real differ- 
ence will be the service. Not a quart of 
water, new radiator, water pump, gasket 
or radiator cap. Just to keep the tem- 
perature in a tolerable and reliable range, 
he will need a complete new paint job! 

LM electronic assembly is also designed for thermal control. 

Ryan's "black magic": reflective sluoud. flat black inside. 




Ryan's pioneering experience in airborne radar navigational-altimetry 
systems lias paved tlie way for applications in man's newest quest... 

TAKE a highly accurate, low altitude 
radar altimeter. Package it into a 
water-tight case, and aim it at the ocean. 

Result: a radar wave height sensor 
which is proving itself to be an important 
new tool of sea transport, oceanography 
and weather forecasting. 

It is the Ryan AN/SPN37 Radar Wave 
Height Sensor, called the "Spin-37" for 
short by its developer, H. H. "Buz" Bad- 
gett, and advanced systems engineer at 
Ryan Electronic and Space Systems. 

Drawing from its long experience in 
the development of radar systems, Ryan 
has built a number of service test models 
of the sensor under contract to the U. S. 
Navy. A series of successful tests have 
been conducted and study contracts for 
height sensing are underway at Ryan 
utilizing infra-red light, laser light, and 
other optical devices. 

At the recent Offshore Exploration 
Conference, OECON 1967, in Long 
Beach, Badgett discussed the Spin-37 de- 
velopment program, and looked to future 
uses for the knowledge gained through 
measurement of the ups and downs of the 
world's seas. 

"Radar has shown the most promise as 
a simple, economical solution to measur- 
ing wave heights," Badgett said. 

Since first conceived in 1961, the Ryan 
Spin-37 has proven itself useful for 
smoothing the "flight" of hydrofoil boats, 
or recording wave heights and tidal 

As employed on "submerged foil" 
hydrofoil vessels, the system functions as 
a high-precision, low-altitude altimeter. 
With a narrow, 15-degree radar beam, it 
can measure to an accuracy of two inches 
in 50 feet. 

Ryan system is suspended in watertight 
case from research tower in Atlantic to 
gather wave height data in test last year. 

Mounted on the bow, the receiver- 
transmitter unit extends ahead of the ad- 
vancing ship. A meter indication of wave 
heights is displayed on the converter- 
power supply unit, which is installed with 
recording equipment in the ship's cabin. 

"Ryan designed the system so that the 
phase difference in the transmitted and 
received signals is proportional to the 
height above the water," Badgett ex- 

"Greater flight stability allows the 
hydrofoil to travel at greater speeds," he 

Acting on this radar information, the 
submerged foils rise and fall to smooth 
the hydrofoil craft's passage over the 

water, much as an automobile's tires, 
springs and shock absorbers react to 
smooth a car's ride over a bumpy road. 

Two major tests of the system have al- 
ready been conducted. Working with 
Gibbs and Cox, a naval architectural 
firm, Ryan engineers constructed the 
bow-mounted platform on the hydrofoil 
"Sea Legs" for a month-long series of 
Navy evaluations in New York Harbor. 

"Wave heights up to four feet were 
negotiated with very smooth flight and 
good control," Badgett said. "A day's 
evaluation often covered distances as 
great as 45 miles." 

In a second test of the Ryan Wave 
Height Sensor, the Navy's Bureau of 


Ryan's Spin-37 radar height sensor won its 
"water wings" mounted on bow of hydro- 
foil in tests at San Diego and New Yorl<. 

Oceanography suspended the water-tight 
transmitter case from the Argus Island, a 
research tower in the Atlantic near Ber- 
muda, to gather data on wave heights. 
Eight-foot waves were recorded. 

"A calibrated wave staff was used 
alongside the 'Spin-37,' with the Ryan 
equipment recording far greater detail," 
Badgett said. 

Elaborating on the ability of the radar 
height sensor to measure sea states, Bad- 
gett commented: 

"A world-wide network of wave height 
sensors installed on docks and piers, oil- 
drilling or oceanographic research towers, 
could provide valuable information on 
our restless seas. Weather forecasts and 
tidal charts could be improved by such 
a network, and ocean patterns could be 
studied more closely," he said. 

Ryan engineers and Navy representa- 
tives considered a number of possible 
methods to measure wave heights, includ- 
ing float and pressure sensors, wave staflFs, 
sonic sensors and radar. 

"The sonic and radar techniques ap- 
peared most practical for measuring 
heights from moving platforms," Badgett 
related. He said radar was chosen be- 
cause it offered the following advantages: 

1. As packaged by Ryan in a rugged, 
water-tight metal case, radar is relative- 
ly unaffected by humidity, temperature 
and atmospheric conditions. 

2. Signals are emitted with the speed of 
light, instead of the slower speed of 
sound. "A fast-moving hydrofoil could 
run away from its return signal if a 
sonic system were used," Badgett said. 

3. Radar is not affected by radio noise 
caused by engine vibrations, low flying 
aircraft, and the like. 

4. Radar has a "growth factor" for op- 
erating at higher and higher deck 

Radar signals from sensor are processed by 
recorder-converter unit. Data actuates sub- 
merged foils to smooth flight over water. 



V/STOL flight unfolds 
in darkened Flight 
Simulator Laboratory as 
pilot studies landmarks 
projected through 
special device onto 
circular screen 
surrounding cockpit. 
Simulator offers full 
range of actual flight 
sensations, including 
roll, pitch, bank and 
hover maneuvers. 
Flight controls in 
cockpit are linked 
with computer system 
in lab. 

RYAN Aeronautical Company is sup- 
plying the realistic "feel" of 
V/STOL flight to the training received 
by student test pilots enrolled at the U. S. 
Air Force Research Pilot School. 

One class of 1 8 students recently con- 
cluded the special training at San Diego, 
using Ryan's computerized V/STOL 
flight simulator as a primary learning aid. 

More than 48 student test pilots have 
now completed the Ryan training course. 

Developed by Ryan to optimize air- 
craft systems design as well as pilot fa- 
miliarization, the simulator played a key 
role in the development of Ryan's XV-5A 
V/STOL research aircraft. 

Ryan test pilots "flew" the XV-5A 
Vertifan V/STOL aircraft in the dark- 
ened room of the Flight Simulation Lab- 
oratory for a period of 18 months — long 
before actual takeoff on the first flight. 
The simulator can be used to provide 
trainees with the duplication of any 
V/STOL aircraft, however. 

Actual flight environment and condi- 
tions are simulated through the use of a 

Ryan's V/STOL flight simulator adds vital 
measure of reality to standard flight training 
for the Air Force . . . 


high speed computer system, a fully in- 
strumented cockpit and a panoramic 
screen on which is projected typical land- 
marks as seen from the air. 

Under the immediate control of an en- 
gineering test pilot and via the computers 
used in a closed loop system, the inter- 
relationships of design and performance 
characteristics are continuously integrated 
and recorded. The response of systems 
results instantly in a visual display for 
the pilot, a realistic, moving projected 
image of flight with six degrees freedom. 

Images respond not only to the pilot's 

control movements but also to the various 
simulated load restraints which are inte- 
grated by the computer system. The vis- 
ual result of equations of motion pro- 
duced on the screen is the product of 
pitch, roll and yaw movements of the 
flight vehicle combined with earth coordi- 
nates. This creates a sensation of move- 
ment although the cockpit remains sta- 
tionary during the flight. 

In addition to the Air Force Research 
Pilot School's use of the simulator, air- 
craft familiarization and programs have 
been conducted by Ryan for the Army, 
Marine Corps, NASA and FAA. Pilots 
from Italy, West Germany, Canada and 
Sweden have undergone training pro- 
grams in the simulator. 

Each student is required to "fly" the 
laboratory-based "aircraft" in hover, pre- 
conversion and operational task missions. 

Instruction covers such topics as design 
criteria, systems familiarization, aero- 
propulsion characteristics, cockpit orien- 
tation, conversion mode, flight control 
and external environment. 

Air Force Research Pilot School instructor, 
Capt. Thurlow H. Ralph (left) briefs pilots en- 
rolled in School on flight characteristics of 
Ryan XV -5 A V/STOL research aircraft during 
training course held at Ryan Aeronautical 
Company in San Diego. Class of 18 pilots 
concluded week-long session in February, us- 
ing Ryan V/STOL Flight Simulator. (Standing, 

from left) Capt. Donald H. Peterson, USAF; 
Fit. Lt. Leonard E. Novakowski, RCAF: Capt. 
Oleg R. Kormanitsky, RCAF; Lt. Jan I. Ander- 
son, Royal Swedish AF: Donald A. Moore, 
FAA; (Seated, from left) Fit. Lt. J. Ernest 
Booth, RCAF, instructor; Lt. W. R. "Buzz" 
Needham, USN, a tone Navy pilot enrolled 
in class, and Capt. Ronald I/I/. Yates, USAF. 


Engineers solve design problem of Firebee II while assembler continues fuselage "sidii 

Mating wing to fuselage is a milestone in assembly phase. 

Engineer checks mating of external fuel pod to fuselage. 

Firebee ll's jet engine is prepared for 

installation in models being assembled as inspectors 

check static model now undergoing checkout. 


This growth version Firebee II 
will add a new measure of 
capability to achievements 
scored by Ryan's jet Firebees 
over the past 18 years 

ANEW Firebee generation is stirring to 
life at Ryan Aeronautical Company 
today, offering promise of performance 
unmatched in a target system "family 
tree" that goes back nearly two decades. 

Firebee II is designed to fill any role 
now performed by its sub-sonic cousins, 
yet add supersonic dimensions to target 
mission profiles. 

Slimmer, longer, more powerful than 
its ancestors, Firebee II's assembly floor 
ratings range from modest "beautiful de- 
sign" comments to "best ever" predictions 
by its hand-picked team of engineers and 

Scheduled for test flights this year at 
the Navy's Pt. Mugu, Calif., Missile Cen- 
ter, static tests are currently underway at 
San Diego. Meanwhile, parachute recov- 
ery and flight systems tests are being con- 
ducted in preparation for the initial flight 

Ryan will build four flight versions of 
the Firebee II initially with ten follow-on 
models in its preproduction contract 
phases. The work is conducted under 
Navy Air Systems Command contract. 


Static test version of Firebee II is sensored at all key points to reflect stress tolerances during test. 

Assembly program is under Foreman Merle K. Gorham. 

Assembler fits antenna section to tail stabilizer. 


Slenderized engine will power Firebee II. 

Modified bomb of weight equal to Firebee II is used for parachute tests. 

Program managers check components assembled in Firebee II mockup. 



Ryan's Precision Drop Glider 
System— now completing pre- 
production tests— has more 
than proved the concept of... 



WORKING under a U.S. Army Avia- 
tion IVIateriel Laboratories contract, 
Ryan Aeronautical Company is complet- 
ing pre-production flight tests of the Pre- 
cision Drop Glider (PDG) system today 
at the Army Proving Ground, Yuma. 

Nearly 700 test flights of the Ryan 
Flex Wing vehicle have been completed 
in a program that has proved out the 
concept of aerial resupply for combat 
forces in remote or hostile areas. 

Designed to carry 500 pound payloads 
of high-priority cargo, the PDG utilizes 
a delta-shaped, non-rigid Flex Wing to 
glide to destinations on the ground. The 
vehicle has a self-contained guidance sys- 
tem that homes on a ground transmitter 
or beacon. With a glide ratio of nearly 
three-to-one, the PDG system is delivered 
to a radius within glide range of its des- 
tination. Off-loaded from rotary or fixed 
wing aircraft at altitudes up to 20,000 
feet, the PDG has all-weather capabilities. 

A static line actuates the Flex Wing 

Ryan's Flex Wing (left) completed full- 
scale wind tunnel tests at NASA last year. 

PDG nearing touchdown (right) will flare 
out when weighted pennant touches earth. 

Joint Army-Navy-Air Force team witnessed 
demonstration of PDG performance last 
montti and viewed new guidance system. 

deployment shortly after launch and the 
automatic, electronic guidance system, 
with its cargo container suspended be- 
neath it. locks onto the ground transmit- 
ter as the vehicle glides to its destiny. 

Following release by the Army, Ryan 
will go into production on the PDG sys- 

Meanwhile, a second contract granted 
by the Army Aviation Material Labora- 
tories, headquartered at Fort Eustis, Vir- 
ginia, authorizes Ryan to design, test and 
produce a new automatic homing and 
guidance system for use with aerial de- 
livery systems. 

Approximately the size of a GI walkie- 
talkie, the lightweight, highly portable 
transmitter unit will include an audio 
communications system. Issued to ground 
forces, the transmitter set would enable 
troops to be resupplied to establish voice 
communications with aircraft launching 
delivery systems. 

A companion unit in the guidance sys- 
tem, the onboard electronic homing pack- 
age, will utilize printed circuitry and 
other technical advances that minimize 
maintenance requirements. 

Following tests of the new system now 
scheduled for late this year, Ryan is au- 
thorized to produce 79 receiver units, 37 
transmitters and 16 test sets under the 
initial contract. 

Work under this order will be accom- 
plished at the Ryan Electronic and Space 
Systems facility in San Diego. 


Firebee "enemy" leaps into flight from launch facility 

at Naha, Okinawa to be flown by remote control 

out over firing exercise area at sea where ships are waiting. 

\ -i. 



Tried and proven 

as a primary target 

system for the 

lethal Hawk missile, 

Ryait Firebee-Towbee 

targets will now 

be deployed for 

overseas training. 

' ■f^vff^- 

Lethal Hawk missile leaps into flight from launch 
pad at McGregor Range, belching flame from 
rocket engine. Its target is a Ryan Firebee-Tow- 
bee system flying high over New Mexico desert. 

Ryan Firebee-Towbee targets will challenge 
Hawk missiles at Pacific overseas training sites 
under a U. S. Army Missile Command con- 
tract awarded to Ryan Aeronautical Company. 

Preparations for shipment to the Pacific area 
Hawk missile range of Firebee-Towbee sys- 
tems, associated ground support equipment and 
portable ground launchers has begun at Mc- 
Gregor Range, New Mexico. 

The new contract extends Hawk training 
capabilities that have been in use at McGregor 
since mid- 1964 with Ryan support personnel 
serving as a key element. The contract serv- 
ice team is responsible for Firebee-Towbee 
maintenance, flight control, recovery, rehabili- 
tation and related support services. 

Under the operational command of the U. S. 
Army Air Defense Center at Fort Bliss, Texas, 
McGregor's sprawling, 860,000-acre desert 


ranges have been in service since the inception 
of the Hawk missile system. World-wide Hawk 
missile batteries converge at McGregor annual- 
ly for readiness training, firing at the Ryan 
Firebee-Towbee targets. 

The target system employs small, wingtip- 
mounted, expendable targets which are de- 
ployed once the Firebee is in position over 
the firing ranges. Wire reels mounted in the 
jet-powered Firebee pay the Towbees out to 
distances of up to 5,000 feet, presenting indi- 
vidual passively augmented targets to the Hawk 
batteries on the ground. The target system has 
speed ranges up to 520 miles an hour and per- 
forms at altitudes from 500 to 50,000 feet. 

The new Army contract requirements in- 
clude ground launchers for the Firebee-Tow- 
bee system that can be quickly installed, dis- 
assembled and transported to alternate launch 
sites for re-installation. Ryan's field service- 
support mobility withstood the Army's stiffest 
tests last year at missile ranges in Georgia and 
Kentucky. Firebees were used as primary tar- 


Towbee weight and balance check insures perfect flight. 

Firebee's flight Is tracked from ground station. 

Hawk battery readies missile for firing drill. 

gets in an operational evaluation of the Red- 
eye, shoulder-fired missile. 

Ryan field service teams at White Sands, and 
McGregor ranges shifted their base of opera- 
tions cross-country during the evaluation pro- 
gram, transporting ground support equipment, 
launchers and Firebees for the test. 

An operational test program will be con- 
ducted at McGregor Range by Ryan support 
personnel in a demonstration of capabilities 
required in the overseas deployment schedule. 
The advance test program includes prepara- 
tion for flight, launching and remote control 
of target systems and their rehabilitation fol- 
lowing the flights. 

Upon conclusion of the tests, a number of 
Firebee-Towbee units will be prepared for 
overseas shipment to Hawk training sites in 
overseas Pacific areas. 

The world's largest producer of airborne, 
jet-powered target systems, Ryan has built 
more than 3000 Firebees for the Army, Navy 
and Air Force over the past 18 years. 



Advancing technology and expanding ASW 

requirements have outpaced the gull-winged 

P5M Marlin, a first-line weapon in the Navy's 

arsenal for nearly two decades. 



' I- "^"^ 



NAVAL aviation's seaplane era is 
fading into history today as ocean- 
spanning P5M Marlin aircraft are retired 
and replaced by land-based P3 Orions 
that have more than doubled the Navy's 
ASW punch. 

A transition-replacement training pro- 
gram scheduled to continue through 1970 
will ultimately phase all Marlin seaplanes 
out of operational service. 

The changeover, according to officials 
at the Naval Air Station, Moffett Field, 
California, is contributing significantly to 
Navy ASW capabilities on an unprece- 
dented scale. 

Increased flight range, aircrew habita- 

bility, advanced flight systems and major 
"breakthroughs" in ASW technology are 
all represented in the Orion phase-in, ac- 
cording to Commander George Prassinos, 
skipper of Patrol Squadron-31. 

Based at Moffett, VP-31 is responsible 
to the Pacific Fleet for pilot, maintenance 
personnel and aircrewmen training of 
those destined to fly and maintain the 
ASW Orion aircraft. 

Since the start of this long range train- 
ing program in early 1963, Prassinos" unit 
has processed more than 3,000 personnel 
through the myriad of instructional 
courses involved in transition. The squad- 
ron also trains personnel ordered to pa- 

Transition training for men assigned to fly 
P3 Orion includes up to nine months of 
both ground and actual flight training. Pilot 
goes through check list as mission begins. 

"Hunter and prey" are portrayed as P3 Or- 
ion passes over sub. Equipped to detect 
and destroy enemy subs, Orion aircraft's 
introduction has boosted Navy ASW punch. 


trol squadrons, replacing those whose 
tours of duty expire and are assigned to 
shore billets. 

Numbered among its students, in ad- 
dition, is a New Zealand ASW squadron 
and an Australian unit is scheduled to 
begin the transition training program. 

Meanwhile, a counterpart squadron on 
the East Coast is performing transition- 
replacement training for Atlantic Fleet 
ASW air units. 

One of the basic elements in this long 
range program is the integrated training 
technique which requires maintenance 
personnel to begin the transition program 
months before aircrewmen and pilots are 

enrolled. The system enables a squadron 
to be graduated simultaneously, with the 
complete unit ready for operational serv- 
ice in the Orion. 

Typical training cycles range up to 
nine months with maintenance personnel 
undergoing the most intense and longest 
periods of training. 

Ryan Aeronautical Company's AN/ 
APN-122 Doppler Navigation System, 
now in use by P2V, P5M and early-day 
models of the P3 Orion is one of the 
survivors of the P5M phase-out program. 

Nearly 1200 AN/ APN-122 systems 
have been produced by Ryan for use in 
a wide variety of fixed-wing aircraft en- 

gaged in ASW attack and patrol missions. 
Its continued use today identifies the sys- 
tem's performance as a key element in 
the overall ASW mission personality, ac- 
cording to Commander Charles M. Lentz, 
executive officer of VP-31. 

A pioneer in the development of con- 
tinuous wave Doppler radar techniques, 
Ryan has produced nearly 3,000 systems 
for rotary and fixed-wing aircraft for the 
Army, Navy and Air Force over the past 
17 years. These units include the AN/ 
APN-97 system used by ASW helicopters 
in hover maneuvers; the AN/APN-67 
Automatic Navigator, the first successful 
Doppler navigation set based on the use 

A formidable ASW system is represented by the P3 Orion, its pilots, technicians and crewmen and their weapons. 

of unmodulated, continuous wave Dop- 
pler techniques; AN/APN-129 used in 
Army Moiiawk aircraft; and the AN/ 
APN-130 system in ASW helicopters. 

The same Doppler techniques which 
form the basis for airborne navigation 
and hovering systems have been applied 
to the task of landing space vehicles on 
the moon. The unmanned Surveyor 
spacecraft has a Doppler landing radar 
system that allows the spacecraft to slow 
to a hover over the lunar surface before 
dropping to its soft landing. 

The Lunar Module, expected to land 
Apollo astronauts on the moon by the 
end of this decade, also has a highly 
sophisticated Ryan landing radar system, 
a modern relative to the systems used in 
Navy ASW operations, particularly re- 
lated to helicopter and AN/ APN-130 
system functions. 

Paralleling the Navy's advancing re- 
quirements and expanding capabilities 
within the ASW mission, Ryan engineers 
are pioneering new developments in air- 
borne systems that include lightweight 
and micro-miniaturization design, ele- 
ments that are essential in space systems. 

These engineering by-products are rep- 
resented in the design and development 
of smaller, lighter, more accurate and so- 
phisticated systems for airborne applica- 
tions in fixed wing and rotary aircraft. 

Its more recent technological advances 
have led Ryan into a product improve- 
ment program that is providing updated 
and uprated systems which can be retro- 
fitted to aircraft in the field. This capa- 
bility eliminates costly, time-consuming 
requirements for factory modification. 

One of these systems, the Ryan Model 
537 Doppler Navigation set, features 
lightweight design of a compact and 
highly accurate sensor developed for ro- 
tary and fixed-wing aircraft. The unit 
automatically measures heading, drift and 
vertical speed of an aircraft without the 
aid of ground stations, wind estimates or 
true air speed. 

It also displays heading, drift and ver- 
tical velocities for use in hovering and 
provides automatic coupling to helicopter 
stabilization equipment. 

Engineering experience and demon- 
strated capabilities serve as the founda- 
tion for this product improvement pro- 
gram today, areas in which Ryan has dis- 
tinguished itself as a working partner of 
the Navy. 

This partnership remains as one of the 
most important legacies shared by men 
who fly the P3 Orion today. And, for 
those now in the transition from Marlin 
to Orion aircraft, it is comforting to 
know that an old partner awaits them in 
their new venture. 


Navy ASW defenses relied heavily on Marlin 
seaplanes for ocean-spanning cruise range. 

Marlins still fly operational missions today 
pending replacement by P3 Orion planes. 

ASW technicians monitor oceans below as P3 Orion conducts mission. 

Transition training under VP-31 at Moffett 
Field is paving way for retirement of P5M. 

Pilot under instruction conducts pre-flight 
cfieck of P3 Orion at start of training fiop. 

VP-31 exec, CDR C. M. Lentz, reviews unit 
training schedule witfi squadron instructor. 

Blimp hangar at Moffett Field shelters P3 aircraft and also serves as "schoolhouse" for training. 

* • 

Ryan's space structures 
engineers accomplish 
a major techinological 
breal<througli, and... 


FLAT but round. Rigid but flexible. 
Thin but strong. Straight but rolled 
up. Fresh from the manufacturer's bench 
but flightworthy, ready for tests which 
will simulate the 200-day voyage through 
space to the planet Mars. 

Even in this age of rapid advance in 
space technology, Ryan Aeronautical 
Company's deployable solar array bor- 
ders on the fantastic. 

A full-scale working model of the ar- 
ray has been designed and constructed 
under a developmental contract with Cal- 
tech's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasa- 
dena, directed by Don Ritchie and J. D. 
Sandstrom. JPL has an eye toward us- 
ing a four-panel, wind-mill arrangement 
of the deployable arrays on an unman- 
ned, "1969-time frame" spacecraft bound 
for Mars. 

Ryan Electronic and Space Systems 
structural engineers created the deploy- 
ment scheme to meet the requirement on 
future interplanetary space probes for in- 
creasing larger and lighter solar panels to 
conduct electrical power to multiple sen- 
sors and experimental packages. 

Wes Vyvyan's Space Structures Group 
perfected a design which off'ers more than 
ten times the solar panel area at only 
three times the weight, when compared 
with the Ryan panels on the successful 
Mariner 4 Mars spacecraft. 

How does Ryan do it? 

The problem, according to Vyvyan, 
was to construct a panel substrate struc- 
ture which offers more surface for the 

application of silicon solar cells than ever 
before, but which stores compactly with- 
in the confines of a launch vehicle shroud 
or nose cone. It would have been rela- 
tively simple if the larger array could 
have been merely bigger. But it had to 
be not only bigger, but lighter, too. 

In this developmental design, Ryan has 
achieved a substrate and support beam 
weighing .18 pounds per square foot of 
solar cell surface area. This compares to 
1.1 pounds for Ranger, .6 pounds for 
Mariner, according to Vyvyan, and is the 
lightest substrate in Ryan's seven-year his- 
tory of solar panel work. Moreover, the 
entire assembly, including drum, motor, 
beam and substrate, weighs only one-half 
pound per square foot. 

Power requirements were not so great 
for Ranger or Mariner, which Ryan sup- 
plied with rigid panels of relatively short 
length, hinged to fold up like the petals 
of a morning glory. Once in space, they 
yawned open. This type of panel could 
not be much longer than length of the 
spacecraft and still stow inside the launch 

Ryan had experimented with a number 
of techniques to achieve this greater solar 
cell area, including a solar concentrator 
which opened out like an inverted para- 
sol, and a segmented beam deployable 
array, which flipped out in hinged sec- 
tions like a plastic credit card holder. 

The deployable array, on the other 
hand, is comparable to a metal tape 
measure that extends and retracts from 
its case. 

During launch and escape from Earth, 
the arrays are rolled tightly around 
pierced magnesium drums. Titanium sup- 
port beams, which are round when the 
arrays are deployed, are compressed flat 
against the drum, held by spring-loaded 
pressure contact rollers. In this com- 
pressed position, the beams are only .018 
of an inch thick, per layer. 

Once free of the Earth's gravity, the 
three-foot-wide arrays roll out into rigid 
panels 18 feet long, driven at a rate of 
4'/2 feet-per-minute by electrical switch- 
controlled, 24-volt DC motors. In the 
recently completed initial design, this tech- 
nique exposes a solar cell area of approx- 
imately 50 square feet per panel, or 200 
square feet in a four-panel plan. This 
array is capable of producing 10 watts 
per square foot, or 2000 watts total pow- 
er. With longer drums, even larger cell 
areas will be available. 

If a major mid-course correction is 
required, the arrays can be retracted and 
wrapped back around the drums. The 
arrays are designed to remain stable dur- 

Ryan's advanced-design deployable array 
zips from its space-borne drum lil<e a car- 
penter tape rule, offering larger solar cell. 



ing a mid-course turn of .2 G force or 
less, which, although slight, is "a lot more 
than nothing in space," as Al Wellman, 
project manager, points out. 

As the craft draws near the planet, the 
panels can be retracted again while 
retro rockets are ignited to slow the craft 
into orbital flight. Then they can be ex- 
tended again to furnish power to the 
spacecraft's data-gathering cameras and 

Also, to avoid damage to the solar 
cells, the Ryan arrays can be retracted 
during periods of "high solar activity," 
such as sun spots, or through "zones of 
trapped radiation" in space. 

In each case, the option to retract the 
array when necessary saves weight. 

A technological breakthrough was 
called for, and Vyvyan's engineers met 
the challenge. Drew Allen, project engi- 
neer, and Designer Al Maier designed a 
"shape" for the support beam and the 
contract was won from JPL. But this first 
model, which looked like two "U" figures 
standing belly-to-belly, had weight prob- 

Designer Ed Noel stepped in with a 
second shape, a winner: two narrow 
strips seam-welded at the outer edges, a 
"lip" or "lemon" shape. Brooks Lake, 
senior structural engineer, accomplished 
a detailed analysis of the beam in rela- 
tion to the JPL requirement, computing 
dynamic loads, structual integrity and 

The selected shape had to react proper- 
ly to the bending loads of the .2 G cruise 
maneuver, had to flatten with relatively 
little pressure, and had to survive succes- 
sive deployments and retractions without 
permanent distortion. Lake said. 

"Closely coupled to the design of the 
shape was the selection of a non-magne- 
tic material which would tolerate flatten- 
ing and wrapping without yielding, and 
one which would perform under all en- 
vironmental conditions." Wellman noted. 
"Titanium exhibited all the desirable 
qualities needed." 

Aluminum, glass fiber, reinforced plas- 
tic, and stainless steel were also consid- 
ered, he said. 

Titanium offered a bonus. A natural 
oxide builds up on both inner and outer 
surfaces of the metal during the anneal 
heat-forming process (1000 degrees F). 
This oxide makes the titanium beam a 
low absorber of solar heat, and thus 
serves as a natural thermal coating. No 
special paints or thin film deposits are 
needed. Also, the oxide prevents any pos- 
sibility of metal -on-metal adhesion in 

Dick Dummer, technical specialist in 
Ryan's Electronic's thermophysics group, 
performed the thermal analysis. Welding 
Engineer Larry Leech accomplished the 
special application of the seam-welding 
technique, while Dave Adams, metallur- 
gist, devised the heat-forming process. 

Ryan has departed from panel designs 
of the past in the fabrication of the panel 
substrate also. The substrate is that part 
of the panel on which the solar cells are 
attached; that is, the "flat" of the panel, 
apart from the supporting beams or 

Ranger's panels were of corrugated 
aluminum. Mariner's of a corrugated 
aluminum faced with an epoxy dielectric. 

For the deployable array, the "tradi- 
tional" metal backing has disappeared. 
Instead, the substrate is of .003-inch 
thick, resin-impregnated fiberglass cloth, 
which is fabricated in 4 Vi -foot-long sec- 
tions to simplify installation and test of 
the cells. Plastics Fabricator Floyd Shees- 
ley produced these fiberglass sheets. 

Finally, one more "scheduled inven- 
tion" had to be programmed. To control 
the shape of the titanium support beam 
as it feeds off the drum and into space — 
literally from flush flat to rigid round — 
Vyvyans design group created a guide 
sleeve mechanism. "The guide sleeve unit 
becomes the stress point of each support 
beam, and thus of each array, is de- 
ployed," Wellman said. 

Made of magnesium and fiberglass, the 
sleeve also has an inner coating of teflon 
to reduce friction during deployment. 
Structural Designer Larry Warden cre- 
ated the unit. Bill Gerhardt designed the 
five-tumbler limit switch mechanism 
which governs the rate of deployment. 

With the development of this unique 
method of furnishing future spacecraft 
with large solar panel areas, Ryan has as- 
sured itself of a continued important role 
as man seeks to unlock the secrets of the 

Key to roll-out concept is extendable boom 
which supports array. Other potential uses: 
roll-out antennas, stabilizers, struts, spars. 



A man, a plane and a dream. 40 years ago a man flew an airplane across the Atlantic alone, 
in search of a dreann. The man, Charles A. Lindbergh. The airplane, the Ryan "Spirit of St. 
Louis." The dream, man's conquest of the air. Today, such dreams still move the men at Ryan. 
From their searching minds come increasingly advanced concepts to further man's ability 
to cope with the secrets of vertical flight, to visit the planets, to probe the depths of the ocean. 
More often than not, they are first with those concepts ... for being first is a Ryan tradition! 



R Y A N 














Volume 28. No. 3 
Published by Ryan Aeronautical Company 
P. O. Box 311, San Diego, California 92112 

Managing Editor / Jacl< G. Broward 

Art Director / Al Bergren 

Contributing Editors / George Becker, Jr., Harold Keen 

Bob Battenfield, Chuck Ogilvie 

Staff Photographer / Dick Stauss 

Staff Artist / Robert Watts 

Team-Up At Tyndall 3 

"Boola-Boola" 8 

Combat Aircrew Rescue Aircraft 12 

Firebee II: Trial By Test 76 

Revival of A Spirit 78 

A View of Venus 26 

Firebees in Formation 29 

Phoenix, the Firebee Killer 32 

First aerial view of Ryan's 
supersonic Firebee II was 
provided during helicopter 
retrieval tests in San Diego 
Bay in July, using static test 
version of prototype. Test 
flight program is scheduled 
to start in Sept. at the Naval 
Missile Center, Pt. Mugu. 

» * ui 


RT ivnonu 

Viternn siruke hai earned 
Ryan'! Hrebee field support 
team a ffull-time berth at 
Tyndoll Hir Porce Base 

THE QUALITY of performance that 
helped bring success to Air Defense 
Command's World Wide Weapons Meets 
at Tyndall Air Force Base, Florida, since 
1958 has earned Ryan Aeronautical 
Company a full-time assignment at the 
sprawling, Gulf of Mexico target range. 

A Ryan Firebee support team is 
relieving the 4756th Air Force Main- 
tenance and Drone Control Squadrons 
following recent contract negotiations. 
Squadron personnel are being reassigned 
throughout the Air Force to new duties. 

Scheduled to be fully operational by 
late October 1967, the Ryan contract unit 
will be responsible for Firebee mainten- 
ance, flight control and target support 
associated with operational missions. 

This marks the first time in Tyndall's 
25-year history that contractor services 
for Firebee operations will be maintained 
on a full time basis. But this precedent 
is dotted with demonstrated performance 
at Tyndall by Ryan experts since 1958. 

Using the Ryan Q2A Firebee during 
the first William Tell Weapons Meet that 
year, the Air Defense Command achieved 
a new standard in presenting realistic 
targets for gunnery competition that 
ensued between the nation's top fighter- 
interceptor squadrons. 

The World Wide Weapons Meets are 
designed to test combat readiness of air 
defense units and culminates a continu- 
ing series of weapons competition events 
conducted at local squadron levels 
through the year. 

Those teams competing in William Tell 
events have graduated from minor to 
major leagues once they arrive at Tyndall 
for the "playoff" series." 

Nicknamed the "Big Apple," Ryan 
Firebees have continually served as the 
primary target for competing teams and 
have contributed materially to the tech- 
nical and professional refinement of air 
defense tactics. 

Commenting on the performance of 
Ryan's Firebee participation following 
the close of William Tell '65, Brigadier 
General Thomas H. Beeson, Commander 
of the 73rd Air Division, said, "The out- 
standing support provided by Ryan Aero- 
nautical Company during this event was 
exemplified by its Field Service Team." 

Ryan dispatched a 34-man Firebee 
support team to Tyndall in 1965 to 
ready 67 jet Firebees for the nine-day 

ADC fighter-interceptor pilots and crew- 
men "scramble" from line shack. Target 
is an elusive Ryan Firebee out over Gulf. 

^ ?;.- .7*=-';> 

Ryan support skills were proven by 34-man 
team at Tyndall during William Tell '65. 

Fighter-interceptor aircraft are armed with 
missiles for launch against Firebee targets. 

Ryan Firebee support team will be fully operational at Tyndall by October. 

round of competition that ended as the 
"most outstanding" event of its kind ever 
conducted, Air Force officials said. 

Firebees used in this event were equip- 
ped with electronic scoring devices to 
register "kills" and near-miss distances 
achieved during weapons firings. 

In its new role as the key support 
element for Firebee operational require- 
ments, Ryan personnel will perform 
under the direction of Colonel Thomas 
D. DeJarnette, Commander of the 4756th 
Air Defense Wing. His Tyndall com- 
mand is responsible today for advanced 
training in the supersonic F-101 Voodoo 
and F-106 Delta Dart jet interceptors, 
missile and rocket firing exercises and 
training of aircraft controllers. 

In addition to the Firebee operational 
requirements supporting the 4756th mis- 
sion, Ryan personnel will support the 
re-occuring need for Firebee missions in- 
volving weapons evaluation and training 
conducted by nearby Eglin Air Force 
Base and its Tactical Air Command units. 

One of the most challenging missions 
in the history of Ryan Firebee operations 
now approaching two decades — the 
Tyndall assignment follows demonstrated 
capabilities by Ryan support personnel 
at military bases throughout the world. 

In addition to the team based at Tyn- 
dall, Ryan maintains Firebee support 
units at the Naval Air Station, Roosevelt 
Roads, Puerto Rico; U. S. Naval Air 
Station, Pt. Mugu, California; McGregor 
Range and White Sands, New Mexico; 
Cubi Pt., Philippine Islands; and at Naha, 

Base Manager for the Ryan support 
unit at Tyndall, Billy Sved, brings to the 
Gulf of Mexico range complex more 
than a decade of Firebee experience. 

Each man in his hand-picked crew 
was selected on the basis of special quali- 
fications and experience. Special training 
courses conducted at the main Ryan 
plant in San Diego were completed by 
the crew before assignment to Tyndall. 

The formidable task that lies ahead 
for Sved and his Ryan team, according 
to the Base Manager, "is actually a 
tribute to the Air Force personnel who 
have performed in such an outstanding 
manner since 1958." 

"They've given us a legacy of high op- 
erational standards to uphold," says Sved. 

The strongest source of confidence in 
assuming responsibility for Ryan's new 
role at Tyndall, Sved notes, "is that we 
helped the Air Force establish those high 
standards down through the years." 

"Enemy" Firebee's detection-position is 
plotted by technicians in control center. 

AF technician in block house commands 
Firebee launch from pad at Tyndall AFB. 

4756th Drone Maintenance Squadron tech- 
nician checks Firebee hydraulic equipment. 

Firebee (right) is towed from hangar for 
mission designed to test ADC readiness. 


Going up against Ryan's Firebee target drones at Tyndall are sleek F-106 Delta Dagger jet interceptors. 

Ground crew readies missiles for firings as 
part of ADC's world wide weapons meet. 

AF technicians working on Firebees at Tyndall 
will be relieved by Ryan Field Service team. 


Skipper of USS Chicago today is 
Capt. D. Vance Cox, a pioneering 
Navy guided missile project officer. 

YALE UNIVERSITY'S fight song title has soared 
to the top of the USS Chicago's "hit" parade, giv- 
ing reign to that guided missile cruiser as one of the 
Navy's top Ryan Firebee "killer." 

Translated, "Boola-Boola" is a voice radio term mean- 
ing, "Bulls-eye." To date, that morale-boosting chant 
has rung out 23 times via the ship's radio circuit. 

The latest series of Firebee "kills" — four in suc- 
cession — came during Operation ROYAL ROAD oH 
the coast of Southern California. Leading the year's 

Latest of 23 Firebee "l<ills" for USS Chicago is marl<ed 
with presentation of special plaque to Vice Admiral Ber- 
nard F. Boeder by Ryan Executive Frank Card Jameson. 



Navy DP2E Neptune bomber modified for Firebee air launch 

operations, flies Firebee targets to range area near San Nicholas 

Is., where targets are released to fly under own power, simulating 

enemy aircraft under remote controlled flight. Firebee 

is automatically parachuted to recovery on completion of mission, 

rectrieved and returned to San Diego for refurbishment. 

third major fleet exercise — under the 
direction of Vice Admiral Bernard F. 
Roeder — the fourth-generation Chicago 
included in her First Fleet task group 23 
surface vessels and a submarine. 

Ryan jet-powered Firebees were air- 
launched from Composite Squadron 
Three, DP-2E aircraft out over San Nich- 
olas Island firing ranges. 

Remote-controlled Firebees can 
"flit" through the skies offering speed 
ranges of over 500 miles an hour, from 
wave-height to altitudes of more than 
50,000 feet. In its role as a simulated 
"enemy," Firebees are used by the Army, 
Navy and Air Force in weapons exercise 
programs as well as development, test and 
evaluation of new weapons systems. 

Operation ROYAL ROADS mission 
incorporated anti-submarine, surface and 
air defense activities, utilizing three de- 
stroyers of the Royal Canadian Escort 
Squadron Two. Air units involved in the 
exercise included Carrier Air Wing Six- 
teen; Composite Squadrons Three and 
Seven; Airborne Early Warning Squad- 
rons Thirteen and One-Eleven; Carrier 
Anti-submarine Warfare Group Fifty- 
Five; Fighter Squadrons Twenty-One and 
One-Fifty-Four; Tactical Air Control 
Squadron Twenty-Two and Patrol Squad- 
rons Nine, Nineteen and Fifty. 

Former Secretary of the Navy Paul H. 
Nitze, named by President Johnson to the 
post of Deputy Secretary of Defense, com- 
pleted one of his final tours of "sea duty" 
during the ROYAL ROAD operation, 
witnessing tactical demonstrations from 
the bridge of the Chicago, which serves 
as flagship of the First Fleet Commander. 

The Chicago is under command of 
Captain Donald V. Cox. Its armament 
includes two twin Talos and two twin 
Tartar missile system plus an Asroc sys- 
tem, a duo of triple torpedo tubes and 
two five-inch thirty eight caliber guns. 

The 674-foot ship carries 1200 men 
who helped earn two Fleet Competition 
"E" awards during 1966. It is the only 
ship of her class in the Pacific Fleet to 
hold simultaneous awards for both engi- 
neering and weapons excellence. 

The 18,000 ton warship was converted 
from a gun cruiser to guided missile ship 
in 1964. Her conversion included alum- 
inum construction of superstructure areas 
and installation of a computerized Naval 
Tactical Data System to support her mis- 
sile capabilities. 

The Chicago's broad array of capabil- 
ities give it one of the most diverse task as- 
signments of any ship in the Navy today. 

To all these distinctions and accomp- 
lishments, the veteran of combat tours 

on "Yankee" station off Vietnam owns 
yet another, even more impressive testi- 
monial. According to Chicago crewmen, 
they claim their fast-moving missile base 
is, "First rate sea duty!" 

Talos "triggerman" Paul G. Copeland, 
a Master Chief Fire Controlman who ac- 
counted for one of the recent Firebee 
"kills," notes that the Chicago represents 
one of the most complete "teams" ever 
to support a single weapons system. 

"Each man aboard — from cooks to 
hospital corpsmen and engineers to elec- 
tronics technicians — has a part in every 
successful shoot we achieve. The com- 
plexities involved in our mission as a 
guided missile ship draw the crew to- 
gether and gives them a team spirit." 

Secretary Nitze noted this spirit during 
his visit to the Chicago to watch ROYAL 
ROAD and commented. "The USS Chi- 
cago and her officers and men represents 
a fighting unit of which the Navy and 
the nation can feel deeply proud." 

Coming from the highest office in the 
Navy Establishment, these words are 
meaningfully important to men of the 
USS Chicago. 

They're matched by that short term 
expression heard only when her missiles 
score a bulls-eye: "Boola-Boola!" 


Vice Admiral Bernard F. Boeder, Commander of U.S. First Fleet, had as observer dur- 
ing ROYAL ROAD, ex-Navy Secretary Paul H. Nitze, now Deputy Secretary of Defense. 

"Boola-Boola" is the word received 
by crewman as missile hits a Firebee. 

Flagship of U.S. First Fleet. USS Chicago is the fourth 
warship to have that name and most powerful of all. 

Team spirit is heightened among crewmen serving 
aboard the guided missile destroyer — from cooks to 
radar technicians — by regular firing against Firebee. 






Proposed Ryan Model 230 has geometric-dynamic characteristics similar to Ryan XV-5A V/STOL research aircraft, using ar 
rangements of lift fans in wings, nose and aft fuselage section to achieve vertical takeoff, landing and flight hover maneuvers. 

Ryan 4- fan jet Vert if an proposed as 
Combat Aircrew Recovery Aircraft. 

RYAN Aeronautical Company has proposed an 
advanced high performance, high speed Vertifan 
jet V/STOL rescue aircraft to the U. S. Air Force. 
Identified as the Ryan Model 230, the Vertifan 
aircraft is a jet powered, high subsonic (Mach .8), 
extremely maneuverable aircraft (ultimate load fac- 
tor 11.0) which combines the performance and sur- 
vivability of a jet fighter bomber with a vertical take- 
off and landing. The Model 230 is based on two 
and one half years of flight test experience with the 
XV-5A, a Ryan jet Vertifan aircraft. 

William K. Orr (left), Ryan program manager, holds scale 
model of aircraft proposed for V/STOL rescue missions. 


An concept of Ryan Model 230 incor- 
porates Vertifan concept. At jet speed, 
the aircraft accompanies strike group, 
is available in emergency to descend, 
fiover and make rescue within minutes. 

The Model 230 is geometrically and 
dynamically similar to the XV-5A but is 
larger and has a design mission take-off 
gross weight of 26,600 pounds, a mid- 
point hover gross weight of 21 ,750 pounds 
and an empty weight of 15,103 pounds. 
It is powered by two G. E. turbojet en- 
gines. It incorporates two SlVz-inch di- 
ameter wing fans and 45-inch diameter 
fans in the nose and aft fuselage. The 
Model 230 carries a crew of three and 
has a cabin volume capable of holding 
five rescuees. 

In 368 flights at Edwards Air Force 
Base, the XV-5A flew 93.25 hours of 
conventional flight and 44.5 hours of 
fan supported flight. The extensive pro- 
gram established the versatile capabilities 
of the Vertifan approach to high per- 
formance jet V/STOL operation. 

Fifteen pilots — five Army, three con- 
tractor, one FAA, one Marine, two 
NASA and three Air Force — trained in 
and completed test flights in the XV-5A 
during the program. 

The flight test program included tests 
related to the application of the XV-5A 
Vertifan concept to strike escort rescue. 

The XV-5A demonstrated the ability 
to land on and take-off from any sur- 
face that would support the aircraft's 
weight, including unprepared desert, with 
no foreign object damage in either engine 
or lift fans. 

Rescue tests using a 230-pound instru- 
mented mannequin were completed while 
personnel worked comfortably under the 
hovering aircraft. 

Nine contractors submitted proposals. 
Other concepts include tilt wings, com- 
pound rotorcraft and advanced type 
stopped and stowed rotor craft. 

Strong similarity in design of Ryan XV -5 A is 
seen in three-view drawing of Model 230. 



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Trial by Test 

Pushed, pulled, twisted, 
heated, cooled, dunked... 
Firebee II has experienced the 
torture tests. Soon it will face 
trial by flight. 

RYAN Aeronautical Company's su- 
personic Firebee II is nearing con- 
clusion of static-ground tests in San 
Diego, California. It promises to be a 
new dimension in aerial targets as it nears 
start of September test flights. 

Designed and developed under direc- 
tion of the Naval Air Systems Com- 
mand, the newest relative in the Ryan 
family of Firebees will be test flown at 
the U. S. Naval Missile Center, Point 
Mugu, California. 

In its latest series of tests, the jet- 
powered target remained afloat for 24 
hours in San Diego Bay, using an air 
flotation bag that is self-contained in 
operational Firebees. 

Pressurized equipment compartments 
add increased buoyancy while the targets 
await retrieval. 

Earlier qualification tests of the two- 
stage sequential parachute recovery sys- 
tem were completed at the Naval Para- 
chute Test Facility, El Centro, California. 

Structural integrity of Firebee II was 
flotation bag that is self-contained in 
while, flight control and low altitude 

control systems have received final qual- 
ification tests for radio interference, high 
and low temperature, vibration, shock 
and environmental behavior anticipated 
during flight conditions. 

Final antenna checks are in work on 
production antennas and their subsystems 
for the new, 1,000 m.p.h. Firebee II. 

Ground tests of the remote-controlled 
target will continue into and beyond 
flight tests to provide maximum confir- 
mation data. 

Ground engine runs were conducted 
in engine test cells by Ryan, verifying 
design parameters and establishing opera- 
tional envelopes for the target vehicle. 

Temperature, pressure and fuel flow 
measurements were evaluated to deter- 
mine the engine system efliciency. In con- 
junction with this test series, functional 
tests of the fuel system were conducted to 
ascertain total usable fuel in level flight, 
maximum climb, dive and roll angles. 

After floating for 24 hours in San Diego 
Bay to test water-tight construction and 
buoyancy, the Firebee II static model is 
hoisted from water by Navy helicopter. 


Parachute recovery qualification 
tests at El Centra preceded flo- 
tation trial. Next up: fligfit tests. 

Ryan test engineers direct (left) 
as Firebee II is prepared for dunk 
into the waters of San Diego Bay. 

Pressurization lines attached to 
equipment compartments build up 
three pounds internal pressure to 
detect leaks during water tests. 

As static ground tests have con- 
firmed structural integrity of Fire- 
bee II, electronic control systems 
have passed radio interference, 
temperature, vibration, shock, 
plus range of environment tests. 


T. Claude Ryan, referred to by 
Charles Lindbergh as the man "who 
built the company that built the Spirit 
of St. Louis," examines Lindbergh's 
"Spirit" at the Smithsonian Institu- 
tion. Ryan founded Ryan Airlines, 
Inc., but had sold his interest in that 
company shortly before the original 
Spirit was built. Later, he formed 
the present Ryan Aeronautical Com- 
pany, is the Chairman of the Board 
and Chief Executive Officer today. 

Throngs gathered (at left) to witness 
40th anniversary of departure from 
San Diego by Lindbergh, saw replica 
"Spirit" fly over the city. Many spec- 
tators had worked on Lindbergh's 
original "Spirit" in 1927 at Ryan. 

Frank Tallman, owner of Tallmantz 
A viation Company and builder ot 
"Spirit II," addresses crowd gathered 
at Le Bourget Aerodome, Paris after 
completing the re-enactment flight. 

THE broad silvery wings of the airplane in 
the photo above haven't been seen from 
this angle in forty years. Even then, it is likely 
that no photographs were taken of Charles A. 
Lindbergh nudging his Ryan "Spirit of St. Louis' 
monoplane across the Atlantic Ocean from New 
York to Paris, France. 


Today, this "Spirit,"' the only exact reproduc- 
tion of the original aircraft ever created, is one 
of the most widely photographed airplanes in 
history. This shot was taken on a test flight as 
the aircraft flew over the Pacific Ocean. 

Built by Tallmantz Aviation Inc., Orange 
County Airport, California, the "Spirit of St. 

Louis 11" was piloted by the firm's president, 
Frank Tallman. Like the original built in 1927, 
the exact reproduction was built "by hand" 
to the original Ryan Airlines, Inc., drawings 
and specifications. Over the years, three Ryan 
Brougham aircraft had been converted to look 
like the original Spirit, but comparison shows 


The magic of Charles A. 
Lindbergh's "Spirit of 
St. Louis " cast its spell 
on the world this year at 
the 1967 Paris Air Show 


John van der Linde (left), chief mechanic on the the original Spirit and now retired, discusses fuselage 
construction of Spirit II with Frank Pine of Tallmantz Aviation, and T. Claude Ryan. 

a considerable difference in the aircraft. 

The first test flight of the new "Spirit" was 
flown in April 1967, within a few days of the 
first test flight in 1927 of the original. On May 
10, 1967, Tallman flew the new aircraft to San 
Diego and the North Island Naval Air Station. 
In 1927, North Island was called Rockwell 
Field and it was the point of departure for the 
Spirit as it got underway for St. Louis, New 
York and eventually Paris. 

On May 10, at 3:15 in the afternoon, exactly 
on the minute, Tallman took off from North 
Island in a re-enactment of the departure by 
Lindbergh. Tallman flew the new aircraft over 
San Diego, landing at Lindbergh Field, San 
Diego's International Airport. Lindbergh Field, 
dedicated to Lindbergh in 1928, is one block 
from the site where the original Spirit was built 
by Ryan Airlines, Inc. The present Ryan Aero- 
nautical Company is located at Lindbergh Field. 

Departing from the historical format, the 
new "Spirit" enjoyed a comfortable ride from 
San Diego to Paris — via St. Louis and New 
York — in a Military Airlift Command C-I4I. 

The wing was removed for the flight. 

In Paris the replica was re-assembled, then 
test flown. On May 21, 1967, forty years to 
the day, Tallman flew the new Spirit over Paris, 
past the Eift'el Tower to Le Bourget, re-enacting 
Lindbergh's historic landing. 

During the Paris Air Show the replica was 
given a place of honor at the entrance to the 
U. S. pavilion, under a scale reproduction of 
the "Gateway to the West" arch from St. Louis. 
It symbolized the theme of the U. S. pavilion 
that was dedicated to the "Spirit of Lindbergh." 

During the show several hundred thousand 
men, women and children craned their necks to 
examine the "Spirit." They remembered Lind- 
bergh's heroic adventure, an historic event that 
introduced aviation to the world. Inside the 
U.S. pavilion the past forty years of aerospace 
technology was imfoldcd in an impressive, co- 
ordinated pavilion that clearly was the hit of 
the show. 

The "Spirit of St. Louis 11" has been returned 
to San Diego, where it will become the featured 
exhibit in San Diego's Aerospace Museum. 


Rebuilt Wright J-5C engine, tlie same model used for Lindbergh "Spirit," begins first ground test. 

Authenticity of replica construction 
placed human skills in major role as 
Tallmantz employees in photos left- 
to-right above sew covers over wheel, 
assemble components and fit together 
ribs and sections of airplane's wing. 

Specialists in construction of vintage 
aircraft and movie versions of famous 
planes, workers followed original de- 
signs with skilled, painstaking care. 


Throngs at San Diego witnessed departure from Naval Air 
Station, North Island, known forty years ago as Rocl(well Field. 

Ryan created a special medallion to commemorate the fortieth 
anniversary of Lindbergh's flight, the first of which was pre- 
sented to President Lyndon Johnson at a White House cere- 
mony. With the President are Robert C. Jackson, Ryan President 
(left) and T. Claude Ryan. Chairman of the Board. 


Spirit" replica is placed on pylon at en- 
trance to U. S. Exhibit at Paris Air Show. 

Commemorative medallion was presented to people 
of Paris by San Diego Mayor Curran (left). 

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The Spirit received an enthusiastic reception at 
Paris as crowds pressed around the aircraft for 
a better lool(, or to asl( for Tallman's autograph. 

With Eiffel Tower in bacl<ground, Tallman heads 
the "Spirit" replica for landing at Le Bourget. 

Aerospace progress in forty years since Lindbergh 
flight is symbolized by commemorative medal. 


Historic linl< in relations between France 
and U. S. is symbolized by replica "Spirit 
of St. Louis" on display at Paris Air Show. 
French President Charles De Gaulle, flank- 
ed by aides and escorted by U. S. Ambas- 
sador Charles Bohlen, inspect displays on 
"Lindbergh Walk" leading to U. S. Exhibit. 

"Spirit" replica is dwarfed by towering tail section of Air Force 
C-141 jet transport that flew monoplane to Paris, departing San 
Diego 40 years from date of Charles A. Lindbergh's departure. 

Burnished cowl with "Spirit of St. Louis" 
emblazoned across side gave Ryan mono- 
plane immortal fame. After four decades, 
"Spirit" is still a world-famous aircraft. 


Offloaded "Spirit" replica completed trans- 
Atlantic flight in 6 hours, 57 minutes in 
Starlifter jet transport, compared with 33 
hr. — 30 min.. flight by Lindbergh in 1927. 

With Ryan solar panels extended. Mariner 5 
receives final inspection by JPL technicians 
before shipment to Cape Kennedy for mid-June 
launch toward October rendezvous with Venus. 

NASA's Mariner 5 probe is sailing ttirough space 
powered by Ryan-built solar panels, toward . . . 


TRUE AS AN arrow, America's 
Mariner 5 spacecraft is on course 
toward an October rendezvous with 
Venus, the misty planet named for the 
mythological goddess of love. 

Four sturdy solar panels mounted like 
a windmill are supplying electric 
power to the 540-pound space probe, 
essentially a redesign of the successful 
Mariner 4 ship that gave the world its 
first close-up view of Mars. 

Ryan Aeronautical Company designed 
and fabricated the lightweight, highly 
heat-resistant Mariner 5 solar panel sub- 
strates under contract to the Jet Propul- 
sion Laboratory of the California 
Institute of Technology. JPL manages 
NASA's unmanned space exploration 
programs. Ryan has delivered more 
than 80 Mariner panel structures since 
the initiation of the series in 1962. 

JPL has stated Mariner 5 should pass 
within 2000 miles of Venus in October. 

A second feature of Mariner 5's 
potential success is that it may lead to 
further Mariner missions. Jack N. James 
of JPL's lunar and planetary flight 
projects, said these missions might in- 
clude landing experimental packages on 
Mars and Venus, and a "double fly-by" 
of Venus and Mercury with one probe 
— all during the early 1970s. 

One objective of the 1967 Venus 
mission is to demonstrate the feasibility 
of converting space craft designed to 
investigate the planet Mars into one 
that can conduct similar investigations 
of the planet Venus. 

For Ryan's panels, this redesign meant 
use of more durable and more heat- 
resistant dielectric surface on the panel 
faces, and fabrication of smaller areas 
for the attachment of solar cells, J. R. 
Iverson, vice president-Ryan Electronic 
and Space Systems, said. 

Ryan's new dielectric facing can 
withstand temperatures up to 340 degrees 
F. This is important, Iverson pointed 
out, because the Mariner 5 probe will 
store data as it passes by Venus, and 
will telemeter this data back to Earth 
14 hours later as it flies toward the sun. 

The efl'ective solar cell surface area 
on the Mariner 5 panels is smaller than 
that used on the long-lived Mariner 4 
Mars vehicle — 43.6 square feet as 
compared with 70 square feet — for 
two reasons, Iverson said. 

"One, this spacecraft will travel toward 
the sun, rather than away from it as 
Mariner 4 did, and, therefore, will need 
fewer solar cells to reach the necessary 
electrical power level. And second, 
having the solar cell surfaces further 

Shorter, more reflective Ryan-designed panels 
optimize thermal control for rugged Mariner 5, 
which must sail toward sun to reach Venus. 


House Space Committee members listen as JPL Director Dr. William Pickering, 
third from right, details Venus study gains by Mariner. 

away from the spacecraft will permit 
better thermal control," he said. 

Mariner Mars used 28,224 solar 
cells, while this year's Mariner Venus 
uses 1 7,640 cells, according to JPL. 

For the new dielectric, Ryan structural 
engineers used a fiberglass cloth im- 
pregnated with epoxy resin, rather than 
just an epoxy coating on aluminum. The 
cloth is only .002-inch thick, and is laid 
on an aluminum foil panel .005-inch 
thick. These thin fiberglass and aluminum 
facings are stiffened by adhesive-bonding 
to an aluminum corrugation. Lightening 
holes pierce each corrugation. The 
corrugations are bonded to two alum- 
inum spars, which are hinged to the 

One of Ryan's key objectives in 
proving out solar panel reliability in 
predelivery environmental tests was to 
insure the Mariner 5 panels design would 
survive the high, near-Venus temperature 
and operate again. Ryan Program 
Manager Wes W. Vyvyan said the panels 
passed all tests without incident. 

Included were thermal vacuum and 
thermal shock tests, plus a series of 
mechanical vibration and electrical 
function tests at JPL. 

Ryan has built nearly 300 solar panel 
substrates over the past seven years, 
for spacecraft ranging through the 
Ranger and Mariner series, the Navy 
Navigation Satellites, and selected craft 
in the Explorer, Geos and Dodge 
satellite programs. 

Most recent is the Ryan deployable 

solar array, developed under contract to 
JPL for use on an unmanned Mars 
probe. The array wraps compactly on 
a drum for launch, unrolls in space to 
offer — at 50 square feet per panel — 
a larger solar cell surface area than any 
previous deep-space probe. 

Through the use of specially formed 
titanium support beams, the new roll-out 
array furnishes three times the solar 
cell surface area at the same unit weight 
as the Mariner 4 panels. 

JPL included the Ryan roll-out array 
in a recent demonstration of solar 
propulsion systems to members of the 
House Space Committee, including 
Rep. Joseph E. Karth, D. Minn., Chair- 
man of the Space Science Applications 

"We did a couple unique things in this 
design," Iverson remarked. "To support 
the substrate we created a titanium 
tube which can be roled flat around the 
drum, and when deployed can extend 
out as a rigid beam to support the panel. 
It can be extended and retracted again 
and again, to meet mission requirements. 

"Secondly," he continued, "we did 
away entirely with the usual metal 
backing to the substrate, having a three- 
mil-thick sheet of fiberglass-reinforced 
epoxy on which the solar cells will be laid. 

Iverson said growth potential of the 
roll-out concept appears unlimited. 
"This developmental model is 20 feet 
long and about three feet wide." he said. 
"With longer beams or broader drums, 
we can offer greater solar cell areas." 

4 P 


For Mariner series, Ryan has pro- 
duced more than 80 solar panels. 








A tri-service program is underway currently 
developing formation flight capabilities us- 
ing Ryan's jet-powered Firebee . . ■ 

Development of formation flight systems will add 

a totally new dimension to Firebee's performance 

Ryan Firebee jet target drone aircraft 
may soon slash across Army, Navy and 
Air Force weapons ranges in simulated 
formation air attacks. 

Flying in precision-controlled, two- 
plane sections, the fast-flying, maneuver- 
able Firebees will "stand-in" for enemy 
aircraft to provide a near perfect simu- 
lation of coordinated air attacks upon 
air defense systems. 

This new Ryan Firebee capability is 
under development by the Naval Ord- 
nance Test Station, China Lake, Cali- 
fornia. Called the Automatic Formation 
Drone Control (AFDC) System, the new 
program will allow the Navy to fly the 
BQM-34A and QF9J drone aircraft in 
formation for testing and evaluation of 
missile weapons systems. 

Ryan Aeronautical Company has been 
awarded a Navy contract to provide the 
Ryan Flight Simulation Laboratory and 
technical support services. 

Ryan engineering staffs will work 
closely with NOTS program officials, 
and, as directed by NOTS, with the 
present AFDC Contract Definition Phase 
contractors selected to compete for the 
Engineering Development Phase of the 
AFDC System. 

Ryan will use its complete simulation 
laboratory for operator-training, drone 
performance analysis, and formation 
flight guidance and control system design 
and evaluation. Results of simulations 
performed will be supplied to Navy pro- 
gram engineers and CDP Contractors. 

The Ryan program will also use its 
newly acquired "state-of-the-art" hybrid 
computer facility. Studies will include 
simultaneous six degrees of freedom sim- 
ulations of targets in the proposed mul- 
tiple-plane formations. 

Ryan engineering staffs, drawing upon 

nearly twenty years of experience in Fire- 
bee target drone design, manufacturing 
and systems improvement, developed an 
interim formation flying technique. 

Under a joint Army/ Navy effort at 
White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico, 
two Firebees have been flown in forma- 
tion between 300 and 800 feet apart. 

This development capability was ini- 
tiated by the Navy as a test and evalua- 
tion requirement for the new Standard 
missile soon to be tested at WSMR. 

This application uses a real time dis- 
play system by means of an IBM 7044 
computer to provide the remote control 
operators with information needed for 
two-target rendezvous and formation 
flight. It differs from the NOTS devel- 
opment approach in that the Firebees are 
flown independently by the remote opera- 
tors into position on the range for 
straight and level target presentations. 
The NOTS system envisions the lead 
Firebee in each section being accompan- 
ied in formation by a slave drone ve- 
hicle. The White Sands formation flight 
capability now is limited to operation at 
the desert facility. 

Although it is being sponsored directly 
by the Navy, the Automatic Formation 
Drone Control System is a tri-service de- 
velopment. The objective is to provide a 
completely automatic airborne system 
which is flexible and responsive to the 
need to operate at military target ranges 
in the United States and overseas. 

Success of the WSMR Formation flight 
program coupled with recent Ryan ad- 
vancements in Firebee performance will 
provide important assistance to the Navy 
in meeting this new requirement. 

Formation flight of two Ryan Firebee jets 
is traced on tracking film (at rig fit) during 
tests at White Sands, A/.M. Jet targets 
were flown 300 feet aoart In formation. 





helping add significant milestones to 
the development-test phases by the Navy 
of its F-lllB Phoenix missile system, 
serving as primary target vehicles for the 
lethal, air-to-air weapon system. 

Already credited with "kill" effective- 
ness in test firings against Firebees, the 
long range weapons until early this year 
were launched from an A3A Skywarrior 
equipped as a Phoenix test bed. 

With the delivery of an F-lllB (Navy 
version of the high-altitude jet fighter) 
to the west coast, mating of the weapon 
system and the aircraft has been achieved 
and initial test firings conducted. 

The first weapons launch, conducted 
near San Nicholas Island on the Navy's 
weapons range, scored a hit against the 
evasive, jet-powered Firebee and racked 
up an impressive "objectives achieved" 
rating for the test. 

Test reports indicate the system located 
the Firebee at long range by radar, 
locked onto the target and scored its 
"kill" in a flawless performance. 

The launch demonstrated the success- 
ful integration of the Phoenix with the 
F-lllB aircraft, a "swing-wing" jet 
fighter of advance design. The aircraft's 
Phoenix system is a long-range fire con- 
trol and armament system. It's designed 
mission is to provide fleet air defense as 
well as maintain air superiority over 
distant object areas. 

Firebee's support role for the Phoenix 
system is a continuation of service pro- 
vided by Ryan Firebees over a period of 

nearly two decades. Nearly every major 
weapons system now in the U. S. arsenal 
has been evaluated against evasive, jet- 
powered Firebees as part of their initial 
test programs. 

In the current Phoenix tests, directed 
by the Naval Missile Center and sup- 
ported by the Targets Department at Pt. 
Mugu, the remote-controlled Firebees are 
maintained and flown by Navy personnel. 

Ground or air launched, the Firebees 
are remote-controlled in flight over Pt. 
Mugu's sea ranges, located some fifty 
miles off the southern California coast. 
Used as targets for surface-to-air and 
air-to-air weapons exercises as well as 
weapons test and evaluation programs, 
the Firebees are flown to a sea recovery 
area upon completion of their mission. 

A self-contained parachute recovery 
system is activated to float the Firebee 
to the water's surface where it is 
retrieved by helicopter or boat and 
returned to the Targets Department for 
rehabilitation, engine and flight control 
checks and restored to the line for re-use. 

Offering speeds of more than 600 miles 
an hour and operational altitude of more 
than 50,000 feet, Firebees can perform 
missions requiring nearly two hours of 
on-range flght time. 

It is to Pt. Mugu that Ryan will soon 
deliver its Firebee II, a supersonic, 
growth-version target for initial flight 
testing. The advance design of Firebee 
II is expected to realistically match Army, 
Navy, and Air Force requirements well 
into the next decade. 



A3A Skywarrior launches Phoenix missile in early test over Pacific Missile Center range. System was developed for new F-1 1 1B. 

Ryan's let-powered Firebee (at right) 
assumes "enemy" role during Phoenix 
tests. F-1 1 1B scored "kill" against 
Firebee during its initial tests. 

Pt. Mugu Target Department techni- 
cian (lower left) records data during 
pre-flight check of Ryan jet Firebee. 

Phoenix missile under wing of ASA 
test aircraft (lower right) is designed 
to provide fleet air defense and main- 
tain the Navy's carrier air superiority. 

Ryan BQM-34A Firebee let target is 
fitted to wing pylon of Navy DP2E 
Neptune patrol bomber, modified to 
air-launch high-performance drone 
on range at Pacific Missile Center. 
Maintained and flown under direc- 
tion of Targets Department, Ryan 
Firebees are filling vital role in R&D 
evaluation of new weapons systems. 

Pt. Mugu Navy technician installs 
the electronic equipment in a Fire- 
bee jet target. Unit is responsible for 
maintenance control of NMC targets. 

Final checkout of Ryan Firebee jet 
is conducted in test chamber by 
Navy technician at Pt. Mugu (above). 

Navy's version of multi-service fight 
er aircraft, F1 1 IB will be armed with 
Phoenix missile system following 
successful tests against Ryan Fire- 
bees. New weapons system enables 
aircraft to track multiple targets 
simultaneously and guide multiple 
missiles at multiple targets at one 
time. Ryan jet-powered Firebees 
played maior role in developing this 
new capability. 


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Firebee retrieved from Pacific Ocean 
after successful mission is disassem- 
bled by Pt. Mugu technician, decon- 
taminated from the effects of salt 
water, then refurbished and readied 
for new mission over l\/lissile Center. 

Project pilots view F-111B Phoenix 
Missile, Navy's newest weapons 
system to undergo evaluation at Pt. 
Mugu. Designed and developed for 
F-1 11B multi-service fighter aircraft, 
system was successfully launched 
against Ryan Firebee, scoring a 
"kill" against its target high over 
Pacific Missile Center's sea ranges. 

Ryan Supersonic 

Firebee n 

A new breed of aerial target to meet 
tomorrow's training needs... today! 

A high performance, supersonic jet 
target to meet the challenge of train- 
ing our armed services, the Ryan Fire- 
bee II will soon obsolete every other 
aircraft of its kind. 

Its predecessors, Ryan's subsonic 

Firebees, are the most shot-at aerial 
targets in the world. Every major weap- 
ons system in our defense arsenal has 
been exercised against them. 

Specifications for Firebee II were 

unusually demanding, requiring both 
subsonic and supersonic performance 
in the same mission profile. Firebee 
II will soon be flight-tested at the U.S. 
Navy's Pacific Missile Range at Pt. 
Mugu. Test results are expected to be 
extremely good. 

Powered by a Continental YJ69-T-6 
turbojet engine, it will be capable of 
1000 miles per hour at 60,000 feet. 
In a typical subsonic-cruise/super- 
sonic-dash mission, Firebee II at Mach 
.95 will climb to 50,000 feet. After fly- 
ing subsonic, its external fuel pod will 
jettison and the target will climb to 
60,000 feet, reach a speed of Mach 
1.5 and cruise for another 20 min- 
utes. Total mission time: 1 hour, 15 

A recovery parachute will be auto- 
matically deployed to lower the target 
to the ground or water, where it will 

be retrieved, reconditioned and re- 
turned to service — a system which 
will make Firebee II the only re-usable 
supersonic jet target in existence. 

Firebee II — is the first supersonic 
turbojet aerial target to join the armed 
services. Another first for the Navy. 
Another first for Ryan. 

Being first 
is a Ryan 

R Y A N 



R Y A N 

NOV. /DEC. 1967 








R V A N 


Volume 28, No. 4 
Published by Ryan Aeronautical Company 
P. O. Box 311, San Diego, California 92112 

Public Relations Manager I George J. Becker, Jr. 

Managing Editor I Jack G. Broward 

Art Director I Al Bergren 

Departments I Robert P. Battenfield 

Electronic & Space Systems 

Charles H. Ogilvie 

Aerospace Systems 

Staff Photographer I Dick Stauss 
Staff Artist I Robert Watts 

A Touch of Venus 3 

Combat Aircrew Rescue 8 

The ABCs of Aerospace 13 

Electronic 'Eyes' 18 

Rehearsal by Radar 21 

Challenge 24 

A 'Short Course' in Soft Landing 29 

Fantastic Firebee 32 

Shades of Catling! 34 

Built to Roll Up 35 

""' raQ][pS[EP 

it was clearly a time for a 
Firebee family portrait as 
Ryan's 2000th BQM-34A 
Firebee rolled off the pro- 
duction lines this month. In 
twenty years and two gen- 
erations, Firebees have 
grown to world-wide use by 
the Navy-Army-Air Force. 
This family is symbolized on 
the cover by Stephen Ryan. 

,pr > . A 



Mariner 5 
success in 
Venus - 



ssioa. . .. 





Next generation solar panel employs 
roll-out technique to expose greater 
cell area, achieve greater power. Live 
cell patches prove performance. 

Uor 23 minutes in mid-October, across 50 
* million miles of space, the Mariner 5 space- 
craft put U.S. space scientists in touch with 
the planet Venus. 

Sensors operated with quick efficiency. 

Then, for 34 hours, while the four-armed 
craft sailed beyond the planet toward a per- 
petual orbit of the sun, more than 40,000 
words of important scientific and engineer- 
ing data — enough to fill a novel — were trans- 
mitted back to earth. 

Jet Propulsion Laboratory scientists re- 
ported that no radiation belts were noted, 
the planet's magnetic field is next to zero, 
temperatures in the upper atmosphere 
ranged up to 700 degrees F, and the atmos- 
phere itself seems to be composed of from 
72 to 87 per cent carbon dioxide. 

Also, radio tracking data gave the dis- 
tance between the earth and Venus to an 
accuracy of 20 feet. And an unexpected ultra- 
violet glow was seen on Venus' night side. 

None of this would have been possible 
without the reliable performance of the four 
rigid, perfectly aligned solar panels de- 
signed and built by Ryan Aeronautical Com- 

K 11 ■ • ■ 




■' J . . ; 




Scientists and engineers from university, government and industry plan and direct Mariner missions to gain knowledge of planets. 

. ♦' :,, ' 

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"■ ! 1 . 

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'I'D .'., 

'>•!! :;: ,,,, 

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Giant "210" -NASA Deep Space Network antenna 210-feet in dia- 
meter—tracked and commanded Mariner 5 spacecraft Venus trip. 




k<xA!f'^'fjV:7f'3S^r '^li'--: 

Computers whirr, miles of magnet- 
ic tape race by to capture great 
quantity of data from Mariner 5. 

pany. With a special, non-conductive, heat- 
resistant surface, the panels maintained 
efficient operating temperatures for the solar 
energy-absorbing silicone cells. The cells 
draw on the sun's energy to power the space- 
craft's batteries and sensors. Panel reliabil- 
ity is essential to the mission. 

Panel reliability will continue to be a key 
to the spacecraft's useful life. It will pass 
within 54 million miles of the sun next 
.January, closer than any previous space 
probe. Although recovery of the stored data 
from the fly-by satisfied primary mission 
objectives, JPL officials said an additional 
desired result is the gathering of data as 
close to the sun as possible. 

"This will be governed by the effect of 
increasing temperatures on the spacecraft," 
a JPL spokesman said. "The point at which 
increasing temperature will affect the opera- 
tion of the spacecraft is uncertain." 

Ryan's panels on Mariner 5 are more re- 

sistant to heat than earlier Ryan-Mariner 
models, because of this near-sun trajectory. 
.J. R. Iverson, Vice President-Ryan Elec- 
tronic and Space Systems, said the panels 
are faced with a new, non-conductive sur- 
face designed to withstand temperatures as 
great as 340 degrees F. Environmental tests 
met this specification without incident, he said. 

For the new panel surface, Ryan struc- 
tural engineers used a fiberglass cloth im- 
pregnated with epoxy resin, rather than just 
an epoxy coating on aluminum. The cloth is 
only .002-inch thick, and is laid on an alumi- 
num foil panel .005-inch thick. These thin 
fiberglass and aluminum facings are stif- 
fened by adhesive-bonding to an aluminum 
corrugation. Lightening holes pierce each 
corrugation. The corrugations are bonded to 
two aluminum spars, which are hinged to the 

Ryan panels were on the successful 
Mariner 2 Venus and Mariner 4 space probes. 


>^ - / -o ■ 



Jet Propulsion Laboratory technicians run tlirougti final Mariner 5 spacecraft ctieck. 

With Venus in sight, mission controllers at Jet Propulsion 
Lab pensively watch computer readout from on-board 
sensors as Mariner 5 swings swiftly by planet. 

Functional, yet a thing of beauty. Mar- 
iner 5 glistens in ligtit of space cham- 
ber at Jet Propulsion Laboratory. In 
flight past Venus and on toward sun, 
Ryan panels dissipate solar heat while 
electrical energy is absorbed by cells. 

Mariner 4 assisted in the Mariner 5 mission, 
providing correlating tracking data to improve 
the pinpoint passing maneuver. One week 
later, Mariner 4 was called upon again. JPL 
controllers commanded the spacecraft to dig 
into its tape recordings and reproduce a two- 
year old photograph of Mars. After 36 months 
in space, Mariner 4 has travelled nearly 1.5 bil- 
lion miles. Solar panel reliability is a large 
factor in this success. 

While Mariner 5 scored successes, Ryan 
engineers are at work on a new generation of 
solar panel structures to meet the needs of 
deep space probes of the future. Unlike the 
rigid Mariner panels, the new arrays roll out 
and away from the spacecraft, exposing more 
panel area to generate more electrical power 
than ever before. 

Vigorous environmental testing is now 
underway on the first, space-ready model of 
the deployable array. Sterilization tests will 
follow. Nearly 20 feet long and three feet 
wide, this first model offers 50 square feet of 
solar surface area, or 13 watts of solar elec- 
tric power per pound. Each Mariner 5 panel 
is approximately 11 square feet. 

Ryan recently won a second contract for 
design of an even larger deployable array 
that will expose 250 square feet and provide 
up to 30 watts per pound. 

The new deployable solar arrays wrap com- 
pactly on a drum for launch, and unroll 
in space. 

"We did several unique things in this de- 
sign," Iverson remarked. "To support the 
substrate we created a titanium tube which 
can be rolled flat around the drum, and when 
deployed can extend out as a rigid beam to 
support the panel. It can be extended and 
retracted again and again, to meet mission 

"Secondly," he continued, "we did away 
entirely with the usual metal backing to the 
substrate, having only a three-mil-thick sheet 
of fiberglass-reinforced epoxy on which the 
solar cells are laid." 

Iverson said growth potential of the roll- 
out concept appears unlimited. 

"With longer beams or broader drums, we 
can offer greater solar cell areas for the pro- 
vision of greater amounts of solar electrical 
power," he said. 

Ryan has built nearly 300 solar panel sub- 
strates over the past seven years, for space- 
craft ranging through the Ranger and Mariner 
series, the Navy Navigation Satellites, and 
selected craft in the Explorer, Geos and Dodge 
satellite programs. "^ ■ 


Ryan engineers, backed by more than 
two decades of pioneering VISTOL ex- 
perience, offer a solution to the grow- 
ing problem of . . . 





San Diego Tribune* 

(Recently returned from Vietnam where he 
covered day-to-day fighting on the ground, in 
the air and at sea, Lee Dye identifies a grow- 
ing problem of major proportions: the require- 
ment for effective aircrew rescue of U.S. 
pilots downed in North Vietnam). 

*Reprinted witli permission of the San Diego Tribune 

Day after day U.S. aircraft streak over 
the hilly coastline of North Vietnam 
and plunge down the fiery throat of one of 
the deadliest anti-aircraft systems in the 

They fight their way through a growing 
number of Russian-built surface-to-air 
missiles (SAMs) and dodge through ground 
fire that veteran pilots have described as 
worse than Korea or World War II. 

For most, each day is like any other. 
Somehow they escape the tons of flak 
which litter the sky, and they return to 
their base for another day. 

But for others, the bad odds, finally 
catch up. 

The United States has lost 689 planes 
in the air war over North Vietnam, as of 
Sept. 30, including at least seven rescue 
helicopters. Department of Defense 
spokesman say about half of the pilots 
have been rescued. 

Some 189 Navy and Air Force men are 
known captives. Nearly all of them are 

In addition, 436 Navy and Air Force 

men are listed as missing and most of 
these are pilots. 

There is one cardinal rule pilots follow 
whenever they get hit — head for open 
water. Once they're over the Gulf of 
Tonkin they can eject with minimum 
danger. Helicopters have chalked up a 
near perfect record for rescuing pilots who 
made it to the water. 

Yet the fact remains that many pilots 
of downed American aircraft are being 
held captive. 

"There was a time when helicopter 
rescues amounted simply to lowering a 
sling into the water and picking up the 
downed pilot, but it isn't that way any- 
more," said RAdm C. A. Karaberis, com- 
mander of Fleet Air San Diego. 

"When the pilots don't make it to the 
water it gets pretty rough. You've got a 
real problem if you send a helicopter into 
a heavily protected area. 

"They're vulnerable, and I suppose you 
could knock one down with a rock if you 
hit it just right." 

Navy attack pilots aboard carriers in the 

Ryan's proposed CAR A Model 230, de- 
picted in artist concept, is recovering 
two men simultaneously as a strike 
aircraft suppresses enemy ground fire. 
Jet-powered VISTOL aircraft would ac- 
company strike force on mission, loit- 
ering at altitudes safe from ground fire 
until recovery mission develops. Capa- 
ble of rapid descent, aircraft converts 
to lift-fan power for hover during recov- 
ery. Concept proposed by Ryan offers 
recovery in mid-air; vertical landing at 
rescue site or cable lift in tiover mode. 

Gulf of Tonkin told this reporter that heli- 
copter losses during rescues have forced 
military leaders to establish rigid rules 
governing rescues — even to the extent of 
prohibiting the helicopters from trying to 
reach a pilot unless he has been sighted 
visually and is in a relatively safe area. 

■"It doesn't make sense to send a heli- 
copter with a four-man crew after one 
pilot if there's a strong chance the chopper 
won't make it back." one pilot said. "That's 

bad odds." 

During the past few months the mili- 
tary has concentrated its efforts on devel- 
oping better survival aids for downed 
pilots — such as compact, long range radios 
— but many are beginning to wonder if 
more attention should be directed toward 
the most critical problem of all, the heli- 
copters themselves 

The war in Vietnam has proven that the 
helicopter is without equal as an instru- 

ment of both mercy and death. 

Yet the helicopter is not without limita- 
tions, and more and more aviators are 
beginning to ask if it's time to hatch 
another bird. 

The helicopter's most serious limita- 
tion is speed, according to Army Col. John 
Geary, military assistant to the director 
for tactical aircraft systems in the Depart- 
ment of Defense. 

"We've learned that the quicker the re- 

"Mayday" call from pilot who has ejected from his crippled strike 
aircraft draws rapid response from Ryan's proposed Combat 
Aircrew Recovery Aircraft which has accompanied the strike 
force to target area. It would attempt mId-aIr recovery, retrieving 
cable extended from main canopy and reel pilot into passenger 
compartment or descend rapidly In hover mode to affect recovery. 

sponse, the better the chance of rescuing 
the downed aviator," Geary said during a 
telephone interview. 

Ahhough some helicopters exceed 200 
knots, even the fastest helicopters are 
unable to keep up with the strike force. 
Thus when a pilot goes down there norm- 
ally is a substantial delay before the chop- 
per can reach him. 

Most observers agree there is a need for 
an entirely new type of vehicle specifically 

designed for rescues over a hostile land 
— even capable of plucking the pilot out of 
the air before he reaches fhe ground. The 
new vehicle would augment the choppers, 
not replace them. 

The Defense Department took the 
problem to industry. 

Essentially, the government asked for a 
high performance aircraft with the com- 
bined characteristics of a fighter and a 
helicopter. In other words, it will take a 

distinctively new aircraft to do the job that 
the choppers can't. 

Ryan Aeronautical Co. submitted an 
improved versionof its fan-in-wingXV-5 A. 
The proposal is basically a fighter which 
uses fans to deflect the jet blast downward 
for hovering and vertical flight. The plane 
would be capable of speeds of 500 knots 
and could accompany the strike force and 
remain in the area throughout the strike. 

Ryan's version is believed to be the fast- 

Using lift fans in wings and fuselage, Ryan's proposed 
Vertifan Model 230 aircraft would acfiieve vertical takeoff- 
landing operations to minimize fligtit deck requirements. 



Augmentation of suppressive ground 
fire by strike aircraft is provided by its 
own mini-gun pods as Ryan's Vertifan 
plane descends in hovering mode to 
recover downed aircrewmen In hostile 
area. Capable of high altitude, hot tem- 
perature hovering operations, CARA 
Model 230 lifts men via cable through 
hatch underneath fuselage. Compart- 
ment can be configured for 5 or 3 pas- 
sengers, according to mission needs. 

Ground recovery, when circumstances 
permit, could be affected through ver- 
tical landing-takeoff capabilities of 
Ryan Vertifan aircraft. One of the major 
problems involved in current recovery 
techniques is lack of rapid response. 
Ryan's proposed Model 230 would ac- 
company strike force to target area to 
provide instant recovery either in mid- 
air, in hover mode over recovery area 
or by landing in clearing to take man 
aboard as illustrated in artist concept. 


est plane proposed. 

John Bain, chief of Ryan's operations 
research and advanced systems depart- 
ment, said the system could be installed in 
existing jets, thus theoretically giving 
nearly any jet aircraft — including airliners 
and fighters — vertical capabilities. 

Defense officials told the Evening 
Tribune that various proposals are being 
evaluated, but declined to show preference 
for any of the designs. 

It may well be that none of the proposals 
would meet the needs, but a growing 
number of aviators are convinced of one 

Something has to be done. mm^ ^ 

Survivability, a key feature of Ryan Model 230, incorporates armament, redundant sys- 
tems and compatibility of aircraft througt) design to operate with jet strii<e aircraft. 

Operational compatibility of Ryan 
Model 230 with strike aircraft is de- 
picted as mission requiring mid-air 
refueling evolves. Taking its turn, 
CARA is pumping in fuel that will ex- 
tend its cruise range as required to 
accompany the strike force to target 
area, recover aircrewmen if any are 
downed and return to home base. 

Mid-air recovery of pilot who ejected 
from strike aircraft would be achieved 
through snagging cable attached to 
main canopy and reeling man into pas- 
senger compartment. Chute will dump 
its lift air as man isdrawncloserto plane. 

Instructors familiarize trainee at Ryan with Firebee flight systems checkout console as part of training. 


No element in Ryan's forty years of 

aerospace progress has served this advance 

more faithfully than training . . . 

Training— that process involving human 
adaptability to unique or new functions 
— is filling a role of instrumental value at 
Ryan Aeronautical Company today. 

Never has the process been more critic- 
ally important or complex. 

Defense capabilities of the Army, Navy 
and Air Force are maintained at peak 
levels through weapons exercises using 
Ryan jet-powered Firebees as "enemy" 

Every major weapons systems in the 
U.S. arsenal today has either been tested, 
evaluated or developed through the use of 
Firebee targets. 

Navy anti-submarine warfare heli- 
copters deployed throughout the world 
rely to a large extent on Ryan Doppler 
navigation systems for mission success. 

Apollo astronauts, aiming for man's 
first soft-landing on the moon within the 
next two years, will use Ryan's landing 
radar system as a system component of 
major importance. 

In each of these instances, Ryan train- 
ing programs are being applied to teach 
its field support personnel as well as 
customer technicians the knowledge and 
skills leading to mission attainment. 

Head of a 22-man instructor staff at 
Ryan is Ray S. Hatherill, who maintains 
that requirements for technical training 
will continue to mount as man advances 
into the realm of the unknown. 

"Support demands are infinite in scope. 
The technological advance of today is 
eclipsed in a matter of months. 

"The disciplines are so rigid that a man 
must either attend continuing courses of 
instruction or, as in our case, replenish 
the supply of support personnel on a con- 
tinuing basis," he declares. 

Hatherill's courses of instruction are 
designed for versatility: they can be taught 
at the San Diego plant locations or in the 
field where customers must maintain and 
conduct systems operations. 

In the latter case, Ryan instructors are 
currently conducting courses of instruc- 
tion at the Naval Missile Center, Pt. 
Mugu. Civil service personnel as well as 
Navymen assigned to maintenance and 

support of Ryan BQM-34A Firebees are 
enrolled in the classes. 

Fifty-seven Ryan field support tech- 
nicians, now assigned at Tyndall Air 
Force Base, Florida, in place of active- 
duty Air Force personnel, were graduated 
from courses of instruction early this 
year. The Ryan team racked up an impres- 
sive 100 percent reliability of target opera- 
tions in its first full month of activity. 

Under contract to the Army, teams of 
Ryan Firebee field support technicians 
will deploy next year to overseas areas to 
conduct on-site weapons exercises. 

The first program of its kind ever de- 
vised, Ryan's operational maintenance 
and support of Firebee weapons exercises 
will fill a critically important role in main- 
taining our front-line defense capabilities. 

Thousands of miles distant from this 
operation, a Ryan field support team 
based at Puerto Rico's Atlantic Fleet 
Weapons Range is helping keep the 
Navy's defenses in peak condition. 

Through use of Firebee targets, Ryan's 
team on the AFWR facility is now in its 
fifth year of support operations. During 
this period of time innumerable systems 
advances have been realized, each re- 
quiring new knowledge and skills. 

Drawing heavily on seasoned engineers 
or technically skilled personnel employed 
in field support assignments for his staff, 
Hatherill's faculty imparts both working 
knowledge of subject systems and updated 
technical data in their classes. 

Typically, a Firebee support class will 
include eight weeks of training in airframe, 
avionics and propulsion systems. Basic 
information is taught in the Ryan plant in 
San Diego. Trainees are then assigned to 
field support teams for on-the-job phases 
of training that completes the cycle. 

Customer training is accommodated by 
dispatching special instructor teams to the 

Ryan instructor Ralph Sargent (right) is a 
member of a training team at Navy M/ss/7e 
Center, Pt. Mugu, Calif., teaching Navy civilian- 
military personnel BQM-34A Firebee ground 
handling, maintenance and operational 
techniques. Student in photo is watching 
Sargent rewind cable used in towing targets 
for gunnery exercises on Pacific ranges. 


Customer training by Field Service representa- 
tives like Charles Howell (above left) 
gives Ryan continuing contact with 
its users and helps maintain integrity of 
Firebee product applications in operational use. 


Instructor Randy Rundle familiarizes men to be 
assigned instructor duties with basic 
Firebee schematics. Typical class 
of eight weeks in-plant instruction Is fol- 
lowed by assignments to field operations. 

on-site location. Such was the case last 
year when four Ryan support technicians 
were assigned to Barber's Pt., Hawaii, to 
conduct BQM-34A Firebee operational 
training for the Navy's Fleet Composite 
Squadron-One based there. 

In-house training at San Diego includes 
special courses of instruction related to 
Ryan AN/APN-182 Doppler Navigation 
systems; Firebee versions of sub and 
supersonic systems; Lunar Module land- 
ing radar electronic test systems: and 
special courses in the use of equipment 
supporting these systems. 

One special course to be taught in the 
near future is designed to support Ryan's 
V/STOL Vertifan aircraft, the XV-5B. 
Due for modifications and transfer to 
NASA for test flights next year, the air- 
craft flight programs will be supported by 
Ryan personnel at Ames Research Center, 
Moffett Field, California. 

"Our programs are primarily based on 
teaching systems function," explains 
Hatherill, noting that constant improve- 
ments present a continuing need for either 
refresher training or, in the case of new 
personnel, complete familiarization. 

Specialized training courses are fre- 
quently provided as occasions require. 
Such was the case when Ryan developed 
and produced the Firefish target boat 
system for the Navy. 

A new product area, Firefish target 
boats were placed into operational use 
some six months following receipt of 
Navy requirements. 

Navy personnel charged with mainten- 
ance and operational control had to be 
trained in a minimum time period. 

Ryan established a training- 
familiarization course, enrolled Navy per- 
sonnel in classes at San Diego and pro- 
vided a nucleus of Navy instructors. 



Group instruction from Sargent for civil service employees at 
Pt. Mugu will be applied in Firebee Towbee flight. 



Training Director Ray S. Hatherill (above left) discusses upcom- 
ing instruction with members of his staff at Ryan. 





Instructor Sargent (2nd from right) conducts class in Firebee 
avionics for Pt. Mugu Targets Dept. personnel. 




In-plant training by instructor Don Kohler (center) is con- 
ducted for men due soon for assignments in field. 










A member of Ryan training staff at Pt. Mugu, Norb Cormier 
familiarizes trainees with Firebee equipment stowage. 



In addition, Ryan field representatives 
were dispatched to Atlantic Fleet home 
ports to conduct on-site, training- 
familiarization courses. 

In most instances, Hatherill points out, 
anticipation of support requirements pro- 
vides time for personnel training, either 
Ryan or customer technicians, as a new 
system is being developed. 

Working with the Navy and Army, 
Ryan Firebee engineers within the past 
two years have added growth applica- 
tions to the existing subsonic Firebee. 

These include low-level flight and In- 
creased Maneuverability adaptations, 
retro-fitted in many instances by customer 
technicians at their on-site locations. 

The advent of these improvements to 
existing systems was accompanied by the 
enrollment of Ryan personnel in training 
courses. Equipped with this latest knowl- 
edge of Firebee systems function, the 
technical representatives were dispatched 
to customer environments to transmit 
their knowledge first-hand, to military 

"Our training programs embrace a 
philosophy as well as subject material," 
Hatherill adds. "We realize that our prod- 
ucts can only satisfy customer needs when 
they function as designed. 

"From design tables, to production 
lines, then to the customer, Ryan capabil- 
ity includes the provision for insuring 
customer satisfaction." 

This capability stems, in a large degree, 
from the active interest generated by Ryan 
since 1922, when the Ryan Flying School 
first opened its doors for business. 

Training techniques, technical advance 
and people themselves have assumed new 
levels of importance since those days. 

That's where Ryan first started teach- 
ing the A,B,C's of aerospace. ^B^ ■ 




t il 


Firebee fligfit control trainee gets a checkout from Sargent in 
DP2E Neptune used by Navy for launch operations. 


Whirling rotor blades slice morning 
sky over New Mexico desert as NASA 
helicopter simulates landing maneu- 
vers of Apollo Lunar Module. Flight 
tests prove performance of Ryan LM 
landing radar. Antenna is encased 
in black radome. electronic unit is 
inside helicopter with monitoring gear. 

Flight tests are proving reliable radar control for Apollo moon landings . 


In a demonstration of the range of 
Ryan radar capabilities, tiiree Ryan 
radars were teamed recently by National 
Aeronautics and Space Administration 
engineers for flight evaluations of the 
Apollo Lunar Module landing radar. 

The series of flight tests at Holloman 
AFB, N.M., involved Ryan's LM Lunar 
Radar, Radar Scatterometer, and the 
AN/APN-130 Doppler Navigator. All 
three radars were installed on the NASA 
SH-3A helicopter which performed the 
first portion of the two-part test program. 
The second phase began in mid-October 
with a T-33 jet trainer. 

The flight tests simulate as nearly as 
possible on earth, the speeds, altitudes and 
rates of descent of the Lunar Module. The 
SH-3A helo rehearsed the vertical de- 
scent and hover. High speed approach 
and start of the descent sequence is simu- 

lated by the jet. 

Use of the three radars demonstrated 
the scope and versatility of the Ryan 
radar product line, according to J. R. 
Iverson, Vice President-Ryan Electronic 
and Space Systems. 

The AN/APN-130 Doppler is the 
serviceable navigation system in use by 
anti-submarine warfare forces in SH-3A 
patrol helicopters of the U.S. Navy and 
many foreign navies. At Holloman, the 
test pilots used the radar for navigation 
to the test site and to control velocity 
during descents. 

Ryan's Lunar Module landing radar 
system is the prime component in the 
moon landing vehicle's automatic, closed- 
loop flight control system. It serves as the 
"eyes" of the Apollo astronauts as they 
make their approach and soft-landings on 
the lunar surface, continuously measur- 

Shadow of helicopter races over sage and sand during reflectivity comparisons v\fith Ryan radar. 

ing speed and altitude. 

These measurements are fed into the 
LM guidance computer to control the 
Lunar Module's rate of descent as it slips 
from orbital flight around the moon, 
brakes, hovers and touches down. 

The LM antenna was encased in a 
radome on the underside of the helicopter 
and jet aircraft. The electronic assembly 
is installed within the aircraft with other 
monitoring and recording equipment. 
Special range cameras and ground com- 
puters are used in gathering and analysis 
of test data. 

The Ryan Radar Scatterometer was 
used to match radar reflectivity measure- 
ments with the LM radar. Built for 
NASA's Manned Spacecraft Center, the 
Scatterometer has been flown over a wide 
variety of lunar-like sections of earth to 
gather basic return data. 

Measurements of terrain over lava beds, 
mountains, rocky hillsides and water 
gathered by the Scatterometer indicates 
the level of radar signal return that can 
be expected to bounce back from the ir- 
regular face of the moon. ^■■1 ^ 

Ryan engineer Joe Wahnish monitors radar signal reliability. 


Rocket thrust lifts NASA Lunar Landing Training Vetiicle while astronaut guides with radar controls in art concept. 


Ryan radars on Surveyor, 
Apollo LM lead 
naturally to a Ryan system 
on the Apollo Lunar 
Landing Training Vehicle . . 



Awierd-looking, rocket-powered ve- 
hicle makes a radar-controlled de- 
scent, hovers, and touches down softly on 
spider-like legs on the runway at Ellington 
AFB, Texas. 

At the controls is not a visitor from 
some other planet, but instead, an earth- 
man preparing to make his own flight into 
outer space. 

It is a flight of an Apollo astronaut in 
NASA's new Lunar Landing Training 
Vehicle (LLTV). As he ascends, descends, 
hovers, turns, his primary flight control 
is drawn from velocity and altitude in- 
formation furnished by radar sensors 
produced by Ryan Aeronautical Company. 

America's Apollo astronauts will re- 
ceive valuable training in the LLTV. 
rehearsing for their soft landings on the 
moon. When that day comes, the\ uill 
rely upon another Ryan radar, the lunar 
landing radar for the Apollo Lunar 
Module. And they will land on a site that 
has been scouted bv an unmanned Sur- 

Five-sixths of earth's gravity is subtracted 
by training vehicle's gimballed rocket engine. 

Earlier Lunar Landing Researcli Vetiicle proved 
fliglit teclinique of unusual craft, using 
modified Ryan AN/APN-97 radar system 
for hover, descent and flight control. 

Apollo Astronaut Neil Armstrong, pictured 
in Gemini, flew with Ryan LLTV radars. 

New LLTV Flight Data System showed reliable performance 
in Ryan tests with helicopter and an instrumented pace van. 

Test Pilot Bill Anderson, right, discusses 
flight test with Engineer Rudy Baumann. 

veyor spacecraft, also brought to a suc- 
cessful touchdown by a Ryan radar. 

As the LLTV flies, it virtually stands 
on the downward thrust of a gimballed 
jet rocket to give the astronaut the feel 
of the moon's gravity — one sixth of the 
earth's — lifting him to altitudes of up to 
1000 feet and to speeds as great as 65 mph. 

Acting on radar information, attitude 
jets fire to propell the LLTV forward, 
backward or sideways. The radars accur- 
ately inform the astronaut pilot of his 
position and rate of motion in any direc- 
tion by measuring altitude and velocity 
in relation to the ground. The system is 
comprised of a pulse radar altimeter and a 
Doppler velocity sensor. Altitude and 
velocity indicators are also supplied by 
Ryan for the trainer cockpit displays un- 
der the Ryan/NASA contract. 

The LLTV flight data system is a 
"second generation" radar for the astro- 
naut training mission. In 1963, NASA's 
Lunar Landing Research Vehicles (LLRV) 
were equipped with modified Ryan 
AN/APN-97 Doppler radar navigators 
for a three-year successful flight test 

program at Edwards AFB, Calif. These 
two LLRVs have been redesigned for the 
astronaut training mission, giving NASA 
a total of five "touchdown trainers." 
Both the research craft and the trainer 
were designed and manufactured by Bell 
Aerosystems Company, Buffalo, N.Y. 

Ryan's new radar features major re- 
finements. Improvements involve use of 
smaller electronic components to save 
weight and increase reliability, and in 
selection of a flat, slotted planar array 
receiver-transmitter to replace the two 
dish antennas used on the research ve- 
hicle. Also, the antenna is placed directly 
on the underside of the signal processor, 
rather than having two separate units. 

Accuracy of the LLTV flight data 
system was demonstrated in a NASA- 
supported flight test program held at the 
Ramona Raceway. Paced by an instru- 
mented van on the raceway track, a heli- 
copter equipped with the LLTV radars 
flew at various test speeds and altitudes. 
NASA program manager for the LLTV, 
J. P. Bigham, observed the flights, and 
Apollo Astronaut Neil Armstrong per- 

sonally flew the flight test helicopter 
during a visit to Ryan facilities. 

"Test results were quite satisfactory," 
remarked J. R. Iverson, vice president- 
Ryan Electronic and Space Systems. 
"Astronaut Armstrong was very pleased 
with the simplicity of the cockpit indica- 
tor display and with the reliable perform- 
ance of the radar system." 

Ryan Project Engineer for the LLTV 
Flight Data System is Rudy Baumann. 
Dean Ellertson headed the design and 
development of the altimeter portion. 
Other engineers on the design and produc- 
tion team are Wally Underwood, Russ 
Martin, Ron Bietz, Bob Golden, Ed Zig- 
man, Dick Bills, Dick Buffington, Dick 
Zuefeldt, Herb Lauer, Niel Westerfeld, 
Pete Bower, and Ron Naylor. 

Ryan designations for the sensors are 
the Model 547 Doppler Velocity Sensor 
and the Model 602 Radar Altimeter. 
Singly and in combination, the sensors 
offer light weight and high reliability for 
a variety of fixed wing and rotary wing 
aircraft applications with the Navy, Air 
Force and Army. i^HB ^ ^ 




This story is about the "man-behind- 
the-man-behind-the-gun," a chapter 
too often missing from combat chron- 
ologies. It substitutes hustle for heroism. 

Fleet Composite Squadron Three's 
story begins at the U.S. Naval Air Station, 
North Island, California. Home based 
there, as one of the Navy's oldest units of 
its kind and the largest, the unit includes 
some 750 officers and enlisted men. 

Collectively, they represent one of the 
major factors contributing to the Navy's 
spectacular success in Vietnam waters. 

Their job: Keep the fleet in fighting trim. 

They do it with targets; large and small, 
airborne and waterborne, towed and flown. 
When they run out of standard targets, 
they invent their own. 

One of the most recent in the latter 
category may soon reap a five-man team 
nearly $2500 in Beneficial Suggestion 
prize money. 

They devised a lightweight device that 
can be towed by prop-driven target sys- 
tems. Infared flares mounted on the towed 
target attract heat-seeking missiles in- 
stead of the more expensive primary 
target system. 

"Simple to make, inexpensive and ef- 
fective," explained Lieutenant K. A. 
Neeb, one of the five inventors of the 
system. The others are V. T. Steele, 
ADRC: W. Grimes, AFMC: J. L. Pat- 
terson, AMS3: and J. C. Collums, ATI. 

"We thrive on challenge," mused Com- 
mander Chris W. Lamb, during a recent 
interview. Skipper of the unit that was 
originally commissioned in 1939 at its 
present location, the quiet-spoken three- 
striper is fiercely proud of his men. 


U.S. Navy photos by Herb Steiber, PHI 


He feels the squadron's motto, "Profes- 
sional Service is Our Most Important 
Product," has individual application. 

"The qualities of ingenuity and initia- 
tive have become our stock in trade. And 
we combine them with hustle, around-the- 
clock hustle," commented Lamb, an An- 
napolis graduate who served VC-3 as 
Executive Officer before assuming com- 
mand of the unit early this year. 

Typically, a day's operations for VC-3 
might include target services for ships en- 
route to Hawaii from west coast home 
ports. Final touches are applied in surface 
deployed into combat zones. 

During that same span of 24 hours, 
VC-3 personnel might also provide tar- 
get services for Marines manning Hawk 
missile batteries at Twenty-Nine Palms, 

And while there, target services would 
also be provided for other Marines firing 
Redeye, surface-to-air missiles. 

Meanwhile, the Squadron's mission 
might include target support activities 
at Yuma, Arizona, where Navy attack- 
fighter aircraft rehearse for combat. 

Guided missile cruisers and destroyers 
could be launching their weapons at other 
targets over the Pacific Missile Range. 
And still other targets would be in use off 
San Clemente Island. 

All in a day's time. 

"Make that night, too," appeals Lamb. 

His unit's formal mission is to provide 
target services for the Pacific Fleet, a 
task that includes gunnery-weapons exer- 
cises by surface vessels and aircraft of 
all sizes, shapes and types. 

To carry it out, VC-3 uses tow-target 
sleeves, small, prop-driven aircraft remote- 
controlled in flight, jet-powered Ryan 
Firebees that offer near-sonic speeds and 
maneuverability that matches enemy air- 
craft, plus a range of other target devices 
and systems for aerial and surface use. 

Among the latter is the Ryan Firefish 
target boat system, the development of 
which for operational use in the fleet is 
attributable to VC-3. 

Faced with a diminishing supply in the 
Firefish target boat availability, squadron 
personnel are currently testing a Twofish 
system that would preserve the more 
costly target boat from rocket damage 
during air-to-surface firing practice. 

Designed for high sea state operations 
and high performance speed and man- 
euverability ranges, Firefish target boats 
frequently suffer hull damages from 
shrapnel hits. 

Faced with increasing requirements 
for the remote-controlled target boat, Fire- 
fish maintenance men have developed their 
own hull repair shop. 

"We learn to make do in this line of 
work." explained LCDR Steve Sanford, 
Target Officer, noting that low budgets, 

Stem-to-stern maintenance of Ryan Firefisti 
target system is supplied by VC-3's crack 
team. High performance Firefishi is one of 
tfie Navy's most widely used surface targets. 

limited spare parts and outdated equip- 
ment are common in target operations. 

"This breeds challenge, though. And, 
this is the element that the men find 
appealing," he noted. 

Another appealing feature is the 
optional type duties available to squadron 
personnel. VC-3 has two target tender 
vessels, the USS Kalmia and USS 
Targeteer, plus a target recovery boat as 
its own "fleet". 

Special detachments of target personnel 
are assigned to customer environments 
for on-site operations. Included in this 
category are assignments to San Clemente 
Is. for gunnery training requirements and 
training courses conducted there by VC-3 
for shipboard personnel using anti- 
submarine warfare DASH helicopters. 

Consuming about 25 percent of its 
services on the special detachment basis 
are the Marine Corps Hawk and Redeye 
missile batteries at Twenty-Nine Palms. 
Another detachment, based at Yuma, 
Arizona, supports missile exercises over 
the Mojave Desert ranges. 

Still other detachments are dispatched 
to overseas areas for target operation sup- 
port. One such assignment took a VC-3 
unit to Vietnam last year to conduct Ryan 
Firebee operations for Marine Hawk units. 

"A man gets shore duty, overseas 
shore duty, shipboard or flight assign- 
ments. This gives us considerable flexi- 
bility not common to normal squadron 
assignments," points out Commander 
M.A. Patten, Executive Officer. 

The unit's normal operations involve 
the use of 13 L1S2C twin-engined patrol- 
type aircraft for target sleeve towing; two 
DP2E converted patrol bombers for 
Firebee launch missions and two C-54 
transports for shuttling men and equip- 
ment to field locations for target operations. 

Also in its inventory in one RS2C, 
specially configured ASW aircraft for 
aerial photographic missions. The only 
one of its kind in the Navy, innovation 
and ingenuity are once again reflected in 
its modifications. 

One of the squadron's collateral mis- 
sions is the support of weapons systems 
evaluation through target services, an area 
in which Firebees have played a major 
role in the past ten years. 

When Ryan's growth-version, super- 
sonic Firebee II is turned over to the 
Navy for operational evaluation, VC-3 
will accept this responsibility and mark 
another milestone of historic significance. 

Aircraft maintenance crew (at right) give 
aging DP2E Neptune its pre-flight check. 
Firebees suspended from wings are launch- 
ed into remote flight pattern over ranges. 

Leadership training for enlisted petty officers 
VC-3 contributes directly to unit's performancl 

.)» N»- j^Tiy^y:: . - . . 

Commander Lamb's hustling command 
has distinguished itself over recent years 
through the introduction and conduct of 
leadership training classes for enlisted 
personnel. The squadron regularly enrolls 
its own personnel plus those from North 
Island-based squadrons in locally origin- 
ated classes of instruction. 

"A major statistic we can oifer to support 
the value of this training program is our 
re-enlistment rate of 1 7 percent, well above 
the Pacific Fleet average," asserted Herb- 
ert L. Stieber, PH 1 , a photographer who 
turns his hat around to become instructor 
several days each week. 

Relatively few of Lamb's 60 officers and 
700 enlisted men actively participate in 
the drama of an aerial target mission. 
Flight crews for the DP2E target launch 
aircraft and US2C two-target planes con- 
stitute only a small percentage of the 
squadron's full complement. 

VC-S detachments assigned to San Clemente 
Island (at left) conduct training courses for 
stiipboard personnel in operation of DASH 
anti-submarine warfare tielicopters at sea. 


Plane crew gets pre-flight briefing at 
NAS, Nortti Island, home base for VC-3. 

Firebee launched from DP2E heads for firing ranges under remote control. 

VC-3 skipper, Commander Chris Lamb (facing camera) listens to operational reports during squadron officers conference. 

"The success of a mission demands the 
active support of all hands, though,"" as- 
serts Commander M. A. Patten, Execu- 
tive Officer. 

Divided into Airframe, Avionics and 
Propulsion divisions, the aircraft and tar- 
get maintenance and support elements of 
VC-3 bear awesome responsibility for at- 
tainment of mission objectives. 

Millions of dollars in equipment, time 
and involvement of thousands of person- 
nel are at stake during target operations. 

More significant, as Patten points out, 
"the training we provide for combat readi- 
ness has a direct influence on units going 
into action.'" 

This accounts for a big share of the 
"hustle" personality of the Squadron. 

But, a recent letter received by Com- 
mander Lamb from a ship commander in 
Vietnam waters expressed it more suc- 
cintly; "Thank God for those VC-3 
targeteers!" M^^ ^ 


■■•■: r.'l -ill I" ^:^->^•:^^•v .;i-, 


Navy's biggest unit of its kind, VC-3 officers and enlisted men play 
key role in maintaining operational readiness of forces afloat through 
weapons development-training duties. 










«.- , 3Kt'^^ < ;.v 

"It was tight, but we made it," Program Manager E. Bruce Clapp, 
riglit. tells Vernon J. Poehls. systems analyst, as they discuss 
Surveyor 5 radar-controlled descent to moon last September. 


'n] ompare it to driving a car, blind 
folded, full speed into a garage, and 
JJJ stopping short of slamming through 
the back wall. 

That's how close Surveyor 5 came to 
smashing into the moon's Sea of Tran- 
quillity September 10. 

For the Ryan landing radar system, it 
was a highly condensed sequence. The 
Radar Altimeter and Doppler Velocity 
Sensor system proved itself capable once 
again. Three Surveyor spacecraft are now 
on the moon, gently placed there under 
radar control. Even in the ill-fated Sur- 
veyor 2, which tumbled uncontrollably 
and crashed, and in Surveyor 4, which 
presumably exploded — even in these 
incompleted missions, the Ryan radar has 
operated successfully. It gathered thermal 
data on Surveyor 2 and was turned on, 
ready to take control, when Surveyor 4 
fell silent. 

Surveyor 5 gave the Ryan radar a 
"short course" in soft landing. 

"Normally we take control of the space- 
craft at around 40,000 feet, and have a 
little over two minutes to straighten it up, 
slow it to a descent rate of three mph, turn 
off the engines at 14 feet and put it down. 
This time, we had less than one minute 
and only 4,400 feet," said E. Bruce Clapp, 
Ryan Surveyor/LM program manager. 

"It was tight, but we made it," he said. 

Tight it was. In just 40 hours, the Sur- 
veyor 5 command team of NASA. Jet 
Propulsion Laboratory and Hughes Air- 
craft Company oflficials literally rewrite 
the spacecraft's landing book — a task 

usually absorbing four to six weeks. Just 
two hours before the scheduled landing, 
the new program is completed and com- 
mitted to tape at J PL's Space Flight Oper- 
ations Facility. 

Ryan Vice President for Electronic and 
Space Systems J. R. Iverson and Program 
Manager Clapp are on the scene at J PL, 
acting as advisers. 

And the minutes tick away. 

Altitude Marking Radar— 60 miles. First 
firing of the attitude-adjusting vernier 
jets and ignition of the main retro rocket 
has been reprogrammed from 52 miles 
altitude, down to 26 miles — one half. The 
normal two to four second delay between 
AMR and ignition has been stretched to a 
finely figured 1 2.6 seconds. 

The moon rushes up. Spacecraft vel- 
ocity is over 6,000 mph. From J PL, via 
the giant 210-foot deep space antenna at 
Goldstone in the Mojave, the command is 
sent. The verniers fire: 1.1 seconds later, 
the main retro ignites for a 45 second burn. 

Now everything is automatic, prescribed 
by the new program tape spinning in the 
control center. 

To turn on the Ryan radar, a non- 
standard event has been inserted in the 
program. While the solid-fuel retro is 
burning, the bolts are blown which hold 
the rocket engine casings. Descent vel- 
ocity is so great that the engine stays 
cupped beneath the spacecraft. But the 
firing of the bolts is necessary before the 
on-board flight control computer can turn 
^ At 4,400 feet, the main retro has slowed 

the spacecraft to 67 mph — far slower than 
the 360 mph at burnout, but far closer to 
the moon, too. 

Within two seconds, the RADVS takes 
over and steers, turning the craft from its 
47 degree approach angle, straightening 
it up to the lunar vertical. 

Seconds sing by. On J PL closed circuit 
TV screens is a picture of a graphic 
recording chart of the pre-programmed 
descent curve, velocity vs altitude, down 
which the RADVS guides the vehicle. 

Reports the voice of Dr. Albert Hibbs, 
J PL scientist-engineer who narrates Sur- 
veyor missions to all control stations: 

"One thousand feet . . . 500 feet . . . 300 
feet . . . 200 feet and five feet per second ..." 

The recording needle quivers over the 
chart. Then it leaps, drawing a line hor- 
izontally across the chart's bottom half, 
intersecting the curve, and abruptly down. 

It happens so fast, it is hard to believe 
that it is the actual landing. 

Hibbs says: "Fourteen foot mark, 
engine shut off." A pause. "Touchdown." 

Surveyor 5 landed at 4:46 p.m. PDT, 
16 miles from target. But it was safely 
down. The score 1 2 days later: more than 
18,000 photographs of the lumir surface, 
and 93.5 hours of alpha-scattering meas- 
urements to determine the chemical 
composition of the lunar soil. The prin- 
ciple finding: moon rocks are primarily 
basalt, the most common earth rock. 

Just like home. With a speeding car in 
the garage. ^^M ^ 


- ^, nMii«f^r^**.^ 

Mosaic of nine wide-angle pictures sliows floor of 
30-foot crater in wfiicfi Surveyor 5 landed. Furrow 
plowed by foot extends rigfit, five-foot deep crater 
is center, and far wall is at top of mosaic. Slope is 
about 20 degrees. Ryan lunar landing radar con- 
trolled craft to soft-landing in split-second timing. 



First photos taken by Surveyor 5 sfiowed rocky bed in which spacecraft landed after 
coming to screeching halt in most "condensed" landing sequence in Surveyor series. 
Rock near center is about 8.5 feet from camera, and is 4.5 inches across. Long shadows 
are cast because sun was only 18 degrees above lunar horizon at time of touchdown. 

Surveyor 5's alpha scattering device an- 
alyzed chemical composition of lunar soil, 
finding it similar to earth. Device dropped 
(top), and slid downhill several inches to 
analyze new area disturbed by half-second 
blast of three vernier rocket engines. 


T. Claude Ryan, Chairman of the Board (left) extends con- 
gratulations on manufacture of 2000th second-generation 
Firebee in early November to R. G. Laesch. Superintendent, 
and L. M. Limbach, Exec. Vice President-Plant Operations. 

Fleet-bound Firebees (above) are assembled at Ryan 
for use in weapons system development, evaluation 
and test programs and personnel training exercises 
that help maintain Navy's readiness around the world. 

Overhead conveyor system speeds assembly pro- 
cesses in production of standard Firebee jets. 
Growth-version Firebee now in use by Army-Navy-Air 
Force were placed in operational use ten years ago. 


Firebee fuselages ready for shipment move 
out of Ryan plant in San Diego bound for 
points throughout the world. Wing-tail 
assemblies are mounted at destinations. 



The 2000th production model" of Ryan 
Aeronautical Company's standard Fire- 
bee aerial target system — in use world- 
wide for the past decade — rolled off the 
assembly lines in early November. 

Successor to the original Q2A Firebee, 
today's growth-versions (designated 
MQM-34D by the Army and BQM-34A 
by the Navy and Air Force) are adding to 
a tradition that began twenty years ago. 

Higher flying, faster and boasting broad- 
er mission capabilities than ever before, 
the Ryan Firebee family name was never 
more highly respected than today. 

Assembler mates swept wings of Firebee to center- 
body (above) which will be mounted after delivery. 



Army Vulcan antiaircraft cannon will train their devas- 
tating firepower on aerial banner targets towed by Ryan 
Firebees over Dona Ana Range, New Mexico, beginning 
in mid- 1968. 

The self-propelled, radar controlled, modern-day versions 
of the old Catling guns are capable of a 3,000 rounds-per- 
minute cyclic rate of fire. 

Because an aerial target hit by this terrific volume of fire 
would be literally blasted to bits, 
banner targets instead of the Fire- 
bee target will be used for the Vul- 
can guns. The banners will be coated 
with a reflective paint to make them 
visible on gunner's radar scopes. 

Ryan contractor service crews are 
now flying "Bare" Firebees (without 
banner tow targets)over Dona Ana 
Range in "user tests" to establish 
Firebee performance within the lim- 
ited confines of the range area. 

Operational firing training for the 
M-61 Vulcan artillery crews will be 

Firebee - the world's most widely used 
aerial system -will tow banner targets for 
Army Vulcan training at McGregor Range, 
New Mexico, beginning in May of 1968. 

conducted by the Army Training Command, Fort Bliss, Tex. 
Test flights of the Army Firebees equipped with banner 
tow targets are expected to begin in May 1968. 

The Firebees will fly at altitudes as low as 300 feet at 
speeds of 400 knots. 

Ryan field crews also provide Firebee target services at 

the Army's McGregor Range, New Mexico, on a year round 

basis in support of Hawk Missile annual service practices 

and at White Sands Missile Range 

for missile weapons research 

and development. 

High performance Firebee re- 
mote-controlled jet targets were 
originally adapted for Army use in 
the early 1950's to challenge the 
capabilities of the Army 75mm Sky- 
sweeper antiaircraft cannon. 

Ryan targets have since satisfied 
Army missile practice requirements 
at Fort Bliss and missile weapons 
system development and evaluation 
at White Sands Missile Range. 

Six barrels of Army Vulcan gun utilize rotating Catling gun principle to unleash devastating firepower against enemy. 







' • . y 

M^! ' 

Ryan know-how helped America usher in the age of flight. 
Today it keeps our defenses trained to meet airborne 
threats, probes the limits of space. ..and how much more? 

How do you describe a pioneer aeronautical 
company wlien it no longer simply builds 
airplanes — when it has pioneered its way into 
space, subsonic and supersonic unmanned air- 
craft, airborne and surface electronic naviga- 
tional systems, new concepts of vertical flight, 
and a vast complex of related technologies? 

How do you explain a company filled with men 
with questing minds. ..scientists whose imagina- 
tions know no bounds, engineers whose dreams 
take shape in bold, unprecedented systems ap- 
plications, technicians whose skills move pro- 
grams to notable successes? How do you explain 
this "breed of cat" that has achieved a reputa- 
tion for being first? 

You can call it an aerospace company, which 
it is. You can call it a leader in advanced elec- 
tronic systems, which it is. Or you can simply 
call it Ryan, and prove the things you claim for 
it by successfully demonstrating the products of 
its minds and facilities. 

This is Ryan — and these are some of its 


The Ryan Firebee (pictured on the cover) is recog- 
nized as the most versatile high performance aerial 
jet target in the world. Born at Ryan 20 years ago, it 
was the first jet-powered target drone in the air; first 
to be accepted by all three branches of the military. 
And Ryan keeps it first with never-ending refinements. 
To date, the nearly 3000 Firebees delivered to the 
Army, Navy and Air Force have flown over 12,000 op- 
erational missions for weapons-evaluation and air de- 
fense training. Rugged and versatile, Firebee is first 
too, in its ability to "come back for more." Recovered 
by parachute, Firebees are "turned around" for addi- 
tional missions. Many veterans have flown more than 
30 flights against aircraft and missile systems. 

Ryan Supersonic Firebee II is the ultra sophisticated 
heir-apparent to aerial target realism. Its combined 
subsonic/supersonic performance to be demon- 
strated in U.S. Navy tests at Pt. Mugu, indicate it will 
soon outdate every other aerial target in use. A years- 
ahead Continental turbojet engine powers it from sub- 
sonic speeds to Mach 1.5 at 60,000 feet. An auxiliary 
fuel pod extends its subsonic/supersonic mission 
time to 1 1/4 hours. The first target to accurately simu- 
late flight characteristics of every known airborne 
threat, Firebee II will be the realistic challenge for 
more advanced and sophisticated aircraft and weap- 
ons systems. D Firebee II— the first supersonic turbo- 
jet aerial target to join the armed services— is another 
first for Ryan. 


V/STOL: Science-fiction to science in 20 years. For 
two decades, the men of Ryan have been at worl< 
perfecting the art of jet vertical flight. Their early ex- 
plorations led to the creation of the world's first jet 
takeoff and landing aircraft in 1955, the Ryan X-13 
Vertijet— first aircraft to master the technology of 
pure jet lift, control and stabilization. D In 1959, 
Ryan's VZ-3RY Vertiplane contributed the first effec- 
tive data on the deflected propeller slipstream ap- 
proach to vertical lift, now used in the tri-service 
XC-142A tiltwing transport, a joint LTV, Hiller, Ryan 
project. D Today, Ryan's Vertifan concept, as suc- 
cessfully demonstrated in the U.S. Army XV-5A, has 
immediate application to the Air Force's requirement 
for a Combat Aircrew Recovery Aircraft (CARA) . . . 
and more. Using no more power or fuel for vertical 
takeoff and landing than for high speed conventional 
flight, the Vertifan concept will find practical applica- 
cation in nearly every type of jet aircraft flying today 
or envisoned for the future. Two decades and four 
million man-hours make it a pretty good bet that when 
new breakthroughs are made in V/STOL science, 
Ryan will make them. 

Ryan's Doppler APN-182 Navigation System is the 

electronic heart of this sonar-equipped Navy helicop- 
ter which provides a "hands-off" operation for the 
pilot— no matter what the environment. Its three-beam 
continuous radar delivers accurate, instantaneous 
speed, drift and altitude information, even at critical 
low levels. And its memory and computer system re- 
members how to get home in the black of night or in 
zero-zero weather. Cousin to the landing radar system 
used on Surveyor, it is another Ryan first, this time in 
navigational radar systems. 

Ryan Landing Radar Systems help America stay 
ahead in the space race. On June 1, 1966, Surveyor 
made the world's first successful soft-landing on the 
moon with the help of Ryan's Radar Altimeter and 
Doppler Velocity Sensor (RADVS). The system which 
made this historic "soft touch" possible employed 
principles and proven techniques used by Ryan for 
over 16 years in its evolving family of Doppler navi- 
gators and altimeters. D An advanced version of the 
same system will be aboard the Apollo Lunar Module 
to produce a safe, soft landing for the first men to set 
foot on the moon. Ryan Landing Radar will provide 
continuous measurements of altitude and velocity in 
relation to the lunar surface during descent and land- 
ing, n A super-sophisticated version of the proven 
landing radar systems created for Surveyor and 
Apollo is envisioned for Voyager on its forthcoming 
journey into deep space. The unusually exacting in- 
strumentation required for Voyager's highly sophisti- 
cated module is already being evaluated at Ryan, 
where the facilities are among the finest in the world. 
n Surveyor, Apollo, Voyager— modern seven-league 
boots to space. And Ryan goes along to make the 
steps soft ones. After Voyager? The far-reaching 
minds at Ryan are already lool<ing beyond. 


Jet Target Drones... V/STOL Aircraft and Technol- 
ogy . . . Electronic Navigation Systems . . . these are 
but a few of Ryan's pioneering contributions to this 
new age of aerospace. Ryan's accomplishments, the 
achievements of combining minds and tools, and its 
ability to meet the challenges of today's fast moving 
technology have led it to a record number of "firsts." 
And there will be more to come. 

Being first 
is a Ryan 



Quickly erected, Ryan-Army Lxtendable Antenna Mast reaches jungle tree tops to broaden range of field communications. 

n lightweight, quickly erectable antenna 
mast that will greatly increase the 
range of jungle communications is being 
developed by Ryan Aeronautical Com- 
pany for the U. S. Army's Electronics 
Command, Fort Monmouth, N. J. 

The mast and carrying case weigh less 
than 15 pounds. Positioned on the jungle 
floor, the mast extends upward 100 feet 
through jungle tree cover, increasing ef- 
fective communications range. 

Richard Hunter, Ryan project engineer, 
explained that radio communications is 
one of the most serious problems of jungle 
warfare, such as the U. S. is encountering 
in Vietnam. The present limit of radio 
transmissions in dense jungle is about one 
half mile. 

"By raising the antenna up above the 
jungle, communications range is increased 
to horizon distances of five to twenty 
miles," Hunter said. 

Ryan's contract is for development of 
two exploratory models with field opera- 
tional characteristics incorporated. For 
example, the unit must survive 2,000 ex- 
tensions and retraction cycles, through 

foliage, with wind loads up to 10 mph. 
When the upper portion of the mast is 
exposed to winds up to 50 mph, the unit 
must still be retracted and re-extended. 

"The compressible tube structure used 
for this antenna mast is a Ryan develop- 
ment for lightweight roll-out solar panels 
for spacecraft," Hunter remarked. "How- 
ever, the principle involved is well suited 
to applications such as a quickly erectable 
ground communications antenna." 

The titanium mast is stored in a con- 
tainer small enough for back pack carry 
by a combat soldier. The erection and re- 
traction mechanism is an integral part of 
the storage case. Use of titanium alloy for 
the mast will keep weight low, and will 
increase the mast's resistance to the wind. 
Hunter said. 

Design work is now in progress. De- 
livery of the fully tested units is scheduled 
for March, 1968. 

"It is a challenging program with a high 
probability of success," Hunter asserted. 
"The final product should be of great bene- 
fit to the ground soldier." ^^™ ^ 


Ryan engineers may have 
the solution to the foot 
soldier's problem in 
jungle communications. 


Please send address changes to.- 


P. 0. BOX 31 1 ■ SAN DIEGO, CALIF. 921 12 

Return Hequesied 

Ryan... first 
in V/STOL 

First in Vertifan. For more tfian two dec- 
ades Ryan Aeronautical Company lias 
conceived, designed, built and fligiit 
tested tiie world's most exciting, high- 
performance V/STOL aircraft. Result: 
An available, unmatched store of over 
four million man-hours of V/STOL 

Ryan Vertifan is the latest achieve- 
ment. It is the most efficient high-per- 
formance V/STOL principle yet devised. 
The U.S. Army XV-5A — a Vertifan air- 
craft—has successfully demonstrated 
the concept in more than 350 flights at 
Edwards Air Force Base. 

Vertifan aircraft are designed with en- 
gine thrust sized for mission or cruise 
requirements. Lift fans installed in wings 
and nose, convert and multiply the jet 
thrust to achieve vertical takeoff, land- 
ing and hover maneuvers. Combining 
hover efficiency with speeds of over 500 
m.p. h., this Vertifan concept is particu- 
larly well suited for strike escort rescue 

First in Deflected Slipstream. In 1959, 
the VZ-3RY Vertiplane, a Ryan design, 
developed valuable flight data on the 
deflected slipstream approach to vertical 
flight. This contribution, in addition to 
Ryan's other extensive experience in jet 
reaction controls, autostabilization and 
aerodynamic control at slow transition 
speeds, was valuable when Ryan teamed 
with Ling-Temco-Vought and Hiller to 
design and build the tri-service XC-142A 
tilt-wing transport. 

First in Fold Out Fans. Ryan's most re- 
cent application of the Vertifan concept 
is worthy of particular mention, for it 
is the most progressive in supersonic 
flight development . . . commercial or 
military. The design of supersonic air- 
craft precludes incorporating lift fans in 
the thin wings. So do the fueled "wet 
wings" of commercial aircraft. 

Ryan's answer to these problems is 
the use of lift fans which fold out for 
vertical and hovering flight, then fold 
back into the fuselage to assure a clean, 
unobstructed flight condition. V/hat's 
new in V/STOL? Look to Ryan . . . first 
in V/STOL Technology. 

Being first 
is a Ryan 




R V A N 



k yi-J 




Volume 29, No. 1 March 1968 

Published by Ryan Aeronautical Company 
P.O. Box 311, San Diego, California 92112 

George J. Becker, Jr./ Public Relations Manager 

Jack G. Broward/ Managing Editor 

Al Bergren/Art Director 

Dick Stauss/Staff Photographer 

Robert Watts/Staff Artist 

Departments: Robert P. Battenfield 

Electronic & Space Systems 

Charles H. Ogilvie 

Aerospace Systems 

Fastback Firebee II 2 

Breakthrough: A Ryan Tradition 12 

Yuma Range 18 

A Straight Steer 23 

The Sea: A New Era 26 

Featherweight Flight Structures 31 

A Last Moon — A First Star 33 

Plane Portraits 35 

Staff photographer Dick 
Stauss captured sleek, su- 
personic design of growth- 
version Firebee II flight test 
model by framing it with 
Navy A4E Skyhawk nose. 


XBQM-34E Firebee II flies captive tests on wing 
pylon of Navy DP2E Neptune launch plane dur- 
ing early phases of flight test program. 

Ryan Aeronautical Company's supersonic Firebee 
II — the most advanced aerial target system of its 
kind— is undergoing flight tests at the Naval Missile 
Center, Pt. Mugu, California following three years 
of design-development. 

The slender, swept-wing jet is the fourth in a series 
of growth-version Firebee systems introduced by 
Ryan since 1949. 

It offers supersonic speed as a prime characteristic 
but can perform dual mission requirements below 
and above sonic ranges. 

Designated XBQM-34E by the Navy, it has been 
designed and developed by Ryan under contract to 
the U.S. Naval Air Systems Command. Fourteen 
prototypes of the Firebee II and one static test ver- 
sion are included in the contract. 

The growth-version Firebee was introduced in 
March following a series of captive flight tests over 
the Pacific Missile Range. During this phase of test- 
ing, the high-performance aerial target's design was 
proved in aerodynamic flow and acceleration checks 
while attached to the wing of a Navy DP2E Neptune 
patrol plane. 

It is the DP2E that regularly serves as an airborne 
launch platform for the Firebee aerial target systems 
in Navy use. Like its subsonic relatives, Firebee II 
has ground or air-launch capabilities. 

Fleet Composite Squadron-Three, based at the 
North Island Naval Air Station, will be the first to 

use Firebee II systems when they are placed 
into operational status in the fleet. 

In its maiden flight completed early this 
year at Pt. Mugu, the swept-wing, supersonic 
jet completed thirty-two minutes of powered 
flight, landing by parachute recovery in an 
area near San Nicholas Island. 

Borne aloft by a Navy DP2E aircraft, the 
Mach 1.5 target was air launched at an alti- 
tude of 10,000 feet at a speed of 180 knots. 

Primary objectives of the test flight were 
to obtain flutter data, to evaluate stability 
and control, and to obtain further aerody- 
namic performance information. 

Other objectives were programmed to mon- 
itor performance of Firebee II's 1840 lb. 
thrust jet engine, to verify fuel flow calcula- 
tions and to provide indoctrination for remote 

Firebee II ground support technician checks flight 
test model at Pt. Mugu where supersonic, growth-ver- 
sion aerial target system is to undergo flight tests. 

Firebee II program managers huddle for conference on 
data obtained during first free-flight of growth-ver- 
sion aerial target system at Naval M/ss/7e Center. 

control operators of the high performance 
jet target. 

Firebee II, reacting to ground control op- 
erator commands, was directed into moderate 
bank angle turns as it sped around the race- 
track flight course over the Pacific Missile 
Range off Point Mugu. 

Normal internal fuel in the XBQM-34E of 
274 lb. of JP-5 was augmented by an addi- 
tional 400 lb. carried in an external, jettison- 
able fuel tank attached to the underside of 
the Firebee II fuselage. 

This tank was jettisoned during the flight 
test to check its release characteristics. 

The two-stage parachute recovery system 
was then activated and the drone target 
floated to a safe landing on the ocean surface. 

-,«<.*^*- -««*»-^y^ 

JP-5 fuel is pumped into fligtit test model of Firebee 
II in preparation for maiden fligfit. Thirty-two minute 
test fligtit was completed over Pacific Missile Range. 

Specification Data 

Performance (Navy specification) 

Mach 1.1 @ sea level 

Mach 1.5 @ 60,000 feet + 

5g's capability at altitudes up 

to 20,000 feet. 

Payload Capability 
Supersonic configuration (clean) 

Empty weight 1257.0 lb. 

Useful load — 

Augmentation equipment 1 60.0 lb. 

Internal fuel & oil 278.01b. 

Gross weight 1696.01b. 

Subsonic configuration (Fuel pod on) 

Empty weight — 

including pod 1287.0 lb. 

Useful load — 

Augmentation equipment 1 60.8 lb. 

Internal & External 
fuel&oil 678.21b. 

Gross weight 2126.01b. 

Design structural gross weight: 2300 lb. 

Endurance: 74 min. 

Control range: 200 nautical miles* 

('distance from control transmitter at altitudes from 
sea level to more than 60,000 feet above sea level) 


' ti')«M 










wx li 















Workman guides the static test model as it is lifted by a crane at 
the San Diego U.S. Naval Station for series of drop-flotation tests. 

Force of impact as Firebee II static test model lands on water 
simulates 16-17 FPS descent rate of the parachute system. 

Developmental test program, con- 
ducted in part at U.S. Naval Station 
in San Diego, helped confirm rugged 
qualities of Firebee II, requirements 
for floating until retrieval is achieved. 
This was first stage of program in 
which a static test version of super- 
sonic target vt/as placed in environ- 
ment in which it will be performing 
at Pt. Mugu during test program flight. 


Flotation, drop, recovery and retrieval tests 
final step in developing supersonic Firebee II. 

Static test models of Firebee II have been 
dropped from a crane, floated in San Diego 
Bay 24 hours, retrieved by helicopter and 
flown at the end of a wire cable beneath the 
chopper in a series of developmental tests. 

The series was conducted at the San Diego 
Naval Station, using a dockside crane to sus- 
pend the test model over the water, then drop 
it suddenly to simulate actual water landings 
by operational, supersonic Firebee targets. 

The force of impact as the model splashed 
down failed to damage the sleek, supersonic 
target system. 

In its flotation test, the model's pressurized 
equipment compartment provided partial 
buoyancy while an air bag, stowed within the 
airframe, provided flotation capabilities suf- 
ficient to pass all test requirements. The tar- 
get remained in water in excess of 24 hours. 

A Navy helicopter, using standard retrieval 
gear, lifted the test model out of the water 
and flew recovery procedures with the model 
suspended beneath it to thoroughly investi- 
gate and evaluate retrieval specifications. 

Retrieved following its drop test, the model is examined to 
reveal any impact damages accruing from water impact. 

A Navy helicopter, with the static test version of a Firebee II suspended 
at length of cable, evaluates retrieval characteristics of the target. 

Static test model "hits the silk" in two-stage parachute recovery test con- 
ducted at Pacific Missile Range. Parachute system works automatically. 

Quality assurance, reliability of growth 
version Firebee II destined for rigor- 
orous test program is primary concern 
for team of Ryan engineers who ex- 
amine all facets of aerial target sys- 
tem functions, compare data obtained 
with specified requirements. Designed 
to match capabilities of subsonic Fire- 
bee, and use much of the equipment 
employed by standard systems. Fire- 
bee II must also perform its role as a 
supersonic aerial target. 

Special formula of red, day-glow paint is applied to the Firebee ll's skin 
signaling its readiness for round of final checl< of all system functions. 


Ryan engineers probed, examined and double-checl<ed Firebee II system as it neared tests 

Alignment of sub-assemblies are checked on 
Firebee II after wings are mated to fuselage. 

Strain gauges measure ability of Firebee II in jig (at 
left) while technicians weigh and balance target (right). 

As Ryan's growth-version Firebee II neared 
the start of developmental testing, a spe- 
cial team of quality assurance engineers be- 
gan its final checks. 

Stress tests, electric-hydraulic system 
function tests, remote control guidance and 
flight system operations, and on down 
through the highly sophisticated aerial tar- 
get to its most minor systems, the rigorous 
inspection continued. 

Combining all the best features of subsonic 
Firebees coupled with supersonic capabil- 
ities, the fourth-generation target system 
would be the finest ever produced by Ryan 
Aeronautical Company, now in its 20th year 
of Firebee production. 

Under a Navy contract which calls for 14 
flight test models and one static test version 
of the Firebee II, Ryan's depth of experience 
was blended with its technical staff and skill- 
ed resources, assets vital to success in its 
transition from sub to supersonic in the 
aerial target system field. 

Black box "brains" housed in Firebee ll's fuselage undergo 
rigid bench checks to assure flight system performance. 


Thousands of sub-assemblies and components come together as Firebee II starts taking shape 
at the hands of Ryan's sl<illed assemblers and technicians. They make it a "people-product." 

Ryan's twenty years of experience in design, 
development and manufacture of Firebee 
aerial target systems was blended into its 
transition from jet-powered, subsonic to the 
supersonic Firebee II. 

A nucleus of hand-picked assemblers and 
technicians were assigned in the initial 
phases of fabrication, each of whom had 
gained special qualifications in his skilled 
field over the years. 

Though standard, subsonic Firebees will 
continue to serve as a major product line in 

the years ahead, the growth-version target 
system must incorporate all of the existing 
capabilities of standard Firebees, then meas- 
ure up to new challenges in the future. 

Initial phases of assembly began in the 
closing months of 1967, with the first four 
flight test models and a static test version 
completed in early 1968. Ten additional pro- 
totype flight test versions of the growth- 
version Firebee II are to follow in the manu- 
facturing months ahead. 

Firebee ll's Continental jet engine, modified from the 
standard Firebee jet engine to fit the more slender form 
of its supersonic fuselage, is slipped into place by as- 
sembly team on fabrication floor at Ryan's main plant. 


CenterbodyofFirebee II wings is placed on matingjig 
to be mated to flight test version in the background. 

Tail section with portion housing engine (above) is 
lifted by overhead crane for assembly of Firebee II. 

Man controlling crane with Firebee II tail assembly 
(below) lowers section gently atop fuselage section. 

Assemblers (below), part of hand-picl<ed team fabri- 
cating Firebee lis, lean in for close inspection. 




^^^^^^''V, «*► W^^^ 








Technician checks equipment compartment in forward section of Firebee II fuselage. 

Assemblers rivet sections of Firebee Stethoscope held against skin tells techni- 
II together as model nears completion, cian that electronic servo is working properly. 

Ryan field service instructor holds class in Firebee II remote control flight operation. 



Being first was a vital element in the pattern of progress established by T. Claude Ryan 
46 years ago. As strong today as it was then, the habit keeps growing with the years. 

By Harold Keen 

When Surveyor 6 made its gentle 
touch-down on the moon last 
November 9, guided by a Ryan 
landing radar system, a great cheer arose 
from the scientists in the Jet Propulsion 
Laboratory operations center. 

"It was another stupendous feat for 
J PL, and I started toward Dr. Pickering 
(Director of J PL) to congratulate him," re- 
called T. Claude Ryan, who had been ob- 
serving the control consoles during the 
suspense-filled flight. "But almost before 
I could move, he rushed over to con- 
gratulate the Ryan company for the ra- 
dar's perfect functioning." 

It was a dramatic reminder that the 
success of the entire mission depended 
on the split-second, critical performance 
of the Ryan equipment, last to operate as 
the pivotal element in breaking the space 
craft to a near zero velocity hover that al- 
lowed it to settle softly on the lunar surface. 

"It was a great experience," said Ryan, 
Board Chairman and Chief Executive Of- 
ficer of the Ryan Aeronautical Co., "to 
have one of the world's foremost space 
scientists seek me out to express his grati- 
tude for the job done by our team of Elec- 
tronic and Space Systems experts." 

The symbolism of this encounter with 
Dr. William Pickering at a supreme mo- 
ment in America's probe of extra-terres- 
trial mysteries emphasized the vital place 
Ryan holds in the ultimate transport of 
astronauts to the moon. It was a culmin- 
ation of a long, arduous pioneering effort 
in the development of Doppler navi- 
gational equipment to fit the exotic, spe- 
cialized needs of the Space Age. 

Spectacularly proved during 1966 and 
1967 in the Surveyor unmanned lunar 
exploration program to scout landing sites 


Ryan "Spirit of St. Louis" served as back- 
drop for youtliful T. Claude Ryan in 1927. 

for the astronauts' Apollo Lunar Module 
(for which Ryan also is building the land- 
ing radar system), the Ryan Doppler tech- 
nique was originally conceived 20 years 
ago for the rocket-powered Ryan XAAM- 
A-1 Firebird, the first air-to-air guided 
missile announced by the Air Force. 

"We were one of the first to develop 
Doppler continuous wave navigation 
equipment (in contrast with pulse type 
radar)," Ryan said. "It was far more dif- 
ficult to develop a radar that depended on 
continuous, instead of intermittent signals, 
but our technicians and engineers un- 
locked the door to technological advance. 

"The Firebird needed a radar guidance 
system. We had a nucleus of electronic 

engineers in World War II, and they were 
assigned to design Firebird's seeking de- 
vice. Our entire broad range of electronic 
navigation capabilities is a fallout from 
the significant work on Firebird guidance. 
When the subsonic Firebird program was 
phased out to make way for supersonic 
missiles, our Doppler CW knowledge 
gave us an extraordinary advantage in 
filling a new need— automatic radar nav- 
igation equipment for fixed wing planes 
and helicopters," Ryan commented. 

Nearly 3,000 aircraft, particularly for 
the U.S. Navy, have been equipped with 
the famed Ryan three-beam continuous 
radar that delivers accurate, instantaneous 
speed, drift and altitude information re- 
gardless of the environment or conditions 
of visibility. Not only did the radar al- 
timeters for Surveyor and Apollo stem 
from the knowledge gained in the guidance 
of these manned aircraft, but a compen- 
sating benefit accrued from the refinement 
of the equipment for deep space. A new 
generation of radar navigation systems 
being produced by Ryan for Sikorsky 
SH-3D Sea King Navy anti-submarine 
helicopters draws advanced design fea- 
tures from the successful Surveyor 
moon landing system. 

The Surveyor and Apollo landing ra- 
dars are a natural evolvement firom the 
automatic navigators aboard military air- 
craft. When the Ryan contribution to the 
Surveyor success was saluted by Dr. 
Pickering, Ryan himself paid tribute to 
the engineers who years ago anticipated 

Flight tests in helicopter of newly devel- 
oped Ryan altimeter-velocity sensor system 
captured active interest last year of T. 
Claude Ryan (second from right). System is 
for use in Lunar Landing Training Vehicle. 



Ryan ANIAPN-130 Doppler navigation system 
employed by Navy ASW helicopters is filling 
major role of importance to defense posture 
of nation. Helicopter dips sonar beneath 
surface to detect and track enemy subs while 
ships wait on horizon to close in for the kill. 

the requirement of soft-landing combined 
with pinpoint control of choice of landing 
site. "Surveyor shows that in this respect 
we have a more advanced, sophisticated 
system than the Russians, who at least 
until now have been committed to a para- 
chute landing method," Ryan said. "Even 
at best, a parachute landing is more likely 
to damage sensitive equipment, and is far 
less controllable than the Surveyor and 
Apollo systems. Surveyors have demon- 
strated they can land within a few hundred 
yards of a predetermined spot." 

Ryan, a true aviation pioneer, is nearing 
the half century mark in the aviation busi- 
ness. Only 19 years after the Wright 
Brothers" historic flight, Ryan in 1922 
established an aerial sightseeing service 
on a tiny field along San Diego's water- 
front. His career has spanned the era from 
sputtering single-engined planes to the 
conquest of planets — from Lindbergh's 
leap across the Atlantic in a Ryan-built 
aircraft to the mind-staggering leap across 
space to the moon, Venus and Mars. 

"What we're doing today was far- 
fetched science fiction 46 years ago," 
Ryan said. "Now our biggest product is 
a plane without a pilot (the remote-con- 
trolled Firebee, world's most widely used 
jet target drone). Once we were only an 
airplane company. Today electronic guid- 
ance is one of our chief specialties. And 
Ryan solar panels have captured energy 
from the sun in deep space to power such 
successful vehicles as the Ranger and 
Mariner series in recent years. 

"The most awesome job in our history 
lies just ahead — the responsibility of land- 
ing men on the moon. What comes after 
that? We'll continue to broaden our scope. 
There are lots of opportunities for any 
company alert to them. We have an un- 
usually capable young team of electronic 
and space systems engineers who aren't 
hesitant to tackle difficult goals and achieve 
break-throughs. Many observers believe 
that when the Vietnam conflict dimin- 
ishes or ends, our space program will 
blossom out even farther." 

The electronics capability that has en- 
abled Ryan to direct spacecraft to a pre- 
programmed, specific area on the moon 
has been directed, not only to automatic 
navigation of helicopters and conventional 
aircraft, but has been applied to the hover- 
ing requirements and stabilization of 

T. Claude Ryan has helped turn "science 
fiction 46 years ago" into reality as Ryan 
engineers designed, developed and pro- 
duced landing radar systems for use by 
astronauts like Neil Armstrong in moon 
landings via Apollo Lunar Module Vehicle. 

Techniques developed by engineers at 
Ryan Electronic and Space Systems in 
component assembly have helped in- 
troduce latest state-of-the-art. Exam- 
ining components in photo at right, T. 
Claude Ryan asserts, "We have an un- 
usually capable young team of Elec- 
tronic and Space Systems engineers 
who aren't hesitant to tackle difficult 
goals and achieve breakthroughs." 

Ray Fredsti, Program Manager for Ryan Airborne Systems, briefs Ryan on functions of system as it underwent tests in helicopter. 


^ ""L.^^-^^^^^-^^^-^^ 

From era of airships to lunar landing spacecraft, Ryan airborne systems have paved the way ;■ 

V/STOL (vertical and short landing and- 
take-off) veiiicles. 

"We've been in this field for nearly 30 
years — YO-5 1 Dragonfly surprised every- 
one with its steep take-off's and nearly 
vertical landings in 1940," Ryan observed. 
"In recent years, we have accumulated 
millions of engineering manhours and 
hundreds of flight hours in V/STOLS of 
our own design, such as the X-1 3 Vertijet 
and the XV-5A Vertifan. We are modify- 
ing the Vertifan for NASA's use in long 
range flight research and testing. 

"Along with space developments and 
the supersonic transports, I believe one 
of the great achievements of the 1970's 
will be thepracticalapplicationof V/STOL, 
first to the military and then to commercial 
usage for feeder airlines. Our Company 
is years ahead because of its long experi- 
mentation. Our experience is a big deposit 
on which we will be able to draw in the 
not too distant future." 

The sea is another environment in our 
spectrum of electronic measurement. 
Concurrently with its production of radar 
landing systems for Surveyor and Apollo, 
we have delivered to the U. S. Naval 
Oceanographic Office an infrared wave 
height sensor. This small, compact device, 
mounted on a tower at sea, directs its in- 
frared beam vertically downward toward 
the ocean's moving surface. By comparing 
the difference in time between transmis- 
sion and reception of the modulated sig- 
nal, wave height information is obtained 
— of value in charting tidal movements, 
forecasting weather, and other ocean 
research functions. 

"We will be increasingly delving into 
the 'inner space' of the ocean as well as 
outer space," Ryan remarked. "We are 
going into the marine sciences, which we 
cannot look to for large dollar volume in 
the immediate future, but which has a 
substantial long range potential. Mean- 

while, as in the early years of other pro- 
jects that materialized into large-scale 
activity, we are accumulating a large 
volume of scientific knowledge." 

From the platform of his own long ex- 
perience in presiding over an array of 
aeronautical and aerospace "firsts", Ryan 
sees in industry's willingness to experi- 
ment—to take risks — one of the principal 
factors in U. S. technological supremacy. 

"This is one field in which we can't af- 
ford to sit on our status quo," he com- 
ments. "As in any organization, there are 
two schools of thought. One is the doubt- 
ing Thomases who abhor change. The 
other type, I believe, is in the majority 
today within the teamwork of the military 
and industry. This is the group who are 
not afraid of upsetting conventional 
methods to get something better." 

This constant striving for break-throughs 
has been Ryan's philosophy from Lind- 
bergh to Lunar Module. ^^" ^ 


Crucial phase in descent of Surveyor 
VI last November to moon's surface 
was keyed to successful function of 
Ryan landing radar system. Ptioto was 
taken moments after spectacular land- 
ing and captures smiles of relief on 
faces of (from left) Dr. William Pick- 
ering, Director of Jet Propulsion Lab- 
oratory; Dr. Lee DuBridge, President 
of CalTech; and T. Claude Ryan. A 
true aviation pioneer, Ryan develop- 
ed the team that gave world contin- 
uous wave Doppler navigation systems 
20 years ago and is providing design, 
development and production of landing 
radar systems for manned Apollo moon 
landings in the years that lie ahead. 

Ryan landing radar system is measur- 
ing descent velocity In drawing be- 
low as Apollo spacecraft begins its 
terminal phase of manned trip to moon. 





"Enemy" Ryan Firebee launched into remote 
controlled flight from Navy DP-2E Neptune 
will fly evasive maneuvers over Yuma Range 
to escape missiles launched from fighters. 










Firebee "pilot", LT Tom Mollis, flies the 
jet-powered target from a ground station. 

Firebee is the target as Crusader jet from 
Miramar takes off for mission over Yuma. 

t 10,000 feet, its searing, bright 
Lorange paint glistens in the 
_ _» harsh morning sun over Yuma 
Range as the Ryan Firebee twists, 
turns and darts through a series of 
evasive maneuvers. 

Flown on the wing pylon of a Navy 
DP2E Neptune patrol plane from the 
North Island Naval Air Station, it has 
dropped away from the wing station 
seconds before and now, the roar of its 
own jet engine splits the desert air. 

MIG-killer fighter pilots of Fighter 
Squadron-24 based at l\^iramar Naval 
Air Station have rendezvoused on the 
edge of the firing range and now watch 
intently as the Firebee accelerates onto 
a prescribed heading over the firing 

The skies over Yuma, Ariz., are no 
longer friendly; it is suddenly Viet Nam. 
And the shoot is on. 

Reactivated in September 1967, the 
Yuma range is used to give Navy 
fighter/interceptor squadrons the 
means to sharpen their skill in air-to- 
air combat. 

Firebee target operations are con- 
ducted by Fleet Composite Squadron 
3 (VC-3) based on North Island, San 

A permanent detachment of VC-3 
provides drone control and tracking 
facilities at Laguna Army Air Field at 
the Army's Yuma Proving Ground. 

Range facilities are located east of 
Yuma in the Mohawk Valley. This 
rugged desert waste is uninhabited 

By Chuck Ogilvie 


VF-24 ground crewmen complete final checks with pilots in cock- 
pits ofF-8 Crusader jets before launch. Based atNAS, Miramar, "Red 
Checkertails" hold Navy'ssecondhighestrecordforMIGsshotdown. 

Based aboard USS Hancock during last combat deployment, VF-24 
Crusaders are enroute to North Vietnam on flak suppression mis- 
sion. Squadron won Navy Unit Commendation for combat record. 

Composite Squadron-Three technicians, part 
of detachment assigned to support Firebee 
operations at Yuma, adjust search radar 
used in traciiing and remote control flight. 

CDR David J. Ellison (center photo) skipper 
of Miramar based VF-24, climbs into F-8 
for Sidewinder mission against Firebees, 
simulating "enemy" planes over Yuma Range. 

land bounded on the north by U.S. 
Highway 80, on the south by the Mexi- 
can border. It stretches from a point 
40 miles east of Yuma 90 miles to Gila 
Bend. The eastern section of the range 
is used by the Air Force units based at 
Luke Air Force Base. 

Lt. T. W. Mollis, USN, Officer in 
Charge of the VC-3 drone control de- 
tachment, describes a normal Firebee 
target operation at Yuma: "Work be- 
gins with the pre-flighting and loading 
of the BQM-34A's aboard the DP-2E 
launch plane at North Island. 

"Then the DP-2E flies out to Yuma to 
stand by for the arrival of the shooter 
aircraft from the master jet base at 

Friendlies Await "Enemy" 

"Normally," he added, "there are two 
customer squadrons with four aircraft 
each, armed with Sparrow or Side- 
winder missiles. 

"The launch aircraft takes up a hold- 
ing pattern just north of the range. The 
VC-3 drone control unit then directs the 
DP-2E launch plane onto the range 
where the targets are launched. 

"Shooter aircraft stay in visual con- 
tact with the launch plane. They follow 
the Firebee into the range area. It is 
already at mission altitude of 10,000 
feet. The target speed is increased to 
475 knots. 

"When the firing aircraft enter the 
actual firing area of the range" he said, 
"the shooting pilots are notified and 
from then on, they are on their own." 

Remote controlling the maneuvering 
Firebee target from the Laguna site. 
Mollis puts the target into a continuous 
state of high maneuverability. 

Bank angles are preset according to 
the needs of the mission. Normally, 70 
degrees of bank angle is used giving 4 
to 4V2 G's of pull in turns. Speeds range 
between 450-475 knots. 

These tight, high speed maneuvering 
turns performed in a random pattern 
give the utmost challenge to the 
shooter aircraft. 

Behavior of the BQM-34A Firebee 
closely parallels that of an enemy MIG 

"No Holds Barred" 

Lieutenant Mollis described the 
scope of the Yuma Range operation as 
a "graduation type exercise with no 
holds barred." 

He said, "These pilots are really on 
their own. They fire when they get the 
chance, the same way they have to do 
in actual combat." 

"Red Checkertails" roll out at Miramar 
into position for launch. Unit retains fight- 
ing trim through missile shoots at Yuma 
Range, using Firebee as prime target. 

For Sparrow missile exercises, 
Guided Missile Unit 41 provides telem- 
etry readouts for scoring of hits on the 

For Sidewinder, the Firebees are 
equipped with flares. The pilots score 
their hits visually by sighting the spot- 
ting charge bursts in proximity to the 

Augmentation for the BQM-34A Fire- 
bee is standard, except for the addition 
of the Increased Maneuverability Kit. 
Identification transponders, wing tip 
flares, smoke identification capability 
and dual antennas are a normal part of 
the Firebee equipment. 

Targets are remotely controlled from 
a MSQ-51 radar van at the Laguna site. 
Mollis reported that no unusual control 
problems have been encountered. 

Typical of Navy fighter squadrons 
using the Yuma Range is VF-24 (Fighter 
Squadron TWENTY-FOUR), based at 
the master jet base at Miramar NAS, 
near San Diego. 

Commanded by Commander David 
J. Ellison, USN, the "Red Checkertails," 
as they are known, have flown highly 
successful Sidewinder firing missions 
at Yuma. 

Veterans of the air war over North 
Viet Nam, the pilots of VF-24 rank 
second among Navy squadrons in num- 
ber of MIG "kills." 

Sidewinders Score Kills 
Credit for the unit's first two kills 
goes to LCDR B. C. Lee and LCDR P. R. 
Wood, who downed two MIG-17's with 
Sidewinder missiles. 

Kills three and four went to Com- 
mander Marion H. "Red" Isaacks, Ex- 
ecutive Officer, and LCDR R. L Kirk- 
wood, with one MIG downed with guns 
and the other with a Sidewinder Mis- 
sile. LtJG Dempewolf scored a prob- 
able kill. 

VF-24 completed its tour in Viet Nam 
in August 1967 and is now based at 

Primary mission of the squadron Is 
to gain and maintain air superiority in 
any designated area. It is equipped with 
F-8 Crusader fighter aircraft, capable 
of speeds in excess of 1,000 mph. The 
Crusaders are armed with Sidewinder 
missiles and 20mm cannon. 

During their tours in Viet Nam, VF-24 
pilots flew combat air patrol, photo es- 
cort, road and river reconnaissance and 
flak suppression missions. 

A Navy Unit Commendation was 
awarded to the squadron in January 
for the second consecutive cruise as a 
part of Attack Carrier Wing 21. 

Pilots of the squadron, due to routine 
transfers and rotations of duty, now 
are a mix of Viet Nam veterans and new 
pilots yet untested in combat. 

Firing missions over Yuma range 
against the maneuvering Firebee are 
giving highly realistic training to both 
veterans and new pilots alike. 
Pilots Laud Target 
Operations Officer for VF-24, LCDR 
C. F. "Chuck" Blaker led a successful 
Sidewinder mission at Yuma. On his 

1 t 






Skipper Ellison (at left) briefs pilots of VF-24 
as mission shapes up for Yuma Range. Pilots 
are a mix of old Vietnam fiands and green 
replacements who must yet face combat. 

Laguna Army airfield tracking-control unit 
(center) is manned by VC-3 detachment that 
remote controls Fireebees through aerial 
maneuvers over Yuma Range during exercise. 

return to base, he debriefed. 

"We took off from Miramar and pro- 
ceeded to the launch point rendezvous 
at .9 Mach. As soon as the target was 
launched I hit the burner and got right 
up behind it. 

"After I'd chased it into the range, I 
called drone control for flare ignition. 
The Firebee was making really tight 
turns, racking around real tight. As it 
rolled into a right turn I pickled off a 
missile and it went right alongside and 
split it real good." 

LtJG Mike Wallace, a Viet Nam vet- 
eran also, was flying wing on Blaker, 
"Chuck's hit was fine ... I was standing 
off just a bit and watched it ... it worked 
pretty nice . . . the Firebee was easy to 
see against the desert floor . . . it's ter- 
rific in that orange paint . . . that 34A 
target is a beauty ... I saw the plan- 
form when it came right back over us 
. . . that beauty really bent around and 
made a nice target." 

VF-24 pilots uniformly agree that a 
maneuvering target such as the BQM- 
34A Firebee with IMK is a great ad- 
vancement to the fighter pilot training 

Realism the Key 

"Chuck" Blaker provided the key. He 
said, "This is a ... of a lot better than 
that straight and level thing that is 
dragged around by a wire and shot at. 
This is more realistic because it flies 
and maneuvers like a jet aircraft. This 
is the answer. And frankly, I'd like to 
shoot guns at it." 

Another "Red Checkertail," LCDR 
R. L. "Bob" Kirkwood, a Viet Nam vet- 
eran with a MIG to his credit, summed it 
up, "Our shoot at Yuma went like clock- 
work. We got our missiles off 1-2-3 and 
spent an additional 10 minutes chasing 
the Firebee in simulated gun runs. This 
target is the most realistic thing I have 
ever flown against outside of the MIG 

Yuma Range is giving much needed 
training support to the Navy carrier 
squadrons at Miramar. Commander 
Ken,Stecker, Operations Officer, Com- 
mander Fleet Air, Miramar, is striving 
to give every unit earmarked for de- 
ployment to Viet Nam, an opportunity 
to fire their missiles at the maneuver- 
ing Firebee over Yuma prior to its de- 
parture for the Far East. 

Successful target operations at Yuma 
are continuing and will make a major 
contribution to the combat successes 
of naval airpower in Viet Nam. 

Lethal Sidewinder missiles to be fired at 
Firebees at Yuma Range are loaded in launch 
racks on F-8 Crusader jets by VF-24 ord- 
nance crews in preparation for exercises. 

Integrated antennas . . . electronically steerable 
solid state phased array microwave systems . . . 


I^j stacking parts behind antenna 
Jt saves weight, volume and power. 



Revolutionary design for microwave an- 
tennas opens door for a variety of new 
radar and data lint< applications and puts 
Ryan in the forefront of a new technology. 

J. R. Iverson (seated), Vice President, Ryan Electronic-Space Systems, shares enthusiasm for new system with John Aasted, Program l\/lanager. 

Aircraft-to-satellite application of Ryan steerabte antenna features steer- 
able communications system built into upper fuselage of aircraft. 

xy^^^ne day — perhaps within ten 
^^■H years — the time will come that 
^^ all microwave systems for air- 
craft and space-craft, everything from 
radars to communications to data links, 
will make use of little goodies like this." 

The speaker was Dick Iverson, vice 
president-Electronic and Space Systems 
of Ryan Aeronautical Company. Resting 
lightly in his fingertips was a small de- 
vice about an inch square and less than 
three inches long. 

"Picture an array of these," he was say- 
ing, "mounted together and formed to fit 
the curve of an aircraft fuselage or space- 
craft body. 

"Ten on a side— 100 of them. Or 100 on 
a side — 1 000 individual solid state modules 
receiving and transmitting microwave 

"And nothing moves. No moving parts. 
By simply changing the signal phase elec- 

tronically, the microwave beam from each 
module scans back and forth, very rapidly, 
something like one million times each sec- 
ond, across a full 1 40 degrees. That is 70 de- 
grees to the right, and 70 degrees to the left. 

"And that," he said with a smile, "that's 
real beam steering." 

Scannable antennas have been in devel- 
opment by the aerospace industry for the 
last 1 years, but these other systems have 
turned out to be extremely complex and 
expensive to build. 

Ryan has been able to simplify these an- 
tenna systems significantly by incorporat- 
ing recently discovered solid state micro- 
wave techniques. 

"Ourtechnique has advantages in weight, 
size, power and performance," Iverson 
stated. "We are looking forward to the op- 
portunities through funded research and 
development programs to carry these min- 
iaturized systems even further." 

Iverson said the device could be used as 
a Doppler velocity sensing radar for ren- 
dezvous or docking of spacecraft, for guid- 
ance control of a planetary or lunar landing 
vehicle, or for a re-entry guidance system 
for astronauts returning from space. 

It can also be used as a high altitude al- 
timeter or an attitude reference sensor, 
Iverson said, such as in a manned earth- 
orbiting laboratory or an unmanned re- 
source survey satellite. 

Further radar application is seen in re- 
connaissance, as a side-looking radar, bea- 
con tracker, self-focusing sensor, or illum- 
inator. Other radar capabilities are as a 
steerable missile detector, a "track while 
scan" sensor, and as an anti-intrusion 

"Need exists in all these radar applica- 
tions for smaller and lighter systems that 
consume less power and are more reliable," 
Iverson remarked. 


Feasibility of system application is demonstrated through Under contract to NASA's Manned Space Flight Center, Ryan engin- 
reception of picture above on monitor through TV data link. eers have designed and are providing a 36-element array antenna. 

-: •% 

Strapped-down target seeker system (above) is being developed for Integrated system combines large number of individual 
the U.S. Army Missile Command. System eliminates gimbal component. elements into a single steerable phased array (above). 

Turning to data link applications, where 
information is received from one source 
and transmitted to a distant processing 
center, Iverson ticked off other uses for 
the steerable sensor. 

"An array of these antenna modules can 
be built as a multi-directional microwave 
communications system," he said. "Then 
the array can be used in real-time transfer 
of intelligence data from a forward area to 
a command post, or in telemetering data 
across deep space from an interplanetary 
probe to tracking stations on earth." 

Current efforts involve aircraft-to-satel- 
lite and ground-to-satellite communica- 
tions. Ryan's system employs an electron- 
ically steerable antenna wrapped conform- 
ally in the upper fuselage of the aircraft. 

"We believe our simple technique will 
solve communications problems now ex- 
perienced by long-range, high altitude air- 
craft," Iverson said. 

Ryan has expanded its techniques 
through contracts with NASA Marshall 
Space Flight Center(MSFC) in Huntsville, 
Alabama, and with the Army Missile Com- 
mand, Redstone Arsenal, also of Huntsville. 

John Aasted, integrated antennas pro- 
gram manager, explained the MSFC con- 
tract as one which tested and proved the 
specialized Ryan technique for combining 
a large number of individual elements into 
a single steerable phased array. 

"We built a 36-element array," Aasted 
said. "With it we were able to demonstrate 
the feasibility of transmitting television 

"To our knowledge, no one else has 
achieved this type of real time data link 
through use of an electronically steerable 
solid state system." 

The Army contract has been to design 
and build prototype modules for a strapped 
down target seeker. It is termed "strapped 

down" because it does not use a moving 
mechanical gimbal to steer the beam, 
Aasted explained. 

"Most recently, we have been awarded 
a developmentalcontractby NASA's Man- 
ned Spacecraft Center in Houston to build 
a general purpose space radar system," 
Aasted said. "It is called a combined ac- 
quisition and tracking radar— CAT." 

It is a revolution in technology, and Ryan 
is taking a leading position. 

"We are seeing the same type of rapid 
miniaturization in microwave systems to- 
day that we witnessed in electronics ten 
years ago with the introduction of the 
transistor," Iverson noted. "Transistors 
have led to integrated circuits and micro- 
electronic devices. 

"Microwave technology is following this 
same path toward smaller and smaller solid 
state systems. We're part of it. We are on 
the beam, steering straight." ^^^ ^ 


The sea 
■■■a new era 

Trail-blazing scientists are probing 

the world's great oceans, pioneering 

a new way of life for tomorrow . . . 






Completion of a 45 ,000-mile global voy- 
age by the survey ship Oceanographer 
last December added a vast, new store 
of information about the sea to the know- 
ledge already possessed by man. 

But the data collected over nearly nine 
months of investigation by the Ocean- 
ographer's scientific staff will take many 
months to process and integrate. 

And even then, the chances are good 
that the information obtained will only re- 
fine the discoveries of earlier explorations. 

What then, is the position today of man 
in his relation to the sea? Are we truly on 
the threshhold to President Lyndon B. 
Johnson reference lastyearasa"Newera"? 

Dr. James H. Wakelin, Jr. Chief Scien- 
tist and Chairman of the Advisory Board 
of Ryan Aeronautical Company, accom- 
panied the Oceanographer on two legs of 
its 275-day cruise. 

Former Assistant Secretary of the Navy 
and a pioneering leader in oceanographic 
research in government and industry, he is 

currently serving his second consecutive 
term as President of the Marine Technol- 
ogy Society. 

These qualifications support the answers 
given by Dr. Wakelin during the Oceanog- 
rapher's final cruise from San Diego to 

Q. Dr. Wakelin, what magnitude of im- 
portance would you assign to the Ocean- 
ographer's voyage in terms of modern-day 
oceanographic research? 

A. It is the first round-the-world transit 
for the Environmental Science Services 
Administration (ESSA). The study began 
at Jaciisonville, Fla., and terminated at 
Seattle, Wash. 

It is then, most significant to ESSA and 
forced the ship's operating and research 
personnel to conduct oceanographic re- 
search as an integrated team; to shake 
down the ship, to learn the use of various 
instruments and new techniques for co- 
ordinated programs of chemical, biological, 
physical, geological, meteorological, radio- 
active, hydrographic, topographical, navi- 
gational, computerized measurements. 

This cruise was an extensive investiga- 
tion rather than an intensive study of a 
particular region. It's investigations were 
conducted in the Atlantic, Pacific and In- 
dian Oceans and the Mediterranean, Black, 
Red, Arabian, Andaman, South China, 
Java and Tasman Seas. 

I believe the voyage's most important 
advantages was the multi-disciplined ap- 
proach and the computerized recording 
and analysis of data. 

Q. Numerous values can be identified that 
have been served by the Oceanographer 

Bottom soundings measured by sonar device 
added new measure of accuracy to survey. 

during its voyage, in both foreign goodwill 
and scientific contribution. What areas do 
you feel represent the strongest benefit? 
A. Goodwill gained by the presence of 
foreign scientists aboard the Oceanog- 
rapher, in my opinion, is the most imme- 
diate benefit. The represented 17 nations 
which have now contributed actively — 
through their participation in the Ocean- 
ographer's scientific and research programs. 
One of the most successful parts of the 
expedition, concerns the Satellite Naviga- 
tion System's use and its extreme accuracy 
in providing the ship's location. This in- 
formation is essential in the processes of 
correlating data gathered through instru- 
mentation with location in the ocean. The 

Fisti population in specific area is deter- 
mined by counting larvi collected in tow. 

SNS was accurate to 0.1 to 0.2 of a 
nautical mile. 

The Omega Navigation System for con- 
tinuous position information was particu- 
larly valuable in the Atlantic and again 
during the San Diego to Seattle survey 
work. For Omega's world-wide use, how- 
ever, four additional transmitting stations 
are required to augment the four now in use. 

During its traverse of the Pacific on 
the latitude of 35-degrees South from New 
Zealand to Valparaiso, the ship certainly 
would have been lost without the use of 
electronic navigation systems. There were 
very few days in which the sun, moon or 
star sights could be obtained due to con- 
tinuous overcast weather. 

Q. How long do you estimate it will be 
before data generated by the Oceanogra- 
pher's investigations can be reflected in 
integrated form. What can we look to first? 

A. It will take at least a year before an 
integrated, total record of all the data col- 
lected and measurements made can be 
put into complete form. If one is looking 
for data to reflect direct applications, such 
as large sources of valuable materials in 
the sea or on the sea floor, this immediate 
application is not expected. 

I should point out that the purpose of 
this expedition was not to investigate the 

.■»\*r.. .;-,-^i*(*>A*i.-»WC- 

use of the oceans for our immediate appli- 
cation. It was to add to our store of knowl- 
edge about the world's oceans in general. 
The long range and important pfofits that 
will accrue are those that provide our 
country with sufficient knowledge of the 
world's oceans so that we may understand 
their importance to us for our defense 
and domestic economy. 

Q. How successful has the Oceanographer 
been in achieving its mission objectives? 

A. In my opinion, the scientific objectives 
were achieved. From the standpoint of our 
knowledge to work in the seas around the 
world, the expedition was a great success. 
Q. You have identified navigation as one 
of the key elements in oceanographic 
research. The Omega receiver system was 
one of those used during the Oceanogra- 
pher's voyage. How can it be made more 
efficient and beneficial for future work in 
this field? 

Dr. Wakelin, Capt. Wardwell and Adm. Karo 
study ship's position during final voyage. 

A. Both of the systems — Satellite and 
Omega Navigation were used. Both need 
to be simplified, ruggedized and made 
more reliable. And, while at it, the costs 
should be reduced to make it available for 
broader use to all sea-going vessels. 

Q. What contribution to the "American 
Way of Life" do you feel the Oceanog- 
rapher's survey cruise made? 

A. Probably the most important influ- 
ence is the exposure it provided to foreign 
nationals. This is really more than being 
pleasant to a foreign scientist as a meeting 
here or abroad. On the ship, the team of 
scientists — ourselves and foreign — were 
engaged in producing scientific knowledge 
together, as a team. The very fact that they 

Salinity-Depth-Temperature data was gath- 
ered at hundreds of locations on cruise. 


Oceanographer enters lock at Seattle to end 
participated with us in this common pur- 
suit brings them much closer together with 
us in the American environment of ship- 
board life. And, there is no environment 
more beneficial, in my opinion, for getting 
to know your fellow man. 

Q. Are we on the doorstep today that 
will lead to a breakthrough in applied 
oceanography, marine sciences and ocean 

A. I feel we are a long way from such a 
breakthrough that will make the ocean re- 
sources an attractive investment for our 
economy. Progress in the economical re- 
moval and processing of these resources is 
going to be slow, but it will surely come. 
Meanwhile, industry must keep itself ad- 
dressed to the current advances in ocean 
science technologies and engineering so 
that at the right time in the future, it can 
move in to take advantage of the advances 
where they appear to be economically 

I want to emphasize the fact that we are 
still in the learning period, accumulating 
knowledge through processes of scientific 
and technological exploration. This pro- 
cess is bound to turn up areas of fruitful 
appreciation but they do not appear to be 
just around the corner. We must be patient, 
meanwhile, trying not to spend needless 
amounts of money on applications where 
the basic principles are economically 

its 45,000 nautical mile trip around the world. 
Q. Regarding the Oceanographer's cruise, 
its contributions to the advance of scien- 
tific knowledge and other major benefits, 
what is your source of greatest feeling of 

A. That the cruise resulted in a set of 
measurements being conducted through 
covering a wide variety of disciplines with 
the most modern equipment available for 
oceanographic research and investigation. 
This, in my estimation was the real accom- 

Do you feel that the international coop- 
eration and participation by foreign scien- 
tists in the Oceanographer's survey will 
open the minds of foreign nationals on the 
subject of territorial rights of ocean areas? 

A. There is no doubt that the interests in 
the high seas areas will become intense 
as we push further into the oceans beyond 
the confines of the Continental Shelf. We 
need only to note the recent proposal to 
the United Nations by the representative 
from Malta which would place under the 
jurisdiction of the United Nations, the 
right to control the sea floors and regions 
below the sea floor in regard to resources 
and permission to operate there. Sover- 
eignty of those areas — now international 
— will become a really pressing problem 
when the resourcesappearvaluableenough 

Core samples taken from floor of Red Sea 
added new store of knowledge about area. 

to contest the right to exploit them. Cer- 
tainly, the goodwill engendered by the 
Oceanographer expedition will help in 
understanding of these problems and in 
reaching a solution on the part of those 
nations who have provided scientists on 
the expedition. 

Q. How serious is our national prestige 
affected by technological advances in the 
ocean environment in your opinion? 
A. "We have a relatively high degree of 
technical capability, both industrially 
and in defense programs, to operate in 
the oceans. This is a positive factor in 
national prestige and we are respected 
for it. We must preserve this leadership 
by keeping on the move. 
Q. We often hear about the shortage of 
technically skilled personnel in the field 
of oceanographic research and investiga- 
tion. Did the Oceanographer's expedition 
suffer from this shortage? 

A. The number of trained scientists and 
technicians in oceanography is probably 
sufficient for the present. And, in my opin- 
ion, this expedition has not suff'ered since 
a great deal of the on-the-spot training was 
accomplished during the shake-down 
cruise to South America in 1966. 

"The officers and men of the Ocean- 
ographer have done a terrific job in hand- 
ling the ship and supporting the scientific 
programs around the world. The team of 
scientists and their technicians, along with 
ship operating personnel, have been welded 
into a working unit that is efficient, con- 
genial, understanding and productive. 

"I admire the 'can-do' spirit I have seen 
and the enthusiastic attitudes of this team 
to get the job done . . . and done well." 


Ryan's team of design-manufacturing 
wizards are helping develop an 
engineering dream into reality. 

By J. F. Callahan 

In photo series above, engineer (left)conducts ultrasonic test of assembly while technician above 
prefits housing structure for 166 antenna and technician at right examines bonding of assembly. 

Aluminum honeycomb core of Firebee II wingtip being contoured will be bonded to outer skin. 


Lightweight flight structure is every en- 
igineer's dream, and adhesive bonding 
has long promised the reahzation of that 
dream. But how to prevent engineering's 
dream from becoming manufacturing's 
nightmare? A team of Ryan designers, ma- 
terial engineers, manufacturing experts and 
quality control specialists has answered 
that question on three different Ryan built 
aircraft in the last three years. 

The wing and tail assemblies of the super- 
sonic Firebee II, for example, use "sand- 
wich" constructions composed of stainless 
steel skins and aluminum honeycomb core 
bonded together with an adhesive film. The 
resulting assemblies are light in weight, yet 
offer the high stiffness and reliability re- 
quired for these primary flight structures. 

Adhesi ves have been widely used through- 
out the aerospace industry for some years, 
but until recently their application was re- 
stricted to secondary flight structures and 
non-structural parts. Several factors in- 
fluenced this restriction: designers were re- 
luctant to depart from proven mechanical 
fastening techniques; existing adhesives did 
not exhibit the high degree of strength re- 
quired; the rigid control necessary through- 
out the manufacturing process was difficult 
to achieve and not economically feasible, 
and no truly effective means existed to di- 
rectly measure the quality of the bond 
in the completed part. 

The designer's acceptance of brazed 
honeycomb structural parts heralded the 
start of an evolution. Interest in the poten- 
tial of adhesive bonding techniques in- 
creased, resulting in significant technologiciil 
advances. These included stronger adhe- 
sives, improved processing techniques, and 

the development of non-destructive test 
methods for bonded assemblies. 

But the transition from metal fasteners 
to adhesive bonds means more than shelving 
the rivet gun and dragging out the glue pot. 
From the birth of the design concept to the 
delivered flight article, the engineers and 
specialists involved must work in unity. 

Designers define environmental condi- 
tions, anticipated loads, weight require- 
ments and other factors. Aerodynamic 
heating, flutter, and exposure to salt water 
during recovery operations are typical 
criteria in drone designs. The choice of 
composite materials, such as metal vs. 
plastic skins, depends on these criteria. 

Given the type of materials to be used 
and the conditions in which they will op- 
erate, the materials engineer then selects 
a number of adhesives for extensive eval- 
uation. Using a variety of destructive and 
non-destructive tests, he determines the 
one most suited to the application. His rec- 
ommendation will also weigh such variants 
as storage requirements for the adhesive, 
the ease with which it may be used, special 
tooling or facilities required and inspection 

Once an adhesive is selected, specimens 
representative of the part are fabricated 
and tested. Essentially, these tests duplicate 
the ones accomplished during the material 
evaluation phase. Their purpose is to verify 
predicted properties; to accumulate values 
that may be used for receiving inspection 
of the adhesive and in-process control of 
the bonding, and to evolve accurate stand- 
ards for non-destructive tests. Using 
standard methods that are accepted through- 
out the industry, many samples are tested 


Cured in forming tool, flight assembly rolls out of autoclave for fabrication in Firebee II. 
Bonded structures fiave been used by Ryan in XV-5A, Firebees I and II over past 3 years. 

for compressive, sheer, peel and tensile 
strengths. Failure loads and modes are re- 
corded, then compared with readings pre- 
viously obtained during non-destructive 
tests, and with design requirements. 

Prototype parts are then fabricated, manu- 
facturing techniques are verified under pro- 
duction conditions, and the required docu- 
mentation (such as procurement and manu- 
facturing specifications) is prepared. As the 
part enters production, quality control pro- 
cedures mesh with the system. The adhesive 
is tested on receipt and again periodically 
during production use. Inspection monitors 
critical milestones in fabrication of the part: 
cleaning and surface preparation, pre-fitting 
details, and curing the adhesive bond. Spec- 
cimens representing the part are processed 
in the same manner and at the same time 
as the part itself; these specimens are de- 
structively tested as one more control en- 
suring quality and reliability of the part. 
Finally, the bonded assembly is non-de- 

structively tested, using such sophisticated 
and recently developed methods as eddy- 
and ultra-sonic techniques, which can pin- 
point void areas and similar bond flaws by 
measuring and displaying the characteristics 
of sound waves reflected from the com- 
posite structure. 

Ryan engineers are now taking a long, 
close look at a new material that could be 
used to build even lighter aircraft struc- 
tures. This is the family of advanced com- 
posite materials, in which the glass fiber 
commonly used in reinforced plastics is 
replaced by exotic metal forms, such as 
whiskers, fibers and filament. 

Wing and tail assemblies fabricated from 
an epoxy matrix reinforced with metal fila- 
ments offer many advantages. Probably the 
most significant is the weight savings over a 
metal skin of comparable stifi^ness or strength. 
Depending on such variables as which of 
these qualities the structure is designed to 
emphasize, the weight savings realized by 

using boron-reinforced plastic skins instead 
of metal ones can range from 20 to as high 
as 50 percent. This savings can be converted 
into increased mission capabilities — faster 
speed, longer range, more instrumentation 
— in any combination. 

But other inherent characteristics of ad- 
vance composites also attract the engineer. 
Because composite skins are built up one ply 
at a time, the orientation of the reinforced 
material in each ply can be varied to match 
the exact degree of stifi'ness required by the 
design. By simply adding or omitting plies, 
tapering and contouringcan be accomplished 
where these effects are desired. 

Although the cost of metal whiskers and 
filaments currently prohibits their use in 
aircraft structures, it is dropping steadily as 
manufacturing techniques are refined and 
demand increases. The state-of-the-art in 
this new field is also progressing rapidly as 
Ryan investigates its many potentials. 

Safely on the moon, Surveyor 7 capped a 6V2 -year $10 million radar 
program for Ryan. Now the Apollo Lunar Module has seen the stars . . . 



Somewhat sadly, as if saying a last 
goodbye to an old friend, the team 
of scientists and engineers shook 
hands all around, lingered for a moment, 
and then walked out into the night. A bright 
half-moon 240,000 miles away watched. 

Surveyor 7 was down, safe. It touched 
down January 9, among the scattered rocks 
and volcanic fragments — "ejecta" the sci- 
entists say — north of the Crater Tycho, 
which is one of the most prominent fea- 
tures on the moon as seen from the earth. 
It's the raised "right cheek" of the man 
on the moon that children see. 

Last of the Surveyor series, Surveyor 7 
accomplished a soft landing in the roughest 
area yet encounted by the intrepid tri- 
pod. Tycho is 43 degrees south latitude, far 
from the five degree "Apollo band" of poten- 
tial manned lunar landing sites that is plot- 
ted across the moon's equatorial lowlands. 
Successful landings of Surveyor I, 3, 5 
and 6 scouted the four prime Apollo land- 
ing sites in this area. Surveyor 7 was a 
scientific mission to probe, measure and 
photograph the rough highlands for the 
first time from the lunar surface. 

Ryan Aeronautical Company furnished 
the landing guidance radar system for the 
seven Surveyors, which were built by 
Hughes Aircraft Company for the Jet Pro- 
pulsion Laboratory and the National Aero- 
nautics and Space Administration. For 
Ryan it was a 6V2-year proposal, design, en- 
gineering and manufacturing program. 

Surveyor also launched the Ryan Com- 
pany into an unrivalled distinction in the 
American space effort. Building on Sur- 
veyor radar technology, Ryan captured 
the contract from Radio Corporation of 
America for the Apollo Lunar Module 
landing radar system that will guide the 
Apollo astronauts to controlled soft land- 
ings on the moon, perhaps within two years. 

This system — more sophisticated in de- 
sign than the Surveyor sensors but sim- 
ilar in velocity and altitude functions — had 
its first flight in space in the Apollo 5/Lunar 
Module 1 mission January 22. 

As it completed its first orbit, LM-1 
passed over the Southern United States, 
racing silently overhead in formation with 
its spent Saturn IV-B booster and launch 
shroud., shining with the brilliance of 
first magnitude stars. 

J. R. Iverson, Vice President. Ryan Elec- 
tronic and Space Systems. Iiolds model of 
Surveyor Spacecraft while full-scale ver- 
sion is lifted by crane in ptioto at right. 


By Robert P. Battenfield 



_,,».*»»» — II (.>^ 






In simulation of astronaut exploring moon, he 
has emerged from Lunar Module which has 
used Ryan landing system for soft-landing. 

Re-cycling of the planned firings of tiie 
LM descent and ascent engines prevented 
the Ryan radar from performing its full 
electrical test. But the 25-watt heater in 
the antenna assembly was turned on and 
thermal information was taken from points 
all over the module. Six orbits of the earth 
and primary engine tests completed, LM- 1 
blazed its re-entry into the atmosphere 
over the Pacific. 

A March NASA design review will 
determine if LM-2 will go unmanned or 
if it will be held as a spare while LM-3 
is readied for the first manned flight. 
LM-3 will be an earth-orbiting flight in 
which the complete lunar mission — to the 
moon, landing and return — will be simu- 
lated for the first time in space. 

Ryan delivers its man-rated radar for 
the LM in early 1968. This system will 
be available to NASA and Grumman Air- 
craft Engineering Corp., prime LM con- 
tractor, for installation in LM destined 
to land on the moon. 

America's Apollo astronauts will be pre- 
paringforthe landing in the meantime in the 
Lunar Landing Training Vehicle (LLTV). 
Flight tests will begin soon with the three 
new trainers. Two updated research ve- 
hicles (LLRV) are operational now. 

All five craft are equipped with Ryan 
radars. The LLRVs have modified AN/ 
APN-97 helicopter navigation sets. Newly 
developed Ryan Flight Data Systems are 
being installed in the LLTVs by Ryan field 
technicians. Onsite at Ellington AFB are 
Ryan's W. Peacock and H. J. Shapard. 

Surveyor 7 landing site near Tycho crater 
displays rugged terrain which had to be 
negotiated. Ryan engineers have also de- 
signed and built landing radar system for 
Lunar Module in which men will land on moon. 


Spectacular success of Surveyor program is 
indicated in drawing that depicts coverage 
provided through landings of five vehicles. 

Plane portraits 

yan's interest in air transportation 
actually was one of the corner- 
stones of the company's varied en- 

terprises back in the year 1925. 

When T. Claude Ryan set himself 
up in business, he acquired a war- 
surplus "Jenny" for $400 and began 
taking adventure-loving San Diegans 
on sightseeing flights. 

The business grew as tourists be- 
gan making regular stops at Ryan 
Field. The flight equipment was ex- 
panded to a fleet of six Standard 
open-cockpit, two-place bi-planes, 
reclaimed from a war surplus ware- 
house in Texas. 

Converted by Ryan into five-place 
enclosed cabin planes, they offered 
the first hints of what the future has 
brought in today's mass-air transport 
passenger liners. 

Thus equipped, Ryan searched 

1925 Ryan-Standard 

farther afield and decided that in- 
come from sightseeing activities, fre- 
quent charters to Los Angeles and 
flight instruction could possibly be 
augmented by daily scheduled pas- 
senger service to Los Angeles. 

The "Los Angeles-San Diego Air- 
line" was thus inaugurated March 1, 
1925 as America's first regularly 
scheduled, year-round passenger 

Offering one round-trip daily for 
$26.50 (IV2 hours each way), pas- 
sengers were assured through a 
travel brochure that, "From the be- 
ginning of time, advancement in civ- 
ilization has been marked by improve- 
ment in methods of transportation. 

"The inauguration of Ryan Air- 
ways Service reveals the most per- 
fect form of travel known to man." 

Please send address changes tO: 


P.O. BOX 311 ■ SAN DIEGO, CALIF. 92112 

Address Correction Requested 
Return Postage Guaranteed 

27 01 



This one speaks the enemy's language. It flies like the enemy's best. 
It plays leapfrog at 50 feet. It turns on a dime. It hurls its challenge 
from 50,000 feet or from treetop level. It's a Ryan Firebee and good 
Air Force and Navy pilots know it-well. They train against it. And 
before the enemy's threats get rougher, the Firebees get tougher. 
3300 Firebees and 20 years prove it. That's Ryan for I r y a n 
you, out in front. Because being first is a Ryan tradition. l_ 

Tl/t- 'iok' 



Volume 29, No. 2 July 1 968 

Published by Ryan Aeronautical Company 
P.O. Box 311. San Diego. California 92112 

George J. Becl<er, Jr.lPublic Relations IVIanager 

Jack G. Broward! iVIanaging Editor 

Al Bergren/Art Director 

Dicl< StausslStaff Piiotographer 

Robert Watts/Staff Artist 

Departments: Robert P. Battenfield 

Electronic & Space Systems 

Cliarles H. Ogilvie 

Aerospace Systems 

Gypsy F/rebee . . 2 

Ryan Remote Sensor Systems . . 10 

Ryan's Answer Men . . 14 

Firebee II Rollout . . 18 

Tyndall's Tough Guy . . 22 

Reporter News . . 28 

Four Who Dared . . 30 

Plane Portraits . . 3S 

Contest between the tiunt- 
er and its prey is depicted 
as "enemy" Firebee is 
launched into flight from 
Pina Beach during the 
Army's Hawk missile prac- 
tice firings at Panama. 



■ ■>€:. 

:.: I 

», ' 


J ■. Air-mobile Firebee target systems 

""^^^''^rfS^ ^f^^^^" '"®^ **® flown into and-v:vv • 
^ iP^ ^ ®'*®''^*®*' on-site , for Army Hawk 
'""^ ^^^^srk batteries overseas... 

-.t.'a''sS»="-,..' *<i. 

Ryan technicians load Firebee onto dolly 
following completion of flight mission. 

New mission is readied as Firebee gets 
pre-flight check at Pina Beach range. 

Red pennant sends Hawk batteries to 
battle stations at Panama's Pina Beach. 

;jicc/ Firebees, Towbees, support equipment and control van were air-lifted to Panama then trucked to Pina Beach firing range. 

Air-mobile Firebee-Towbee jet target 
systems are tracing gypsy-like trails 
across the broad Pacific this year in sup- 
port of overseas based Army Hawk prac- 
tice firings. 

Already completed are Annual Service 
Practices (ASP) by Hawk batteries at the 
Panama Canal Zone, Okinawa and Taiwan. 

Complete, integrated Firebee packages 
are air-shipped to user environments where 
Ryan Firebee field support teams have 
travelled in advance to assemble, fly and 
maintain the equipment during operations. 

By Jack G. Broward 

Key to the newly-developed capability 
is a Mobile Tracking Target Control Sta- 
tion (MTTS), a field refrigerator-sized 
system that was tailor-made for remote 
area target operations. 

The system was successfully tested by 
Ryan at the White Sands Missile Range 
in cooperation with the Research and De- 
velopment Directorate, U. S. Army Mis- 
sile Command. 

In overseas application this year. Fire- 
bees mated with Towbee targets at each 
wingtip, were launched from portable 

ground pads in the operations area. Once 
airborne and in the firing range, the Tow- 
bees were deployed by remote control to 
stream up to a mile behind the Firebee, 

Flight control and tracking is main- 
tained by the MTTS. also situated in the 
operating area. 

The small, cylindrical Towbees are 
radar augmented with Luneberg lenses 
and can be deployed individually or as 
dual targets. 

Twin reels of wire cable are contained 




Ship transiting from Atlantic to Pacific Oceans is one of more tfian 12,000 
tfiat annually make fifty-mile voyage ttirough Panama Canal. Tfie Canal Is 
guarded against enemy air attack by the Army's 4th Missile Battalion. 

Firebee maintenance (above and below) was provided during 
Hawk practice firings by Ryan team located at firing site. 

Towbee target fitted to wing of Firebee has been released and will now 
be towed at length of wire cable to serve as primary target for Hawks. 

i €psco 


Hawk missiles transported to Pina Beach 
from installations at Fort Sherman and 
Flamenco Is., are readied for practice 


firings. Firebee control-tracking system 
(right) was air-lifted into Panama and 
stationed at one end of the firing range. 




■ ' - - ri r- 1^ 

Ryan Firebee support team completes final checks on Firebee that will soon be in flight as target. 

in the Firebee fuselage on which the Tow- 
bees are streamed. At the termination of 
a mission, the cables are automatically 
cut and the Towbee expended. 

In operations at the Panama Canal and 
in the Pacific, Firebees were water re- 
covered through use of on-board se- 
quential parachute system, then retrieved 
by either boat or helicopter and returned 
to the maintenance area for refurbishment. 

Operating from Pina Beach firing range 
— an isolated mile-long strip of beach lo- 
cated some 18 miles from Fort Sherman 
at the Atlantic end of the Panama Canal 

— Hawk Batteries conducted Annual 
Service Practice firings from Feb. 6-16, 
this year. 

"It was a very impressive practice firing 
schedule, one that gave us a very realistic 
test of our weapons readiness," said Lt. 
Colonel Harris H. Woods, Commander 
of the Hawk Battalion. 

Hawk practice firings against Firebees 
had previously been held at McGregor 
Range, N.M., for units stationed at the 
Panama Canal. This was the first time that 
Firebee-Towbees had been flown in the 
Panama Canal environment. 

"It not only gave the entire battery the 
opportunity to participate in the practice 
firings, but identified the condition of our 
equipment," noted one battery commander. 

Meanwhile, air-mobile Firebee-Towbee 
operations were being conducted for 
Hawk Annual Service Practice firings at 
Okinawa. Hawk batteries attached to the 
30th Artillary Brigade under Colonel John 
D. Stitterson, fired from Bolo Range facing 
the South China Sea. 

Terming the firing practice, "An out- 
standing success", the Brigade Command- 
er noted that, "a great deal depended on 
the performance of the Ryan team," and 

said the successful conclusion of the firing 
practice was directly related to the team- 
work demonstrated by Ryan's Firebee 
field service unit. 

Lieutenant General F. T. Unger, High 
Commissioner and Commander of the 
Ryukyu Islands, one of the dignitaries 
witnessing the firings, concluded that they 
were carried out with "dispatch and in a 
highly professional manner. 

"I was particularly impressed by the 
successful and unusual simultaneous firing 
of two Hawk missiles at separate targets 
towed by a single Firebee." 

Witnessing the Okinawa firings was a 

Reporter Editor Jack Broward conducts Pina 
Beach interview witti Lt. Col. Harris H. Woods, 
Commander of Army 4tti IViissile Battalion. 

Landed in open sea by parachute, Firebee was towed to Chagres River landing by Army barge. 

USARSO Comntdndci ivljj. Gl-il Chester L 
Johnson, accompanied by Lt. Col. Woods, 
inspects Pina Beach Hawk firing range. 

Firebee maintenance tent (above) housed electron- 
ic equipment used in conducting pre-fiight checks. 

Army technicians transfer lethal Hawk missiles 
from tracked carrier to Pina Beach launchers. 

Dramatic photo sequence traces the 
launch of lethal Army Hawk missile 
from Pina Beach range at Panama. 
Hawk's prey is a Ryan Firebee-Tow- 
bee system simulating enemy at- 
tack against defense installations. 
The practice firings by the 4th M/s- 
s/7e Battalion were the first to be 
conducted on-siteat Panama against 
Ryan Firebees. All firing operations 
were conducted from mile-long strip 
of isolated beach facing Caribbean. 

Firebee launch (left) marked start 
of Annual Service Practice Hawk 
firings at Bolo Pt. range. Okinawa, 
by Army's 30th Artillary Brigade. 

Ryan's Okinawa Firebee team prepares jet target for launch at Bolo Pt. Range 
facing South China Sea during Army Hawk practice firings held in February. 

-,..{+- ^ -*^- 



si, •-••>■ 

large delegation of foreign military and 
governmental officials in addition to U.S. 
military commanders. 

Using Okinawa as its base of operations, 
Ryan's air-mobile Firebee team completed 
similar support operations at Tiawan in 
April and is scheduled to conduct support 
operations for several other Pacific area 
Hawk installations during the balance 
of 1968. 

Jack O. Rathgeber, Ryan Base Manager 
for Firebee field operations at McGregor 
Range, N. M., headed up the 17-man 
Ryan team at the Panama Canal. Michael 
T. Savino is the leader of Ryan's team 
at Okinawa. 

Both of the verteran Ryan Firebee man- 
agers agreed that the new air-mobile Fire- 
bee operations included, "some of the 
toughest challenges we've ever had to face." 

Using an Army utility barge for Firebee 
retrieval from the Caribbean Sea would 
not normally require more than securing 
a tow rope around the fuselage and towing 
the jet target to land. 

Heavy seas built up during the exercise 
period, however, requiring Army and 
Ryan crewmen aboard the retrieval barge 
to exercise "marlinspike seamanship" on 
the spot. Constant trade winds blowing 
into the Pina Beach maintenance area, 
added to the austere environment in which 
the air-mobile Firebee-Towbee operations 
were conducted, placed improvision and 
ingenuity at premium levels. 

Like all new developments, the first 
overseas operations generated extensive 
experience and knowledge, both for the 
Ryan teams and the Army Hawk batteries. 

Of significance, according to Rathgeber, 
"we're now on our way in providing newer 
and more challenging target systems 
where the Army installations overseas 
can best use them." 

Already delivered to the Army, Navy 
and Air Force by Ryan are more than 
3,000 Firebees over the past two decades, 
a period of time that's punctuated with con- 
tinuing engineering and design advances. 

To this legacy can now be added another 
new member of the Firebee family. At 
Ryan, it's called the "Gypsy Firebee". 

Mission completed, Firebee's paractiute re- 
covery system is activated automatically 
to land jet target gently into the waters of 
the South China Sea. Ryan's Firebee support 
team, operating out of Okinawa, is conduct- 
ing series of Firebee programs for Pacific 
area based Army Hawk firing practices this 
year, using new air-mobile Firebee system. 

Helicopter plucks Firebee from recovery 
area in open sea for return to Ryan base 
of operations at Okinawa where it will be 
decontaminated and refurbished before as- 
signment of new flight mission. Capability 
of reuse and rapid turn-around time makes 
Firebee an economical, realistic "enemy". 




f -/-^-T^^ 

tjt-ca^':-' -^^jj '^iji*''^ 


f ■ 

t » >).,»<- 


Ryan Aeronautical Company, with a 
staff of distinguished scientists and en- 
gineers experienced in the latest remote 
sensor techniques, is pioneering research 
in the Earth Resources field. The company 
can provide total sensing systems for use 
in iandcraft, aircraft or satellites for 
studies of: 

D Hydrology 

D Oceanography 

D Meteorology 

D Agriculture 

n Geology 

Purpose of these studies is to define, 
detect and manage the natural resources 
of the Earth for the betterment of mankind. 

Ryan's team of experts can assist in ob- 
taining Earth resources data that has been 
impossible to gather before, whether the 
problem concerns land-based sensors for 
ground truth, complete aircraft systems 
for ocean research, or space-borne sensor 
systems for long-range weather forecasts. 

From the refinement of the problem, to 
the specification of the sensor system, the 
avionics package and the data recorder — 
through to data reduction and analysis for 
practical, real-world application — Ryan's 
Remote Sensing Group is uniquely quali- 

fied to handle Earth Resources Programs. 
Chief among Ryan's remote sensor fam- 
ily is the Radar ""REDOP" Scatterometer. 
This patented microwave sensor gathered 
radar reflectivity data over lunar-like ter- 
rains under an extensive NASA program. 
More recently, Ryan is working with the 
NASA Earth Resources Programs to 
measure reflectivity over ice. snow, and 
various sea states with this versatile sensor. 
The "REDOP" Scatterometer is an 
all-weather airborne CW Doppler radar 
reflectivity system which measures the 
differences in radar signal return strength 
(echo power density). These differences 
are termed variations in radar backscat- 
tering coefficients, and are expressed in 
two ways: 

D As backscatter versus viewing angle, 
used for detailed studies of particular 
ground cells. 

n As a family of time/distance histories 
at several viewing angles, used to define 
geologic and geophysical parameters. 
Individual characteristic backscatter 
profiles are created for land and sea areas. 
Intensity of the reflected signal is in- 
fluenced by surface roughness, geometry, 
dielectric properties, surface penetration. 

polarization and radar incidence angle. 

All-weather, the Scatterometer signals 
pass through clouds and falling rain, and 
are unaffected by changes from day to 
night. The receiver-transmitter propagates 
a fan-beam, 1 20 by 3 degrees. Surface re- 
flectivity is measured simultaneously at 
all angles of incidence with a single pass 
over the target area. Reflectivity data is 
derived from the Doppler shift at the asso- 
ciated look angle. The sensor offers the 
capability for producing synoptic data. 

Scatterometer data is useful in ocean- 
ography, geology, geophysics, hydrology, 
and other earth sciences. Optimum fre- 
quencies can be selected to achieve the 
desired data objective. 

Recent advances in electronics and 
computer technology have shown the 
value of other remote sensors. Microwave 
radiometers and reflectometers are prime 
examples of these sensors. Special pur- 
pose, passive microwave radiometers show 
great potential for airborne or spacebome 
studies of: 

D Oxygen and water content in the 


n Water distribution in soils and rocks 

D Surveys of snow and ice for depth. 


Ryan ANISPN-37 Radar system installed on 
Navy's PCH-1 hydrofoil senses lieiglit of 
waves aliead as craft flies through water. 

roughness, and temperature 
D Ocean surface temperatures and sea 

Microwave radiometers are sensitive 
radar receivers that detect and precisely 
measure the intensity of the natural elec- 
tromagnetic radiation of land and water 
surfaces. They are all-weather, day or 
night instruments. Frequency bands are 
selected according to the data desired. 

A key feature of microwave radiometers 
is their ability to detect, from remote plat- 
forms, the natural thermal radiation that 
emanates from the surface of the Earth 
to various depths, up to many meters. In 
contrast, devices in the visible or infrared 
regions cannot "see" beneath cloud struc- 
tures or the Earth's surface. Thermal ra- 
diation of a given surface area indicates 
temperature, roughness, and physical/ 
dielectric properties. 

Conventional receivers treat thermal 
radiation as "noise." In contrast, the radio- 
meter utilizes this noise to measure the 
amount of radiation and its polarization 
characteristics from various terrains. 
Two examples of radiometer utility: 
D Microwave radiometers distinguish- 
ed between a wide variety of soil types 
where beach sand, unconsolidated tide- 
lands mud, playa sediment and loam 
were examined. 

n Microwave radiometers identified 
underground water tables, underground 
caves, amount of rainfall, surface mois- 
ture content, ice, snow, frost, and bound- 
aries between perma-frost and non-frost 

Ryan's Reflectometer is a precision in- 
strument used to determine the micro- 
wave frequency dielectric constant (both 
real and imaginary) of natural materials. 
It can operate in the laboratory or in the 
field. Such measurements are a vital, in- 
tegral part of any evaluation of a remote 
sensor system. 

The Reflectometer consists of a micro- 
wave transmitter and receiver. The trans- 

■ Investigations^ 

Data Analysis 
and Presentation 

Data Acquisition 
and Reduction 


Instrument Design 
and Fabrication 




Full-cycle planning as illustrated above 
maximizes sensor system utility at Ryan. 

mitter antenna is highly directive, and can 
be adjusted to illuminate a sample for 
study at varying angles of incidence and 
polarizations. The receiving antenna is 
mounted symmetrically and can be adjust- 
ed to measure the forward-scattered en- 
ergy from the sample at various angles of 
incidence and polarizations. The magni- 
tude of reflected power (as a function of 
polarization angle) provides the data re- 
quired to establish the value of the dielec- 
tric constant of the sample material. 

An additional use of the Reflectometer 
is "ground truth." Data collected during 
overflights of a target area can be evalu- 
ated by comparison with data taken in the 
laboratory and in the field with the Re- 

Achieving operational status at the same 
time as Ryan's Earth Resource Sensors, 
have been sensor instruments that furnish 
accurate measurement of wave heights 
and wave profiles. Accurate measure- 
ments of all types of waves, from small 
ripples to large swells, have been made 
with these rugged, water-tight, reliable 
sensor systems. This type of information 
is vital to ocean scientists and it provides 
another means to verify measurements by 
airborne or spaceborne remote sensors. 

First was the Ryan AN/SPN-37 Radar 
Wave Height Sensor. Built under Navy 
contract these sensors are now operating 
on large hydrofoil craft, from ocean re- 
search towers, and in a Navy carrier mo- 
tion prediction system. 

More recently, Ryan has introduced an 
Infra-red Wave Profiler for use on fixed 
towers. Navy Oceanographic Office tests 
are underway at Argus Island Tower near 

Both sensors are part of Ryan's growing 
capabilities in Electroluminescent Dis- 
tance Measuring Equipment (ELDME). 
A world-wide network of such equipment 
mounted on piers, bouys, and towers, and 
linked to a central processing center, 
would compliment and update data on 
ocean surface conditions that has been 
collected by aircraft, ships and satellites 
passing over the surface of the globe. 

Complete utilization of the data output 
from these sensors is often the most dif- 
ficult task facing investigators. 

Ryan has more than three years of ex- 
perience in automatic data reduction and 
analysis of Earth Resources sensor infor- 
mation. Under a NASA Manned Space- 
craft Center contract, Ryan specialists 
have reduced and analyzed radar reflec- 
tivity data collected by the Ryan Radar 
Scatterometer during flights over many 
land forms and sea conditions. 

Comparison of these reflectivity curves 
with data points recorded by the Surveyor 
landing radar have indicated several Earth 
based "lunar analog" sites. Most moon- 
like site was Amboy Crater, near El Cen- 
tre, Calif. Additionally, determination of 

these lunar analog curves served to con- 
firm the reflectivity model chosen by Ryan 
for its Apollo Lunar Module landing radar 
system, which will guide the astronauts 
to safe, soft-landings on the moon. 

More recently, Ryan's Data Analysis 
Team at Houston has assisted in analysis 
of sea-state and snow/ice reflectivity meas- 
urements under NASA MSC's Earth Re- 
sources Programs. Ryan participation in 
Earth Resources flights over Alaska, New- 
foundland, and Iceland is continuing. 

Proper data reduction and expert analy- 
sis by Ryan's staff of radar and computer 
specialists assures authenticity. Results 
of these and other Earth Resources mis- 
sions are applied with assurance by the 
scientific community. 

Weather satellite photos obtained through 
radiometry are examined by meteorologists. 

An awareness of the total system — how 
to efl^ectively use the full variety of remote 
sensors and navigational aids — is essential 
to effective systems definition, integration, 
and mission success. 

Ryan's Remote Sensor Group, through 
comprehensive definition and analysis of 
remote sensor applications, possesses this 
necessary total awareness of Remote 
Sensing System requirements. The group 
defines system parameters and adapts in- 
strumentation to landcraft, aircraft or 
spacecraft. These systems are exploring 
Earth science problems in such fields as: 

D Oceanography 

D Geology 

D Meteorology 

n Hydrology 

n Agriculture 

To date, Ryan has been able to achieve 
optimum system effectiveness through de- 
tail analysis of cost, utility, capability and 
performance prior to systems fabrication 
and integration. 



Prototype of Firebee drag chute container produced by newly developed molding process at Ryan is checked against drawings. 

Ryan technician in IVIaterials and Processes perature tests. Technicians in middle photo prepare photometer to conduct analysis of a critical 
laboratory places shear samples of adhes- manufactured material samples for series of veri- material. Laboratory develops, selects and 
ive material in chamber for elevated tem- fication tests. Chemists at right are using spectra- assists in control of materials and processes. 



Ryan's material and process engineers provide 
much-needed answers in aerospace and electronics. 

By J. F. Callahan 


As man ventures out to the stars and 
down to the ocean's depths, as the 
speed he travels accelerates, and as his 
environment becomes increasingly hos- 
tile, engineers must daily scan the broad 
spectrum of material and process techno- 
logy to answer man's need for space- 
going systems that perform reliably in 
temperatures ranging from icy chill of 
liquid gases to the searing heat of rocket 
flames; ocean-delving structures that 
shrug off pressures up to 15,000 pounds 
per square inch, and hypersonic aircraft 
skins that slip through aerodynamic loads 
and heating at speeds exceeding 5,000 
miles per hour. 

The growth in the number of useful 
engineering materials available and the 
increasing complexity of manufacturing 
processes employed to convert those 
materials to delivered hardware have ex- 
panded the scope and magnitude of the 

tasks confronting engineers. 

At Ryan Aeronautical Company, engi- 
neers and technicians in the Material and 
Process Laboratories develop, select and 
assist in the control of all materials and 
processes. The Laboratories provide ser- 
vices to design, industrial, manufacturing, 
quality and tooling engineers in areas 
where the material engineer's specialized 
knowledge and skills are of value. 

It is a rare product that does not some- 
where reflect the Laboratories' participa- 
tion in its design and manufacture. Ryan's 
landing radar system for the Appolo Lunar 
Module, a more sophisticated technologi- 
cal outgrowth of the highly successful 
Surveyor system, is a case in point. Ryan's 
material and process engineers developed 
significant advances to the state-of-the-art 
in the base materials used, closely control- 

Multi-exposure photo at left was taken as 
facing on bonded sandwicfi was peeled away. 


Small part is removed from 1800 degree fur- 
nace used to develop heat-treat tectiniques. 

led processes employed, intricate electro- 
nic components fabricated and elaborate 
thermal control and protective finishes 

"Our Laboratories' engineers have con- 
tributed a great deal to the prominent 
position Ryan now holds in aerospace and 
electronics," L. M. Limbach, Executive 
Vice President-Plant Operations, stated. 
"In this era of exploding technology, 
these men are specialists who constantly 
survey the burgeoning fields of materials 
and processes. Their knowledge and skills 
in these essential fields are drawn upon 
by every Ryan department concerned to 
ensure that optimum use is made of ad- 
vanced techniques and concepts, and that 
Ryan products reflect the latest state-of- 

Laboratory contributions to Ryan pro- 
duct development include: bonding techni- 
ques for Teflon, the slickest material 
known, thereby aiding engineers in their 
creation of revolutionary integrated, solid- 
state microwave systems; flotation mater- 
ials for target aircraft, one of which was 
recently found afloat after eighteen months 
at sea, and a unique housing enclosing 
electrodes and the weld area in an inert 
atmosphere that greatly simplified welding 
of the titanium rocket cases for the Lunar 
Module descent engine. 

Ryan technicians conduct lab evaluation 
for rapid production of inexpensive plastic 
parts through a vacuum forming process. 

Research machinist assigned to Ryan laboratories cuts special part for a cooling system. Support 
services provided by labs play major role in design-manufacturing quality control processes. 


Metallographer will determine effect of welding on grain struc- 
ture of metal specimen ttirougti photomicrographic image. 

Thermal control finish is applied to waveguide by Ryan lab technician. 

Laboratory engineer is conducting qualification tests on 
newly developed sealant to determine its extrusion rate. 

Rigid standards involved in soldering intricate electronic components 
are taught and supervised as part of school conducted by lab technician. 


Firebee II is currently scheduled to go into operational use in the Fleet within two years. 

Ryan's growth-version Firebee II, rolled 
out in formal ceremonies at the Naval 
Missile Center, Pt. Mugu, California last 
March, achieved a major flight test mile- 
stone by crackingthe sound barrierJune 1 1. 

The sleek, swept-wing aerial target 
system zipped past the 800 mph mark at 
36,000 feet in its maiden supersonic flight 
which lasted 13.5 minutes. 

Designed and built by Ryan Aeronauti- 
cal Company, the growth-version Firebee 
II is now in flight tests at Pt. Mugu. 

Rear Admiral James H. Smith, Jr., 
Pacific Fleet Representative for the Naval 

Air Systems Command, related the de- 
velopment of Firebee II to the Navy's 
programs designed to train men in ad- 
vance of surprises that await them in 

"The development of a system like 
Firebee II is part and parcel of planning 
such a training effort," noted Smith, re- 
presenting Vice Admiral R. L. Townsend, 
Chief of the Naval Air Systems Command. 

Admiral Smith said the Firebee II 

New milestone was added to Ryan's twenty- 
year Firebee record as supersonic Firebee 
II made its formal debut at NMC Pt. Mugu. 

Ryan's supersonic Jet target joined tlie Navy 

amid bosun's call and sideboys . . . 




i riKtbbb li! 



would be "a significant addition to the 
naval air arsenal with its ability to provide 
an opportunity for reality in training Navy 

Combining subsonic flight capabilities 
of its nearest relative, the standard Fire- 
bee now in use, with supersonic speed 
ranges, the Firebee II is clearly the most 
advanced aerial target of its kind. 

A quartet of combat-seasoned fighter 

pilots now engaged in weapons firing 
training operations on the Navy's Yuma, 
Ariz., range told those attending a pre- 
rollout briefing that, "there is really noth- 
ing more important to a fighter pilot than 
to have a maneuvering target that can 
be fired upon." 

All four are veterans of air warfare over 
North Vietnam. 

Subsonic Firebees now in use on the 


■^t^i 'i 

mil n i 

Designed and developed by Ryan for Naval Air Systems Command, Firebee II prototype was displayed from wing station of DP2E launcfi aircraft. 

Yuma Range simulate MIG fighter air- 
craft, utilizing increased maneuverability 
kits to expand their flight capabilities. 

The fighter pilots, appearing informally 
at the briefing, were Commander David 
Ellison, Lieutenant Commanders Charles 
F. Blakerand Robert Kirkwood of Fighter 
Squadron-24 and Commander Jack Fin- 
ney, VF-lll. 

Commander Kyle Woodbury, assigned 
to the Firebee II development project 
under the Navy's Operational Develop- 
ment Force, said the growth-version 
system is unmatched. He noted that, 
"until now, there is no supersonic target 
system that offers the maneuvering capa- 
bilities of Firebee H." 

He said the Firebee II system would 

affect a significant savings in time and 
money in the processes of updating cur- 
rent weapons systems in the Navy. 

Already completed in the development- 
test program that began early this year 
are static tests, air-launch and subsonic- 
powered free-flights. 

Navy DP2E Neptunes used for air- 
launching standard Firebees are also 
used in the Pt. Mugu flight test program 
for the Firebee II. 

Navy personnel are working jointly 
with a Ryan field service team of engi- 
neers and technicians in the flight test 
program scheduled through 1968. 

The Firebee II's fuselage is 28.25 feet 
long: has a wing span of 10 feet and is 
powered by a Continental jet engine used 

in standard Firebees but modified for 
supersonic speed and slimmed down to 
fit Firebee II's fuselage. 

Ryan is under contract to the Naval 
Air Systems Command to build 14 proto- 
type flight test versions of the Firebee II. 
The operational system is scheduled for 
fleet use in 1970. 

Standard Firebee targets, more than 
3000 of which have been produced by 
Ryan for the Navy, Air Force and .\rmy 
over the past twenty years, will continue 
in their subsonic role as a primary vehicle 
for operational readiness exercises and 
weapons development and test programs. 

Fligfit model of Firebee II under left wing 
of DP2E undergoes testing at NMC Pt. Mugu. 


Fighter Squadron-24 pilot, Lt. Commander Charles F. Blaker, is looking 
forward to Firebee ll's operational status. Combat experienced Navy 
pilots claim that Ryan's growth-version Firebee II is unmatched in 
speed, maneuvering capabilities and target presentation realism. 


Some reputations take years to build; otiiers acliieve it 
overniglit. Firebee was an instant, snarling ctialienger for ADC's 
figliter-interceptor pilots. After ten years, they call it... 


Ryan's Firebee jet target system and Air 
Force fighter-interceptor pilots were 
made for each other. It was an aerial 
"happening" the first time they met in the 
skies over Northwest Florida. 

That was ten years ago next month. It 
was a challenge that ADC pilots would 
not soon forget. 

Some of the world's finest guardians of 
the free skies were drawn together at Tyn- 
dall Air Force Base for the sixth annual 
William Tell World-Wide Weapons Meet. 

The prize: "Bag a Firebee." 

Until October 1958, simulated "enemy" 
targets too frequently consisted of passive 
tow banners that flew straight and steady. 

"We're spoiled. It'll be tough to ever 
have to shoot rags or tow banners again," 
announced one of the nation's all-time 
greats in the fighter pilot field. 

Major General Winston P. Wilson, 
Commander of the Air National Guard — 
which provided the winning team at the 
Meet — had the finest young stable of com- 
bat pilots available with him at the shoot. 

And as the aerial contest drew to its 
close Air defense Command officials said: 

"As long as weapons have been fired 
from aircraft there have been complaints 
that targets have not been realistic. 

Jet engine of Firebee gets an assist from 
JATO bottle to hurt target into fligfit at 
Tyndall from its ground launch facility. 

"That was before the Firebee arrived!" 

Responsible for Firebee's introduction 
and its immediate growth and develop- 
ment at Tyndall in those days were the 
officers and men of the 4756th Drone 
Sqaudron. By June of the following year, 
over 200 launches of Firebees from the 
Squadron's converted B-26 bomber had 
been racked up. 

Ryan's Firebee had found a home in 
northwest Florida's panhandle region. 

During William Tell 1959, the Squadron 
flew 79 flights; boosted a day's total to 
16, smashing all existing Firebee flight 
records. Dual launches, newer techniques 
for in-flight control and a spectrum of 
developmental advances were moving into 
the Firebee system program by 1960. 

Most important, ADC pilots found an 
adversary in the Firebee worthy of their 
finest skills. But the learning curve was 
only starting to grow. 

A new and more advanced version of 
the Firebee was in use at Tyndall by early 
1960, the growth- version in the Q2A 
series. Currently designated the BQM- 
34A, this new relative could climb faster, 
offered more powerful propulsion and could 
fly higher and faster than its predecessor. 

At the conclusion of its developmental 
test phase, the BQM-34A had gained a 
radar-measured altitude record of 58,000 
feet and matched this with a duration flight 

at altitude for jet targets: 77V2 minutes at 
plus 50,000 feet. 

Clearly, the original Q2A's nearest rel- 
ative had established itself as the most 
formidable foe yet to be faced in combat 
readiness training by ADC pilots. 

Still other advances were taking place 
within the Firebee operational system at 
Tyndall in the early phases of the 1960s. 
Air Force C-130 aircraft, modified for air- 
launch of the Firebee, were introduced. 
This led to a phase-out of the B-26 launch 
planes. Capable of carrying four Firebees 
under its mammoth wings, the C-130 
doubled the capabilities of the B-26. 

By 1961 a new era in Tyndall's Firebee 
operations shifted into high gear with the 
introduction of ground launch capabilities. 

Permanent ground launch pads had been 
installed and with the aid of Jet-Assisted- 
Takeoff (JATO) rockets suspended be- 
neath the Firebee, the jet targets were hurl- 
ed into flight on a pattern that took them 
out over the Gulf of Mexico target range. 

Until this time, ground control of Fire- 
bees had been maintained at Apalachicola, 
Fla. Tyndall developed capabilities and fa- 
cilities by 1961 to operate its own station 
and the control unit was shifted to the base. 

A new flight duration record of 97 min- 
utes was set at Tyndall in December 1961, 
adding another laurel to Firebee's oper- 
ational record. 


Converted B-26s, once used for air-launch 
of Firebee, could carry target under each 
wing. It was replaced in i960 by C-130s. 

■'Pin-point Land Recovery" was devel- 
oped for Firebees in 1962, eliminating 
requirements for standard open-sea re- 
covery procedures. The new system of- 
fered faster turn-around times, reduced 
salt water decontamination hazards and 
created new levels of Firebee efficiency. 

While open-sea parachute recovery is 
still procedural in some instances, Tyndall's 
Firebee operation normally includes re- 
covery in an open land area on the Base. 
An 85-foot recovery boat is maintained at 
Tyndall for Firebee retrieval as required. 

It was in this time period that Air Force 
program managers developed electronic 
scoring systems that telemeter near-miss 
distances of weapons fired to a ground 
control station. Actual weapons "kills" 
against Firebees were no longer necessary 
with this advance in the determination of 
weapons effectiveness. 

The benefits resulting from the electronic 
scoring systems saved money for the Air 
Force, established accurate standards by 
which weapons effectiveness can be judged 
without the loss of Firebees and added 
another layer of sophistication to target 
operations at Tyndall. 

Firebee's 1,000th flight was recorded in 
May 1962 and it was also that month that 
the first BQM-34A Firebee achieved its 
15th flight. The theory of cost-effective- 
ness in target re-use had been effectively 

While the 4756th Drone Squadron es- 
tablished a Firebee legacy at Tyndall over 
the years of its flight operations, Ryan 
Aeronautical Company Firebee field ser- 
vice teams provided constant support 
through the years. 

In the 1958, 1959, 1961 and 1963 Wil- 
liam Tell Weapons Meets, special teams 
of Ryan technicians worked in close har- 
mony with the Drone Squadron. It was 
in 1965 — the biggest, most challenging 
World-Wide Weapons Meet in history — 
that Ryan sent a 47-man unit to Tyndall. 

Pilots competing in this event set all- 
time records in weapons effectiveness; 
Firebee missions zoomed to all-time highs; 
new target reliability marks went onto the 
boards; and the Meet established new 
standards for Firebee operations at Tyndall. 

The increasing importance of Firebee's 
capabilities at Tyndall is reflected today in 
the mission performed by the Air Defense 
Weapons Center today. 

The Tyndall Center organizes, programs 
and has final responsibility for the broad 
areas of weapons effectiveness for ADC 

F-86 Sabrejets of 125th Fighter Group won 
top honors at 1958 World-Wide Weapon Meet. 


Netherlands Air Force Captain Victor Lucas 
displays pair of Dutch shoes symbolic of 
his homeland. A member of Fighter-Inter- 
ceptor Squadron-32 based at New Amster- 
dam, Lucas was first to bag a Firebee during 
William Tell-65 Weapons Meet at Tyndall. 

Retrieved from Gulf of Mexico by helicop- 
ter, Firebee is one of fifty used during 
1958 weapons meet. Jet targets were re- 
turned to Tyndall for decontamination and 
return to flight status. By 1962, Tyndall 
had standardized Firebee recovery over land 
areas, sharply reducing time involved 
in turn-around for new mission. Recovery 
boat is maintained at Tyndall now, supple- 
menting helicopter retrieval as required. 
Automatic parachute recovery system acti- 
vates as mission of the Firebee terminates. 


Flight-ready Firebee is rolled off main- 
tenance line in Ryan hangar at Tyndall. 

fighter-interceptor pilots. Included in this 
broad-reaching responsibility is advanced 
training in F-101 and F- 106 jets, survial 
training and mating equipment and tactics 
to fit the defense mission. 

In addition. Tyndall houses the 73rd 
Aerospace Surveillance Wing, a part of 
the vast Aerospace Defense Command 
space tracking system and the Weapons 
Controller School where the all-important 
weapons controller is trained to fill the 
needs of ADC's far-flung defense system. 

Two other important units at Tyndall 
today are the 678th Radar Squadron and 
the 350th Flying Training Squadron. The 
Radar Squadron is part of the defense net- 
work for the Southern United States and 
the Flying Squadron is an Air Training 
Command unit for instructor pilot training. 

The command responsibilities extend 
outward and upward from this broad base, 
including organizational command of the 
4756th Combat Crew Training Squadron, 
the 4756th Air Defense Squadron Inter- 
ceptor Weapons School and the 4756th 
Test Squadron. 

It is on this team that Ryan's Firebees 
and those who maintain and operate them 
serve in a distinctive manner at Tyndall. 

Assuming duties formerly held by the 
4756th Drone Maintenance Squadron in 
July of last year, Ryan dispatched a 57- 
man unit for permanent duties. In the year 
past, the contractor team has become an 
integral part of the bigger, uniformed Air 
Force team. 

Operating under the Ryan base manage- 
ment of Billy J. Sved, the Firebee field 
support unit is responsible for all oper- 
ational-maintenance phases of Firebee 
activities. In addition, a special unit of 
Ryan technicians staffs the flight control 
and tracking station. 

The legacy of achievement accepted in 
taking over all Firebee operations from 
the Drone Squadron last year offers mean- 
ingful values for Sved's Ryan team. 

"We know we have to maintain stand- 
ards that were developed over a nine-year 
period, adding to these standards where- 
ever possible. 

"Our major effort is to keep these 'tough 
guys' in their place." 

In fighter-interceptor parlance, that 
means, "airborne." 

Firebee "pilots" fly mission from 
ground tracking-control facility. 


Tyndall Air Force Base. Florida 

Total Flights *2,405 

Satisfactory Missions 1,996 

Mission Reliability (%) 82.99 

Operational Losses 276 

Operational Loss Rate (Target flights per 
operational loss) 8.71 


Total Flights 354 

Satisfactory Missions 330 

Mission Reliability (%) 93.22 

Operational Losses 4 

Operational Loss Rate (Target flights per 
operational loss) 88.50 

*Through May 31, 1968 
**Since the first "all-Ryan" flight was 
conducted July 31, 1967. 

Plotting chart (upper right) gives Firebee 
controllers constant position of target. 


Capability of low-level flight in 
evading attacker is illustrated in 
photo at left as Firebee dips down 
low with F'l 00 Super Sabre in hot 
pursuit. ADC pilots whooncecom- 
plained abouttow targets find the 
jet Firebee, "a realistic challenge." 

Q2A Firebee (below) served as 
the "star" of 1959 World-Wide 
Weapons Meet at Tyndall. In- 
troduced there the year before, 
10th anniversary of Firebee's 
service will be marked at the 
northwest Florida Base in July. 


High-performance target boat to challenge 
surface defenses of USS New Jersey 

Bristling with nine 16-inch rifles and 
twenty 5-inch air and suri"ace defense 
guns, the reactivated battlewagon USS 
New Jersey is scheduled to take aim at 
Ryan's Firefish target boat in July. 

The 17-foot, remote-controlled Firefish 
will challenge the ship's surface defense 
during training exercises off the coast of 

Designed and developed by Ryan in late 
1964, Firefish target boats are operated 
out of San Diego by Fleet Composite 

The New Jersey's secondary batteries 
of rapid fire, dual 5-inch guns will be used 
in the firing exercise, Navy officials said. 

Simulating hostile PT-boats, Firefish 
target boats are capable of forty-knot 
speeds and perform a spectrum of evasive 
maneuvers to duplicate enemy tactics. 

The New Jersey commenced the first 

USS New Jersey unleashes salvo of 16-inch 
shells during shore bombardment training. 

phase of its readiness training in late June 
on the San Clemente Island firing range in 
preparation for joining the 7th Fleet. 

"Airborne" Firefish target boat simulates 
enemy PT-boat during 'i/p'^ sneed ^'f^'^" 







XV-5B adds 
new Ryan milestone 

Ryan Aeronautical Company's Vertifan 
jet V/STOL, the only aircraft of its 
kind in the nation, is being flight tested in 
preparation for a National Aeronautics and 
Space Administration research program. 

The Vertifan is designated to take off 
straight up, dart away at high subsonic 
speeds, and return to land in an area no 
bigger than a tennis court. The aircraft's 
distinctive feature is a set of counter- 
rotating fans "submerged" in its wings. 
These are driven by jet exhaust to pro- 
vide lift for vertical take-off, hover and 
vertical landings. 

Designated the XV-5B by NASA, the 
Vertifan is a modified and improved ver- 
sion of the research aircraft originally built 
under an Army contract by Ryan. The 
aircraft was assigned to NASA by the 
Army in March 1 967 after several years of 
successful testing. 

When a portion of initial flight testing 
has been completed by Ryan, the XV-5B 
will be flown to NASA's Ames Research 
Center at Moffett Field, south of San 
Francisco. After additional flight testing 
there, the aircraft will be turned over to 
NASA to be used for research. 

Renovation and modifications to the 

T. Claude Ryan, Test Pilot William A. An- 
derson, and Project Engineer at Ryan C. T. 
Turner, Jr., examine XV-5B at San Diego. 

V/STOL jet were done by Ryan under a 
NASA contract of approximately $1 million. 

Major modifications included moving 
its landing gear outboard of the wing fans, 
installation of an improved fuel system, 
changes in cockpit layout and cockpit 
panel arrangement and incorporation of an 
improved seat. A VHF radio has also 
been added. 

Ryan's XV-5B Project Engineer, C. T. 
Turner, Jr., explained that the contract 
modifications, plus a number of other 
minor changes made during renovation 
will greatly improve the aircraft's main- 
tenance and reliability. 


History of aviation was recalled by pio- 
neers (from left) Allan Lockheed, Donald 
Douglas, T. Claude Ryan and Jack Northrop. 




It was a night to remember, a night filled 
with memories of the struggling years 
when aviation was young, and the men 
in it used creativity to conquer the sl<ies. 
The careers of the four pioneers who 
reminisced had crisscrossed for more 
than four decades, and from their pres- 
ent eminence as the industry's elder 
statesmen, they evoked nostalgic glimp- 
ses of a past when individualism had not 
yet given way to the organization man. 

By Harold Keen 

Before more than 1 ,000 persons in the 
Grand Ballroom of the Proud Bird 
Restaurant, Los Angeles International 
Airport, the founding heads of four great 
Southern California aerospace companies 

— Douglas, Lockheed, Northrop and Ryan 

— recently joined in a unique excursion 
into the history they helped make. 

A veritable Aviation Hall of Fame was 
represented on the platform where Donald 
W. Douglas, Allan Lockheed, John K. 
Northrop and T. Claude Ryan swapped 
recollections at a "Night in Aviation His- 
tory" banquet sponsored by the Northrop 
Institute of Technology's Aviation History 
Library Committee, with Clete Roberts, 

noted Los Angeles television newsman, 
as moderator. 

They spoke of the almost casual manner 
in which they got their first jobs or built 
their first planes, of the cheerfully informal 
relationships in which employees of one 
company "moonlighted" to help a com- 
petitor get his aircraft off the ground, and 
of pride in the greatest production achieve- 
ment of all times, to meet the urgent needs 
of America and its allies in World War II. 

"What was it like dealing with Govern- 
ment then?" Roberts asked Douglas. 

"It was very informal," he replied. "In 
those days there was an atmosphere of 
complete trust between the industry and 

the Government, and neither took ad- 
vantage of the situation. 

"The consequence was that a great 
many of the airplanes were built by the 
industry on speculation with the com- 
panies" own money. They dared to do this 
because they didn't have to go through 
multitudinous boards where it would take 
months, if not years, to make up their 
minds. 'You didn't have to deal with very 
many people. We were technically well 
ahead of anyone else and ready for the 
expansion our industry accomplished dur- 
ing World War II. I don't think this has 
ever been equalled or ever will be sur- 
passed by an industry in any country 


Pioneering solo distance flyer Jimmie Mat- 
tern between friends M. Jensen and Ryan. 

in the world." 

Northrop recalled that "if you had prob- 
lems you could get on the phone to Wright 
Field and get an answer, if not immedi- 
ately, within hours. You were able to pro- 
ceed promptly, which is virtually impos- 
sible if the system gets too complicated." 

All had to clear their own paths with 
meager resources. Northrop was the most 
peripatetic of the quartet, having worked, 
at one time or other, for all the other three. 
His training was typical of the earliest 

Past came to life for (from left) trans-Pacific 
flyer Martin Jensen; Al Essig, former ad 
man for Ryan; T. Claude Ryan and Art Man- 
key, who worked for Ryan on M-1 monoplane. 

^ ^y'^HBg;' 








I^^^H^^^ 1 




^^^^Bv " ..^^^^^^^^Kt 




airplane builders. "I had a little experi- 
ence as a garage mechanic," he explained, 
"and I worked for a year as a draftsman 
for an architect. I worked for my father, 
who was in the building business. In those 
days, all this sort of qualified me to design 
airplanes." He joined Allan Lockheed and 
his older brother, Malcolm (inventor of 
the Lockheed four-wheel hydraulic brakes) 
in their short-lived firm in Santa Barbara, 
where they built a twin-engined "seven or 
eight-passenger flying boat. With my ex- 
cellent background, I designed quite a little 
of the airplane, calculated wing stresses, 
and the wings never came off." 

Later, after skimpy finances doomed the 
Santa Barbara plant, Northrop joined 
Douglas in Santa Monica to build truss 
type wood ribs. Allan Lockheed had urged 
Douglas to "give him a chance if you have 
a job in the engineering department." Two 
or three weeks later, Douglas assigned 
him to design the metal fairing on a long- 
range "world cruiser". "I went in tremb- 
ling," he said. "My work at Lockheed had 
been largely in wood, so I didn't know a 
doggone thing about putting a fairing on 
a steel tube fuselage airplane. I was ab- 
solutely petrified. I got ill after lunch and 
went home. Next morning I didn't know 
if I was going to last through the day, but 
fortunately somebody else had been started 
on the fairing, and I got a job designing alu- 
minum gas tanks — this I knew how to do." 

A long time later, just prior to World 
War n, Ryan encountered a similar prob- 
lem stemming from the high performance 
of another type aircraft, the low-wing Ryan 
S-T primary trainers in which more than 
14,000 military pilots were ultimately 
trained in Ryan flight schools. "When we 
originally were trying to get our first order 
for trainers, one of the board of oflficers 
who came out to test the PT-16 remarked 
that it had too high performance. Our plane 
was a little faster and more spirited than 
the biplanes that were being used then. No 
primary trainer should be that spirited, 1 
was told. They said it should be more — 
what we call Moggy'." But the PT series 
was accepted as the standard primary 
trainer in World War H, performing an 
outstanding feat of introducing inexper- 
ienced young men to the art of flying." 

At the gathering of the pioneers, Ryan 
was asked the inevitable question — what 
was Charles Lindbergh really like? "Well, 
he was very boyish and had a good sense 
of humor and a very fine personality," 
Ryan said. "He was not too well dressed 
when he showed up. Just a young fellow 

who had been bitten by the aviation bug 
real hard, but a very excellent pilot, and 
a very methodical figurer. He was wrongly 
interpreted by the press at that time as a 
flying fool. He was anything but that. He 
did things in a very thorough manner— all 
the way through in planning the flight. He 
did all his planning in the little corner of 
the office in our plant. He wasn't espe- 
cially outgoing, but he was very friendly 
and good natured." 

Among Ryan's many firsts specifically 
highlighted at the "Night in Aviation His- 
tory" was his experience with the Douglas 
Cloudster, which became the first Douglas 
commercial "airliner" in the world. Ryan 
adapted it to the first year-round daily 
scheduled airline service in the United 
States — the Ryan Airlines run between 
Los Angeles and San Diego. 

"In 1925, I heard that Douglas' Cloud- 
ster had been sold to a group in Venice 
which wasn't using it," Ryan recalled. 
"They wanted $5,000, which seemed like 
more money than there was in the world. 
But we managed to scrape it up and bought 
the airplane. It was built for a non-stop 
flight across the continent. We took the gas 
tanks out of it and rebuilt it into a 1 0-pass- 
enger airliner. It was a wonderful airplane, 
and we used it for charter work when we 
discontinued the airline after one full 
year of operation. 

"One of the charter jobs was a little un- 
usual. This country was dry then, but 
Mexico was very wet. All the Los Angeles 
people used to go to Tijuana regularly. 
Just before the big Christmas rush one 
year, they had a severe flood. The prin- 
cipal brewery was in Mexicali, and the 
customers were in Tijuana. So we were 
approached to see if we could run an air- 
line between Mexicali and Tijuana, carry- 
ing beer. We loaded the Cloudster up and 
made dozens and dozens of flights over 
the mountains, loaded with kegs of beer. 
From then on the Cloudster smelled like 
a brewery." 

The Cloudster came to a somewhat ig- 
nominious fate, in keeping with the infor- 
mality of the era. "On a charter flight to 
Ensenada, where there was no landing field, 
one of our pilots tried to land on the beach," 
Ryan reminisced, "It was high tide and 
that finished the Cloudster. No one was 
hurt, but the Cloudster was lost. We didn't 
even try to bring it back from Mexico." 

When asked about the biggest thrill of a 
career that has ranged from a flying school 
that used a wobbly Jenny, to the manufac- 
ture today of sophisticated electronic 

Jack Northrop (second from left) does a 
bit of hangar flying to get his point across. 






■■-' i; 

Former test pilot Vance Breese and Ryan 
recall national tour that Breese flew in M-1. 

equipment that will guide the Apollo 
Lunar Module to a soft landing on the moon 
Ryan cited the first vertical takeoff" and 
successful flight of the spectacular Ryan 
X-13 Vertijet, the world's 'first pure 
jet VTOL airplane. 

"VTOL airplanes are still not perfected 
and are still not used commercially or 
militarily," he said. "But this airplane did 
everything the contract said it should do. 
It was a success from a technical stand- 
point. This was a tailsitter type, and it was 
really a thrill to see this high performance 
fighter hovering, nose straight up." 

Still active, at 70, as the Board Chairman 
and Chief Executive Officer of the com- 
pany he founded, Ryan anticipates many 
more thrills as Ryan devices continue the 
firm's pioneering tradition while assist- 
ing in the exploration of deep space. 

Ryan remembered how the small com- 
pany he had founded couldn't quite keep 
up with the engineering requirements of 
what was to become the forerunner of the 
most famous plane of all time — Charles 
Lindbergh's "Spirit of St. Louis". Lind- 
bergh, then an air mail pilot, had heard 
about the Ryan M-1, a high-wing mono- 
plane built primarily for the mail service. 
He liked that type for the transatlantic 
flight he was determined to make. 


Hands help T. Claude Ryan as he explains 
early-day flight problem to Don Douglas. 

J. D. Ryan (right) meets old friend of his 
father's, Martin Jensen, at reunion in L.A. 

Mrs. Ryan (left) and Mrs. Theodore Conant joined husbands in "Gathering of Giants" at Los 
Angeles. Conant is a former executive of Douglas and a long time friend of T. Claude Ryan. 

Helmeted T. Claude Ryan gets handshake from B. F. Mahoney, partner in Ryan Airlines, Inc., as sales manager J. B. Alexander beams approval 
on occasion of early test flight of Ryan M-1 monoplane. 


San Diego to Los Angeles passengers embark in original Douglas Cloudster 
flown by Ryan (rear cockpit). Fares rode in the two forward open cockpits. 

Youthful T. Claude Ryan gulps down sandwich and milk as he starts on 
historic survey flight for mail service from Los Angeles to Seattle. Wash. 

Turning point had occured in career of T. Calude Ryan as he posed in front 
of M-1 , six of which were sold to Pacific Air Transport in first production order. 

"We didn't have an engineer on our pay- 
roll at that time — we couldn't keep one 
all the time. So I asked Jack Northrop if he 
could do a little 'moonlighting". He said, 
'Well, provided that Doug (Douglas) will 
agree and he lets me take Art Mankey (an- 
other key engineering employee of Doug- 
las along to help out.' So, for quite a while 
they came down to San Diego week-ends 
and redesigned the wing and took off 200 
pounds, and made a much better airplane 
that really performed. Incidentally, that 
exact same wing, stretched out, was on 
the 'Spirit of St. Louis'." 

Ryan told of his modest start with a 
war-surplus Jenny on a tiny strip along 
the San Diego waterfront some 46 years 
ago. This was a "hungry" period for all 
the pioneers. "There were a great many 
years when I lived on about $20 a week 
and kept a family on it, too." Douglas 
said. "There wasn't much loose cash 
in those days." 

After Douglas completed his first plane, 
the Cloudster (later acquired by Ryan), 
he obtained a $120,000 Navy contract 
for three aircraft. He had no operating 
capital. "Through Bill Henry (now Wash- 
ington columnist of the Los Angeles Times) 
I met Harry Chandler (Times publisher)," 
Douglas said. "Chandler got nine other 
gentlemen around town — the ten of them 
endorsed a note for $15,000. And that's 
the capital we started on." 

Ryan meanwhile decided he could build 
a better plane than the Jennies, Standards 
and Cloudster he had been flying as oper- 
ator of a flying school, sightseeing service 
and the "Los Angeles-San Diego Air 
Line." This was the M-1. 

"Our first prospective M-1 customer 
was Pacific Air Transport, later the west 
coast run of United Air Lines." Ryan rec- 
ollected. "I made the demonstration flight 
from Los Angeles to Seattle, and broke 
speed records. In Vancouver. Washing- 
ton, Lt. Oakley Kelly was the commanding 
oflScer of the Army Air Corps base. He 
had made a non-stop flight across the con- 
tinent the year before, and he had a 
souped-up DeHavilland all the boys 
thought was the fastest thing around. They 
challenged me to have a race. 

"Well, we had 200 horsepower and he 
had 400. But I was foolish enough to take 
the challenge. There were thousands of 
people out there that Sunday, and I won 
the race. On my way back down the coast 
on the return flight, I went into Crissey 
Field, San Francisco. I was still a reserve 
officer in the Army Air Corps, and the 
general came up to me and said, 'Young 
man, you have greatly embarrassed the 
Army and you'll live to regret this.' .And 
I think I did. It was years before I ever 
got a government contract!" ^^^ ^ 



Plane portraits 

he plane that pays a profit" was 

I America's first volume-production 

monoplane, 23 of which were built in 

1926 for use in carrying the mail from 

Los Angeles to Seattle. 

The Ryan M-1 (M for mail; 1 for the 
first) applied a theory of T. Claude 
Ryan's that a monoplane would pro- 
vide a cleaner, more efficient design 
than any of the biplanes in common use. 
It was T. Claude Ryan who made the 
epochal survey flight in the first M-1 
over the airmail route between Los 
Angeles and Seattle, smashing all flight 
records between cities on the route. 

Ryan M-1 

Well established in the air transpdft 
field, the M-1 underwent constant im- 
provement. Its successor included the 
"Bluebird," first of the Ryan Broughams 
which were to pioneer air mail routes in 
Latin America, Canada and Alaska as 
well as the United States. 

The M-1 Brougham holds yet another 
significant distinction in that it served 
as the basic design for the Ryan "Spirit 
of St. Louis." Attracted by the renown 
of the Ryan mail planes, Charles A. Lind- 
bergh's trans-Atlantic flight enhanced 
popularity of the Ryan Broughams and 
gave them global recognition. 

Please send address changes W: 


P.O. BOX 311 ■ SAN DIEGO, CALIF. 92112 

Address Correction Requested 
Return Postage Guaranteed 

27 1 

What will this fighter pilot's chances be when that bird out there is 
the real thing, a MIG 21? They'll be good, very good. Because this 
bird, a supersonic Firebee II, will be the nearest thing to a fighting 
mad MIG he can shoot at. More than just a clay pigeon, this bird is 
a real jet aircraft. It flies like one. It maneuvers like one. Returning 
combat pilots tell us they must train against a maneuvering jet to be 
really prepared. Over 20 years of Ryan jet target experience is built 
into this supersonic Firebee. And those who trai n against it will know 
exactly what to expect-when the chips are I d v A N 
down. Firebee II is another Ryan first. That ^k y >\ im 
follows, because being first is a Ryan tradition. I i 

the chips 
are down 

R V A N 




Volume 29, No. 3 October 1968 

Published by Ryan Aeronautical Company 
P.O. Box 311, San Diego. California 92112 

George J. Becker, Jr./Public Relations Manager 

Jack G. BrowardlManaging Editor 

Al BergrenlArt Director 

Robert A. WeissingerlStaff Photographer 

Robert Watts/Staff Artist 

Departments: Robert P. Battenfield 

> Electronic & Space Systems 

Charles H. Ogilvie 
Aerospace Systems 
Shaun Doole 
Research Assistant 

3 Vertical Dimension 

7 V/STOL: Past, Present, Future 
10 Four Radars Go Operational 
14 Sleek, Slim and Supersonic 
18 Moon School 
22 New Pacific Outpost 

Reporter Interview: 
26 Admiral U.S. Grant Sharp 
29 Challenge for the Vulcan 

34 Reporter News 

35 Plane Portraits 





Test pilot Bill Anderson 
conducts hover test hop 
in Ryan Vertifan XV-5B 
at NASA's Ames Research 
Center. Aircraft is the 
only one of its kind. 

In an era of flight that offers promise 
of manned lunar landings and Mach 
2.5 airliners, test pilot Bill Anderson 
reasons that the time is long overdue 
for practical applications in the... 


William A. Anderson 

Chief Engineering Test Pilot, Ryan Aeronautical Company 

(Editor's note: William A. Anderson, former RAF test pilot, has 
been actively associated with Ryan Vertifan V/STOL research 
aircraft since early 1965, first as a U.S. Army civilian test pilot 
and since 1966, as Ryan's ChiefTest Pilot. He has flown Vertifan 
aircraft in several phases of developmental flight test programs). 

Iet me make it clear from this point forward: The XV-5 Verti- 
i fan VTOL (vertical-takeofF-and-landing) system was de- 
signed, developed and flown to prove the feasibility and merits 
of the lift-fan propulsion concept. 
I have been flying a Vertifan aircraft since early 1965. 

There is no doubt in my mind that its initial mission has 
long ago been fulfilled. Everything from that point forward 
came as a bonus, and exceeded our hopes and expectations. 

And for the record, here is the Vertifan flight log: Seven 
flight test programs have been completed and the eighth is 
now in progress at NASA's Ames Research Center. There have 
been 388 flights and 146 hours of flight time logged. Fifteen 
pilots of five government agencies and three aircraft com- 
panies have flown this Vertifan aircraft. 

Its demonstrated performance envelope includes speeds 
from 22 knots rearward to 456 knots forward and 30 knots 

Test pilot Bill Anderson, T. Claude Ryan and Vertifan project engineer 
Jack Turner (left-to-right) examine XV-5B following modification. 

sideways. Vertifan aircraft demonstrated prolonged stable 
hovering operations under a wide variety of conditions. Ver- 
tical takeoffs and landings have been made from grass, alfalfa 
stubble, graded raw desert, T-17 nylon membrane and sand. 
No foreign object ingestion or limiting erosion problems were 
encountered. Low (five-foot) hovers over loose, sandy soil and 
a plowed field of low bearing capacity demonstrated the ability 
of Vertifan aircraft to takeoff and land vertically from almost 
any other surface capable of supporting the wheels. 

Aircrew rescue tests demonstrated capabilities for lifting 
humans up to cockpit level from land or water by winching 
mechanisms. No excessive temperature, acceleration or cable 
stability limits were experienced. These tests clearly illus- 
trated the potential values of Vertifan aircraft as high speed 
fighter escort-rescue planes, since hovering mission capability 
is so well combined with high speed-high "g" fighter man- 

Pilot evaluations of experimental aircraft vary widely, 
based on background, motivation, mission orientation and 
personal capacities. There has been unanimous agreement, 
however, by those flying Vertifan aircraft that excellent hover- 
ing stability and efficiency are prime features. 

Two AF pilots stated, "XV-5A aircraft are easy and pleasant 
to fly in most flight regimes". Some criticism of trim changes 
and control harmony has been made, but all pilots who have 
flown Vertifan aircraft offered very favorable evaluations. 

The quantitative engineering data generated by Vertifan 
aircraft make it the best documented jet V/STOL concept now 
in flight status. Volumes of critically important engineering 
flight test reports, maintenance, reliability and mechanical 
functioning logs have been accumulated to support applica- 
tions of Vertifan systems. 

Once the strangeness of a vertical takeoff jet aircraft has 
worn off, I found that Vertifan aircraft are pleasant and easy 
to fly. There are no gear boxes, propellers, folding rotors or 
lift engines to be concerned about. Symmetrical lift is main- 
tained regardless of engine failure (without any compensation) 
and vertical takeoff fuel consumption is about the same as 
conventional takeoff fuel consumption. 

The piloting tasks are natural and of normal frequency and 
effort. Handling qualities can be tailored to suit almost any 
mission criteria by selection of suitable control systems and 
mechanical characteristics and optimization of stability 
augmentation systems. 

The XV-5 aircraft achieves excellent hovering stability by 
means of a simple angular rate damping system with a short 
term altitude hold. The controls are conventional except for 
the "lift stick" which varies fan output lift directly by spoiling, 

" ^ v-r 

Test pilot report is given to NASA-Ryan program officials by Bill Ander- 
son (center) following vertical takeoff-landing and hover flights. 

NASA-Ryan test pilots Ron Gerdes 
(left) and Bill Anderson hold 
impromptu flight debrief follow- 
ing initial test hop in Vertifan 
aircraft at Ames Research Center. 
Anderson noted marked improve- 
ments in aircraft's performance 
following modification program. 

Smooth blend of vertical flight 
technology and high speed jet 
aircraft is represented by Ryan 
Vertifan, shown below in conven- 
tional jet mode of flight. Now in 
eighth flight test program, it is 
world's only aircraft of its 
kind and the best documented. 




Ryan Vertifan proved human rescue capabilities by raising in- 
strumented dummy to cockpit level while aircraft was in hover 
mode (at right). Test was part of series completed by XV-5A. 

and the vectx)r actuator switch, which varies the exit angle of 
the fan exit air flow from 10 degrees forward of the vertical to 
45 degrees aft of the vertical. 

A conversion switch and louver configuration switch permits 
conversion from fan to jet modes and reverse. The ability to 
divert (or switch off) the nose fan — used only for pitch control 
— is available at speeds above 60 knots, thus increasing fan 
mode performance markedly. 

One hundred and nine knots can be achieved in fan mode 
with a conventional stall speed of 84 knots. The transition 
corridor is very wide, permitting angles of attack between 
minus five degrees and plus twelve degrees. Rates of climb 
and descent range from plus 1000 feet per minute to minus 
2500 feet per minute, a truly liberal envelope for any VTOL 
machine in the transition regime. 

The uniqueness of the XV-5 Vertifan aircraft can best be 
emphasized by stating that it is the only lift-fan aircraft flying 
in the world today, and that it is one of the few vertical take- 
off and landing aircraft of the present decade which has not 
had any minor accidents due to technical systems malfunction 
or failure. 

We completed airworthiness flight tests of the newly refur- 
bished and modified Vertifan XV-5B for use by NASA in late 
August at Ames Research Center. Major modifications to the 
aircraft included moving the landing gear outboard of the 
wing fans, changes in cockpit layout and the panel arrange- 
ment and incorporation of an improved seat. 

I have made 15 flights in the modified Vertifan aircraft, 
adding six hours and 20 minutes to the total flight time. This 
breaks down into 18 takeoffs — nine conventional, seven 
vertical and two STOL in high speed fan mode. We have made 
eight airborne conversions, four each from fan-to-jet and jet-to- 
fan. Eight conventional, eight vertical and two high speed 
fan mode STOL landings were logged. 

Maximum gross takeoff" weight was 12,500 pounds conven- 
tional and 11,000 pounds vertical, yet only 5,000 pounds of 
thrust is installed in the aircraft. 

In this latest flight test program, the change in the air- 
craft's landing gear was particularly impressive, adding im- 
proved handling characteristics in conventional and fan mode 
takeoffs and landings. Generally, it is flying better than ever. 

Until the Vertifan was developed, VTOL aircraft offering 
high speed and high "g" capabilities had lousy hovering 
characteristics; and those with good hovering capabilities had 
lousy high speed and high "g" characteristics. Other jet VTOL 
systems suffer from excessive fuel consumption, soil erosion 
and reingestion of hot gas and debris in the hover mode. 

In a very real sense then, the Ryan Vertifan represents a 
marriage in the technology of vertical ffight and of high- 
speed jet aircraft. 

It is a system in existence today, directing the technical 
resources of this country toward the vertical dimensions of 

At a time when the promise of manned lunar landings and 
Mach 2.5 passenger airliners seems imminent, it is clearly 
evident that we have the technical capabilities for creating the 
vertical dimension era. 

Certainly, in the face of awesome air traffic congestion and 
the problems associated with conventional passenger airliners, 
the urgent need for practical V/STOL applications is evident. 

The record of Ryan's Vertifan V/STOL research aircraft can 
show us how to meet this need. ^^^ ^ 

Key element in success of Vertifan concept is its wing-mounted 
lifting fans, one of which is shown below during modification. 








r ^ 







Integration of VISTOL technology with mass transportation sys- 
tems will come in the 1970s says NASA's Jack D. Brewer. 

V/STOL . . . 
Past, Present and Future 

Ryan adds its legacy of pioneering, vertical flight experience to 
NASA's probing investigations of lift-fan technology and applications 

Harold Keen 

When the only plane of its kind in the nation — the Ryan 
XV-5B Vertifan — last July took off from its longtime base 
in San Diego for a new home, it fittingly carried the insignia of 
the U.S. government agency that will employ the aircraft for 
research. Emblazoned on the sparkling white fuselage was 
the NASA emblem, proclaiming forthcoming new ownership 
by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration of the 
unique plane that will serve as a flying laboratory to continue 
testing the lift-fan principle of vertical and short take-off and 
landing (V/STOL). 

NASA is an old hand at investigating the most feasible 
means of combining vertical lift with transition to high-speed 
conventional forward flight. A dozen years ago, its predeces- 
sor, the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics 

(NACA) began wind tunnel testing at the Ames Research 
Center, northern California (the XV-5B's present base) of the 
fan-in-wing concept which reached the apex of its develop- 
ment in the Ryan Vertifan. Utilizing a semi-span of wing in 
the 7 by 10 foot wind tunnel, NASA determined that aero- 
dynamic lift could be increased through the use of fans. 

In succeeding years, research also proceeded into stability 
and control of various fan-in-wing configurations, as well as 
studies of fan inlets and exhausts. In 1960, NASA joined the 
Air Force and the Army in testing, with a complete large scale 
model in the Ames 40 by 80 foot wind tunnel, of a single fan 
in the fuselage. This was determined impractical because vir- 
tually all the fuselage volume would be required for the fan, 
but the aerodynamic results were encouraging enough to em- 

bark on a more feasible design in 1961, with two fans, one in 
each wing. 

Meanwhile, the Air Force and the Army were supporting 
General Electric in its propulsion systems development, and 
the over-all advance in technology led to the Army's decision 
in 1961 to build two full-scale fan-in-wing aircraft — the Ryan 
XV-5A. In addition to wind tunnel tests intermittently, from 
May 1964 through late 1966, these planes made 338 flights, 
totaling 138 hours, in all modes of operation, including ver- 
tical take-off and landing, hover and transition to horizontal 

Successful demonstration of the fan-in-wing principle was 
followed by a renovation and modification program on assign- 
ment of the aircraft by the Army to NASA in early 1967. The 
landing gear was moved outboard of the wing fans, an im- 
proved seat was incorporated, and VHF radio was added. 
Ground stability, maneuvering and braking were improved 
by the modified landing gear, and other changes enhanced ease 
of handling during flight. The XV-5B was ready for NASA's 
continuing research aimed at creating a lift-fan V/STOL ap- 
plicable to commerical as well as military use. On the basis 
of its studies may rest development of a follow-on operational 

Meanwhile, contemplated are future feasibility studies on 
improving control capability and fan performance in which 
Ryan would participate. Among current considerations are 
elimination of the nose fan and utilizing direct jet reaction 
control at the tail to provide pitch control; improved use of 
exhaust gases to obviate the need for committing such gases 
fully to the fans for vertical lift; controls for two pilots, thus 
permitting one to take over while the other is on instrument 
flight research; reduction of the number of conversion con- 
trols to reduce the pilot's work load during transition; and im- 
provement of cockpit instruments and controls to furnish 
better information display. 

NASA officials have expressed belief that the V/STOL 
principle, on which the agency has performed extensive re- 
search for two decades, will begin realizing its great practical 
potential by the mid- 1970 s as an essential element to cope 
with the mounting congestion of the U.S. transportation sys- 
tem. Not too visionary is the favorable application of lift-fan 
technology to transports of 90 to 120 passengers, for short- 
haul intercity flights (probably in the 500-mile range), utilizing 
comparatively simple airport facilities, since there would by 
no need for the long runways required by conventional jets. 
Such smaller air strips could be located much closer to the 
downtown core of cities than most of today's terminals, there- 
by reducing the precious travel time now consumed just get- 
ting to and from airports. 

NASA research with the XV-5B and other types of V/STOLS 
— through use of wind tunnel studies as well as flight — is 
aimed at providing information on which aircraft can be de- 
signed to land and take off vertically — safely, economically, 
and with the regularity required for anticipated commercial 
use. One of the major factors inhibiting commercial use to 
date is the noise level during take-off's and landings. General 
Electric Co., the prime contractor in the original XV-5A 
Army program is under NASA contract to alleviate this pro- 
blem for fan aircraft types. 

An indication of the high priority placed on STOL and 
V/STOL research by NASA's Aeronautical Vehicles Divi- 
sion (AVD) is the increasing financial allocation for this 
work. During the fiscal year 1968, approximately $7. 1 million 
was spent, and during the current fiscal year, the total is ex- 
pected to be about $8 million to be used to hasten the practical 
use of vertical and short take-off" aircraft during the 1970's. 

Ryan vertical flight technology began in 1940 with YO-51 Dragon- 
fly, then progressed to NASA-sponsored VZ-3RY Vertiplane 
(above) which investigated deflected slipstream concept. 

Ryan's stake in the NASA research program extends to 
another V/STOL aircraft, the giant XC-142A, capable of 
carrying up to 8,000 pounds of equipment or supplies, or 
32 combat-ready troops. Built by a production partnership 
of Ling-Temco-Vought, Hiller and Ryan, the XC-142A has 
been loaned to NASA for two years, with research into its 
tilt wing features to be conducted at the Langley Research 
Center, Chincoteague Island, Va. Whereas the XV-5B is a 
fighter type, the XC-142A, for which Ryan built the wings, 
tail assembly and fuselage, is a transport designed to in- 
crease mobility by operating from airfields in remote jungle 
or mountain areas. In contrast with the XV-5B's wdng fans 
which provide lift, the XC-142A tilts its wing 100 degrees 
so the turboprop engines are pointed skyward during ver- 
tical flight and hover, and restores the wing to normal 
position for horizontal flight. 

Among NASA's early research projects, leading to tilt 
wing technology, was a predecessor of the XC-142A, the 
Ryan VZ-3RY Verti-plane, a STOL which utilized the de- 
flected slipstream principle. This conventionally configured 
plane used large flaps to deflect the propellers' slipstream 
for extremely steep takeofFs and landings. 

NASA's ambitious and ever-broadening V/STOL re- 
search is encompassing several other major V/STOL con- 
cepts. The feasibility of modifying the de Havilland Aircraft 
Corporation's Buff"alo aircraft is being studied, with the 
modification to involve installation of a new wing incor- 
porating de Havilland's augmentor flap concept and two 
jet engines. The augmentor flap would bleed air from the 
engine compressor and inject it into a channel in the wing 
ahead of the flap, providing more lift as additional air is 
sucked in from above and below the wing, intended to pro- 
vide a substantial reduction in takeoff" and landing distance, 
and thus a capability of operating from smaller landing 

The Navy has assigned a North American Rockwell 
Corporation OV-10 COIN aircraft to NASA to test the 
principle of rotating a cylinder, located at the leading edge 
of a highly deflected flap, rapidly in the direction of the 
airflow, thus causing the propeller airstream to turn sharply 
down, converting thrust to lift and providing a shorter take- 
off" and landing capability for prop driven transports. 

A valuable new research tool due to be placed in operation 


The evolution of lift-fan technology began 
at NACA in 1956 with Ryan hardware. 

Test Series led to full-scale lift-fan test 
in 1960 by NASA and the U.S. Air Force. 

Full-scale test version of XV-5A VISTOL 
was put to tests in wind tunnel in 1962. 

Flight model of XV-5A that was tested in 
wind tunnel in 1964 is still flying today. 

Modified-refurbished and engaged in long range flight Investigation of lift fan 
technology at Ames Research Center is Ryan XV-SB VISTOL research aircraft. 

Ryan XV-5A Vertifan VISTOL aircraft 
began flight test program in 1964. 

by NASA in 1969 is a $5 million V/STOL transition speed 
research wind tunnel at Langley. Its test section will be 15 by 
20 feet, and it will generate velocities from to 200 knots, 
simulating the transition speed of most V/STOLS, enabling 
research under more realistic conditions. 

A penetrating appraisal of V/STOL potential has been made 
by Jack D. Brewer, Program Manager for V/STOL Aircraft 
Research in the Aeronautical Vehicles Division. Brewer, 46, 
an aeronautical engineer, has served NASA and its pred- 
ecessor, NACA, for more than 24 years. "Vertical and short 
take-off planes have a tremendous future," he said, "if noise, 
reliability and economic factors can be overcome. Preliminary 

reports on the noise reduction studies by General Electric 
are promising. As for the greater cost required for the pro- 
pulsion system and the fuel consumption in low-speed hover, 
this may be borne readily by passengers to whom time is 
money. V/STOLs will be able to bring air travelers much 
closer to city centers than the conventional transports, and 
passengers may be willing to pay more for the substantial 
reduction in travel time to their ultimate destination. Just 
as many early obstacles of helicopter usage were overcome, 
so it is believed the problems of V/STOL aircraft will be 
solved to integrate this technology into the overall transpor- 
tation system of the 1970s." ^^™ ^ 

Higher altitudes, greater speeds, and specialized missions of future aircraft demand such new radar sensors as Ryan's ANIAPN-193 Doppler. 

Next generation military aircraft will need accurate, lightweight, reliable flight 

control systems. And now expanding the inventory of Ryan navigation sensors 



Carner-bdsed ASW helicopters have used Ryan radar tor nearly decade: now new AN/APN-182 enters fleet. 

Four new Ryan radar sensor systems 
have received Federal nomenclature 
and moved up to operational status dur- 
ing the past year. 

The four sensors broaden Ryan's pro- 
duct line in airborne systems, placing the 
company in a prime position for winning 
inclusion in advanced avionics packages 
being planned now for the next generation 
of military aircraft. 

First among the new group is the 
AN/APN-182 Doppler Navigation Set. 
Production began last fall for installation 
in Navy SH-3D anti-submarine warfare 

helicopters, which use the APN-182 to 
control its automatic descent and hover 
maneuvers during sonar operations. 

The APN-182 is an advanced version 
of the Ryan AN/APN-130 which is now 
serving the majority of the Navy's ASW 
and combat support helicopter forces. 
Improvements in tracking the return signal 
have been incorporated in the new system 
and all components have been updated to 
achieve lighter weight, less power con- 
sumption, and greater reliability. 

Navy SH-3D helo pilots call on Ryan AN/APN- 
182 to control automatic descent and hover. 

Retrofit of older SH-3As with new APN-1 82 is easily done at squadron level. 

More than 100 landings have been scored successfully on Navy carriers by Ryan ANIAPQ-135. Flight tests evaluated ANIAPN-192 Altimeter. 

Some features of the electronic design 
of the APN-182 even stem from design 
concepts worked out for the Ryan radar 
altimeter and doppler velocity sensor that 
guided the Surveyor spacecraft to soft 
landings on the moon. 

Next to win nomenclature was the Ryan 
Sink Rate Radar. Formerly designated 
the Model 207, the sensor received the 
nomenclature AN/APQ-135 under spon- 
sorship of the Navy Air Systems Command. 

Carrier landing evaluations of the APQ- 
135 have been conducted by the Navy 
on the USS Enterprise and the USS In- 
dependence. More than 100 landings were 
successfully recorded. 

Vertical velocity of the aircraft is regis- 
tered at the instant the wheels hit the car- 
rier deck or runway. Doppler radar is used 
for the measurement, and an electronic 
trigger actuates a needle in the APQ-135 
display indicator that "freezes" to hold the 
impact velocity for inspection. 

Repeated hard landings tend to increase 
airframe structural fatigue, so that even 
a normal landing can result in an accident. 

Ryan's Sink Rate Radar has also been 
purchased for tests with the F-4 Phantom 
by McDonnell-Douglas: for the CH-46 
helicopter by Boeing- Vertol; and for a 
series of STOL tests with the C-I30 Her- 
cules by Lockheed-Georgia. Results 
have been good. 

Next was an accurate, short-pulse radar 
altimeter that Ryan called its Model 602B. 
First version, the 602A, is on board the 

NASA Lunar Landing Training Vehicles. 
With the addition of audio-visual warnings 
and other improvements, the 602B attract- 
ed U.S. Army interest. 

A contract evaluation at Ft. Ord, Cali- 
fornia, resulted in obtaining the nomencla- 
ture AN/APN-192 for the altimeter. This 
test was VTOL IIL a "nap-of-the-earth" 
flight test program with the Boeing Vertol 
CH-47 Chinook under the direction of the 
Army's Combat Developments Command. 

Ryan's APN-192 was used to measure 
true altitude as the big combat support helo 
flew at high speed over a test course at 
Hunter-Liggett Military Reservation. Al- 
titude was often as low as one foot. 

A wide variety of opportunities are seen 
for this altimeter, ranging from helicopters 
to patrol planes and from attack fighters to 
high altitude aircraft. 

Most recently, nomenclature has been 
granted to Ryan's Model 533 Doppler 
Velocity Sensor. Incorporating many ad- 
vances in electronic design and circuitry, 
the 533 is now the AN/APN-193 Ve- 
locity Sensor. 

A four-beam sensor, it tracks the Dop- 
pler radar return signal to a high degree of 
accuracy through the use of a newly devel- 
oped cross-correlation frequency tracker. 
This enables the aircraft to fly at high 
altitudes — above 70,000 feet — and at bank 
angles as great as 60 degrees, and still 
receive a reliable return signal. 

Another feature of the APN-193 is its 
conformal antenna, which curves to fit the 


Bill Anderson, chief test pilot, flew helicopter. 

contour of the aircraft's fuselage. Also, a 
solid state transmitter is used for the first 
time in a Ryan airborne radar; the Ryan- 
built lunar landing radar for the Apollo 
Lunar Module — a spacebome sensor — 
was first to use one. 

"Each of these systems represents an 
advance in sensor accuracy, or a reduction 
in weight or power requirements, or an 
increase in reliability," J.R. Iverson, vice 
president. Electronic and Space Systems, 
said. "We feel confident that, given the 
opportunity, these sensors can fulfill im- 
portant roles in the advanced avionics 
systems being planned by the military and 
by the aerospace industry for the next 
generation of military aircraft." 

Demonstrations of Ryan's radar altimeter are 
being held for chopper builders, military users. 



/ I'l 

\ / 

856i)!< + 




Next generation Ryan radar sensors are 
using microelectronics, integrated circuits. 

Miniaturization and modular construction 
are offered in new ANIAPN-193 sensor. 



AN /APN-192 altimeter features audio-warning indicator. 

ANIAPN-193 is backed by Ryan-designed special sup- 
port equipment that simulates all fligtit dynamics. 

"/a^ i'J^l^ 



Photo by Charles Goodwin, PHI, U.S. Navy 

Supersonic Firebee II flashed past its 
design speed of 1,000 miles an hour 
(Mach 1.5) during one of the latest in a se- 
ries of developmental flight tests conduct- 
ed at the Navy's Pacific Missile Range. The 
milestone came September 1 3, during a 37- 
minute test flight, the longest yet achieved. 
The remote-controlled growth-version 
jet Firebee was launched from a Navy 


DP2E Neptune patrol plane at 14,000 
feet at an air speed of 200 knots. 

The needle-nosed Firebee II performed 
climb altitude to 45,000 feet before jet- 
tisoning its external fuel pod, a procedure 
preliminary to performing its supersonic 
dash. The 400 pound fuel container at- 
tached to the underside of the fuselage 
augments an internal fuel load of 275 

pounds, used tor supersonic flight modes. 

Control, stability and flutter test data 
were obtained during the flight that ended 
with parachute recovery and return to the 
Naval Missile Center. Pt. Mugu, California. 

The Mach 1.5 milestone was followed 
by a second, equally significant achieve- 
ment September 26. with the first ground 
launch of a Firebee II. 

traces flight path of Ryan Firebee II as it 
begins accelerating for supersonic test flight. 
The external fuel tanl< will be dropped 
off before a supersonic speed is reached. 


. . . these Mach-rated terms are styled for Ryan's growth-version Firebee U. 

The sleek, pilotless jet aircraft streaked 
off a standard launch rail, boosted by an 
1 1,000 pound thrust JATO bottle. 

Its seven minute flight, from launch rail 
to recovery, included flight to 47,000 feet 
in less than three minutes from launch. 

Initial flight testing of the Firebee II 
began in September 1967 at Pt. Mugu, 
where a skilled team of Ryan test engine- 

ers and support personnel is maintained. 
Already achieved in the developmental 
flight test program have been high altitude 
flights to 54,000 feet; supersonic speed 
tests at Mach 1.5; air-launch perameter 
evaluations; controlability and flutter 
characteristic tests; recovery capability 
(parachute and flotation tests); and radar 
tracking tests. 

Nine air-launch operations had been 
achieved by late September this year with 
the first ground launch scheduled also in 
completed in September. 

Like standard BQM-34A Firebees, the 
supersonic version is designed for air or 
ground support equipment serving standard 
Firebee operations. 

Fourteen prototype flight test versions 


Navy DP2E Neptune with a Firebee II flight test model attached 
to wing, climbs to launch altitude for release of supersonic aerial 
target. Ryan is under contract to U. S. Naval Air Systems Com- 
mand for producing 14 developmental-flight test models of the 
supersonic Firebee II. Photo of chase plane is in the background. 



of the Firebee II (designated XBQM-34E) 
have been ordered from Ryan under the 
existing contract by the Naval Air Systems 
Command, all but four of which have been 

Firebee ll's designed performance en- 
velope includes a subsonic mission fol- 
lowed by a supersonic dash, a capability 
that will add significantly to weapons 
evaluation, test and training programs. 

Flight control systems which increase 
the maneuverability of standard Firebees 

Retrieved from water recovery area at sea. 
Ryan Firebee II is returned by helicopter 
to Pt. Mugu for decontamination, refurbish- 
ment and complete checkout before return 
to flight status and a new series of tests. 

Veteran Ryan Firebee II flight test model 
being lifted by crane at left has completed 
five flight missions and is being returned 
to decontamination area for cycle that will 
restore it to flight status for the next test. 

Freshly retrieved from waters of the Pacific, flight tested Ryan 
Firebee II will now undergo a five-step, turn-around process. 

will also be adaptable to Firebee II. 

Citing these training programs as re- 
quired for "giving our combat pilots the 
advantage of knowing the surprises that 
might be expected in action." Rear Ad- 
miral James H. Smith, Jr., called the de- 
velopment of Firebee II a "part and parcel 
of planning such a training program. 

"The new Firebee II will be a signifi- 
cant addition to the naval air arsenal with 
its ability to provide realism in the train- 
ing of our Navymen. And the Naval Air 
Systems Command is grateful to the Ryan 
Aeronautical Company for its invaluable 
contribution to the joint Navy-Industry 
project that has developed Firebee II and 
its predecessor, Firebee I," he stated. 

New milestone to Firebee ll's developmental flight test program 
was added in mid-September with first successful ground launch. 
Ryan team above is lifting target Into ground transport dolly. 


Training tal<es astronauts from classroom to Apollo Astronaut James Irwin experiences living and worl<ing in an airless vacuum dur- 
simulator to full-dress lunar flighit retiearsal. ing tests witfi Lunar Module Test Article-8 (LTA-8) in chambers at NASA MSC, Houston. 

Survival under water, survival in 
outer space- it is all part of the 
daily challenge to the new breed of 
men: America's Apollo astronauts. 

First manned flights of the Apollo spacecraft are scheduled within 
coming months. The men at the controls will be graduates of NASA's . . . 

Moon Schoo 

NASA Photos 

T"he astronauts learn to operate the 
spacecraft from every seat, even cross- 
training for critical tasks within selected 
crews. They learn how to conduct in-flight 
experiments and how to be competent ob- 
servers of the awesome panorama that 
they will view from space. 

In general training they receive class- 
room and field instruction in basic sciences: 
geology, meteorology, astronomy, digital 
computers, flight mechanics, guidance and 
navigation, and physics of the upper 

Pilot skills in jet aircraft and in helicop- 
ters are kept high. Soon, additional train- 
ing will be gained in the flight of the Lunar 
Landing Training Vehicle (LLTV), which 
gives the astronauts the "feel" of lunar 

Environmental training places the astro- 
nauts in periods of weightlessness while a 
modified KC-135 aircraft arcs parbolic 
trajectories. Whirling on the long arm of a 
centrifuge at rates up to 16g (16 times 
earth's gravity), the astronauts experience 
the acceleration forces of launch, launch 
abort, and re-entry. Survival training in 
jungle, desert and ocean reduces the haz- 
ards of contingency landings. 

Flight of the Apollo spaceships is simu- 
lated realistically in a series of training 
simulators. Mock-up Command Modules 
and Lunar Modules are buried in a myriad 
of projectors, mirrors and models of the 
earth and moon, star fields and spacecraft. 
Inside, the astronaut becomes absorbed 
by the created environment. He learns the 

Next stop: the moon. Two astronauts selected 
and trained to crew Apollo Lunar Module will 
pass through connecting tunnel. Ryan radar 
will control descent and attitude in landing. 



Deke Slayton, an original Mercury 
astronaut, lieads Apollo training. 

> ^ 

Apollo astronauts learn "feel" of landing in Lunar Landing Training Vehicle. 

procedures — and the dangers — of booster 
separation, docking to the LM, cislunar 
flight, lunar orbit, descent under radar and 
rocket control, the landing, rejoining the 
mothership, return to earth, earth orbit 
and re-entry. 

Full-scale Apollo modules move on 
cushions of air in the huge Translation and 
Docking Simulator, where the final 100 
feet of the tricky rendezvous and docking 
maneuvers are practiced in rehearsal of 
the astronauts' return from the moon to 
the Command Module. 

These elaborate training devices are 
required because the Apollo astronaut has 
to be expert on his first mission. The "final 
exam" from this moon school will be the 
climactic lunar landing itself. 

Ryan radar technology plays a signifi- 
cant supporting role for the Apollo pro- 
gram, in both the training and the success- 
ful landing. Ryan Radar Flight Data Sys- 
tem guides the LLTV, furnishing the 

astronaut pilot with accurate readings of 
speed and height above the ground. In 
like manner, controlling the rate of des- 
cent to the lunar landing site of the Apollo 
LM will be radar measurements of velocity 
and altitude made by the Ryan LM Land- 
ing Radar System. 

Each of these advanced radars had an 
"ancestor" in the Ryan family of electronic 
systems. Ryan's AN/APN-97A Doppler 
Navigation Set, designed for military heli- 
copters, was used in the Lunar Landing 
Research Vehicle (LLRV) in a N ASA pro- 
gram to perfect concepts for the astronaut 
training vehicle. Unmanned Surveyor 
spacecraft have scouted four prime sites for 
the manned moon landings. Ryan radar 
guided these robot craft to automatic soft 

Also, in the computerized mission train- 
ing simulators, descent trajectory data that 
is fed to the simulator instruments is 
based upon the operating characteristics 

Scott, Schweickart team for desert survivaL 

of the Ryan LM landing radar. The Apollo 
astronauts receive instruction in how the 
landing radar functions, and in the simu- 
lators, observe how it controls the LM 
through the pre-programmed, automatic 
descent to a near-hover before the astro- 
naut takes manual control for the actual 

Competent men, thorough training, re- 
liable flight control sensors — it adds up to 
a promise of success for NASA's Apollo 
Moon School. 

Training a man to survive the unknown 
has always been difficult. Men have clashed 
with uncharted seas, bleak arctic reaches, 
sheer mountain peaks. 

Men have even survived the airless 
vacuum ofspaccsailingoutside the Earth's 
protective shield for as long as 14 days in 
Gemini, working experiments and "space- 
walking," learning to live in an environ- 
ment where no man has lived before. 

And now Americans are getting ready 
to walk on the moon. 

The men who will be selected for this 
mission — the epitome of man's quests for 
exploration— will be graduates of the most 
demanding training program ever con- 

"Manned space flight requires perform- 
ance and competence at an unprecedented 
level," says a spokesman of NAS.^'s 
Manned Spacecraft Center in Houston, 
Tex. "The success of a manned mission is 
largely dependent upon the astronaut's 
ability to perform assigned functions prop- 
erly and efficiently. He must be able to 
cope with the unexpected." 

That's what the Apollo astronaut "moon 
school" is all about: learning to cope. The 
astronauts are selected for exceptional 
skills: outstanding military aviators, ex- 
perimental test pilots, aeronautical engi- 
neers, or more recently, for some know- 
ledge-in-depth in the natural sciences or 
medicine. To this prime raw material is 
added intensive training. ^^b ^ 




Set for October 1968. Command and Service Modules 

Commander: Capt. Walter M. Schirra, Jr., LJSN, 45, born 
in Hackensack, N. J.; U. S. Naval Academy, BS. Vet- 
eran of Mercury and Gemini programs. Senior Pilot: 
Maj. Donn F. Eisele, USAF, 38, Columbus, O.; U. S. 
Naval Academy, BS, AFIT, MS. Pilot: R. Walter Cun- 
ningham civilian, 36, born in Creston, Iowa; UCLA, 
BA, MA, Physics. 


Set for December or January. First manned flight for 

complete Apollo spacecraft. (LM-3) 

Commander: Lt. Col. James A. McDivitt, USAF, 39, 

born in Chicago, III.; University of Michigan. Gemini 

Veteran. Command Module Pilot: Lt. Col. David R. 

Scott, USAF, 36, born in San Antonio, Tex.; U. S. Mili- 

tary Academy, BS, Massachusetts Institute of Technol- 
ogy, MSAA. Gemini Veteran. Lunar Module Pilot: Rus- 
sell L. Schweickart, civilian, 33, born in Neptune, N. J.; 


First quarter 1969. Second manned complete Apollo 


Commander: Col. Frank Borman, USAF, 40, born in 

Gary, Ind.; U. S. Military Academy, BS, California In- 

stitude of Technology, MS. Gemini Veteran. CM Pilot: 

Capt. James A. Lovell, Jr., USN, 40, born in Cleveland, 

O.; U. S. Naval Academy, BS, University of Wisconsin. 

Gemini Veteran. LM Pilot: Maj. William A. Anders, 

USAF, 35, born in Hong Kong; U. S. Naval Academy, 

BS, AFIT, MS, Oklahoma State University. 


Lunar Orbit mission, mid 1969. Crew not assigned. 


First lunar landing, mid 1969. Crew not assigned. 

Ready for the big shot: a mighty Saturn V. 

Main tasl< of first manned moon landing will be surface experiments. 

I,. • —•>■•■* 


Maiden Firebee flight from Wallace Air 
Station (above) occurred July 1, 1968 
with ground launch of jet-powered tar- 
get for flight out over South China Sea. 
Ryan maintains a 47-man contractor 
team In support of the practice firings. 

Hunters and their prey (left) Is symbol- 
ized by flight of Phantom fighter jets 
attached to 13th U. S. Air Force as they 
roar In over Wallace Air Station where 
Ryan Firebee awaits launch signal. Re- 
mote-controlled FIrbees are launched out 
over water and are flown over estab- 
lished firing range in South China Sea. 


Anew link has been added in the Phil- 
ippine Islands to Ryan Aeronautical 
Company's chain of Firebee field support 
units now serving from Puerto Rico to 
Southeast Asia. 

This network provides the Air Force, 
Navy and Army with on-board teams of 
personnel skilled in Firebee avionics, air- 
frame and propulsion systems. 

Established early this year at Wallace 
Air Station to support 13th Air Force 
tactical fighter pilot firing practices, the 
Ryan team of 47 personnel is headed by 
Donald L. (Lee) Henson. 

Wallace Air Station is located 170 miles 
north of Manila, facing the South China Sea 
over which the high-performance Firebees 
are flown as simulated "enemy" aircraft. 

Photos by Capt Richard C. Koch. USAF. 

Henson's group reports to the 6400th 
Test Squadron based at Clark Air Base 
under command of Lt. Colonel D.W. 
Stewart. Firebee maintenance, refurbish- 
ment, launch and flight control are assigned 
to the Ryan team as its primary functions. 

Cited by Air Force officials for "Im- 
provements in training facilities for air 
defense in East Asia," the permanently 
based Ryan unit eliminates the need for 
air-launched Firebee operations which for- 
merly required the participation of launch 
aircraft based as far away as Okinawa. 

Installation of twin ground launch plat- 
forms enables the Firebees to be launched 
from Wallace into flight over open areas 
of the South China Sea. Flight patterns 
are rigidly enforced to avoid any over- 


Ryan's newest contractor team on board at Wallace Air Station 
to support 13th Air Force tactical pilots 


Ryan technician makes final check of sys- 
tems that will control flight of the Firebee. 

land Firebee operations, spokesmen for 
the Air Force stated. 

A broad variety of electronic and pas- 
sive flight augmentation and scoring 
systems are being employed in the Fire- 
bee operations, according to Henson. 
Standard BQM-34A Firebee aerial targets 
are used, with Improved Maneuverability 
Kit (IMK) flight augmentation. Introduced 
at Tyndall Air Force Base, Florida two 
years ago, the flight system adds capabili- 
ties to Firebee flight performance that 
includes steep banks, turns and climbs. 
This increased maneuverability adds 
measurably to realistic qualitiesof "enemy" 
aircraft as the Firebee is flown through 
evasive maneuvers characteristic of 
the enemy. 

Electronic scoring systems register 
near-miss distance of weapons fired dur- 
ing flight operations, telemetering this 
data to ground control tracking stations. 
Wingtip mounted flares and Luneberg lens 
devices are also included in the Firebee 
targets to attract heat-seeking or radia- 
tion type weapons. 

Standard Firebee open-sea recovery 
procedures are followed as the Firebee 
completes its target missions. On-board 
recovery parachutes are activated to low- 
er the jet-powered target to an open-sea 
recovery area. Retrieval helicopters 
return the Firebees to Wallace for refur- 
bishment by Ryan's support team. 

The establishment of a Ryan base at 
Wallace Air Station brings to six the num- 
ber of Firebee field support units now in 
operational service. The 296-man support 
force includes permanent facilities at: 

The U.S. Naval Air Station, Roosevelt 
Roads, Puerto Rico: Tyndall Air Force 

Ryan contractor team aligns jet-powered 
Firebee on launch rail, which points nose 
of target up at a 15-degree launch angle. 


Skilled technicians in Ryan Firebee avionics, 
propulsion and airframe components give 
on-site support to U.S. Air Force operations. 

Base, Panama City, Florida; White Sands 
Missile Range, New Mexico: Dona Ana- 
McGregor firing ranges. El Paso, Texas: 
Wallace Air Station, P. I.: and a Ryan 
mobile Firebee support team at Okinawa. 
The latter supports U.S. Army Hawk prac- 
tice missile firings in Western Pacific 
areas, transporting Firebee-Towbee target 
systems, launch and flight control equip- 
ment plus all maintenance gear and sup- 
plies to practice areas from Okinawa. 

A seventh Ryan team, responsible for 
development and flight tests of the super- 
sonic Firebee II, is based at the Navy's 
Pacific Missile Range, Pt. Mugu, Calif. 

The growth- version Firebee II adds super- 
sonic speed and mission performance 
ranges to standard, subsonic Firebee 
flight capabilities. 

Responsible for overall Firebee field 
support management, coordination and 
operational administration is a 14-man 
staff maintained at San Diego under 
Frank A. Brtek. 

"Our current field support strength 
and base locations enable us to provide 
on-site service as required," noted Brtek, 
adding that field technicians are drawn 
from nucleus units already in operation 
or they complete courses of instruction 
in Firebee maintenance and flight control 
in San Diego prior to field assignment. 

Wallace Air Station Firebee base is Ryan's sixth unit now operational for the U.S. Air Force, Navy and Army. 


Admiral U. S. Grant Sharp 

United States Navy (Retired) 

His appraisal of America's fighting men in Vietnam: "There may be protesters and demonstrators 
amongst our youth at home. But when they're on the battlefield, they fight courageously and well." 

A 45-year naval career -the last four 
as Commander-in-Chief of the Pacific - 
serves as the backdrop for this Interview 
with Admiral U. S. Grant Sharp, now asso- 
ciated with Ryan Aeronautical Company. 
He will assume a post as Chairman of the 
Ryan Advisory Board in November, suc- 
ceeding Dr. James W. Wal<elin, Jr. 

Commander-in-Chief of the Pacific F leet 

before his appointment to the post from 
which he retired, Adm. Sharp experienced 
five consecutive years in constant mil- 
itary contact with the war in Vietnam. 

As the nation's senior military officer 
in the Pacific and Southeast Asia from 
1964 to August 1968, his command 
spanned the Pacific from the shores of 
California to the Indian Ocean. His joint 
military force included nearly a million 
personnel of the Army, Navy, Air Force 
and Mahne Corps. He had overall respon- 
sibility for the conduct of war in Vietnam 
and was in direct control of the air cam- 
paign against North Vietnam. 

Born at Chinook, Montana and a grad- 
uate of Annapolis with the class of 1927, 
Adm. Sharp's sea assignments began 
aboard the old battlewagon USS New 
Mexico and continued in a broad range 
of surface combatant ships. 

He won two Silver Star medals as skip- 
per of the destroyer USS Boyd for Pacific 

engagements during World War II de- 
scribed as "gallantry in action against 
the enemy." 

Except for command of the cruiser USS 
Macon in 1954, his assignments since 
the Korean war have been largely with 
key operational fleet staffs. 

He commanded the U. S. First Fieet, 
served as Deputy Chief of Naval Opera- 
tions (Plans and Policy), and was pro- 
moted to four-star rank to become Com- 
mander-in-Chief of the Pacific Fleet in 

1963. He was appointed to Commander- 
in-Chief of the Pacific by the President in 

1964, a post that carried dual assign- 
ments as U. S. Military Advisor to SEATO: 
U. S. Military Representative to the Phil- 
ippine-U.S. Mutual Defense Board; U. S. 
Military Representative to the Australia- 
New Zealand-United States Council: and 
Military Advisor to the U. S. -Japanese Se- 
curity Consultative Committee. 

An Interview with Adm. Sharp follows: 

"Ryan and defense team relationship couldn't be better.' 


Ryan's design, development and produc- 
tion of military aircraft, Firebee aerial 
and Firefish water surface target systems 
and its broad spectrum of other product and 
services areas has won it a position on the 
U.S. defense team that began in 1939. How 
do you feel about joining a company so 
heavily defense-oriented and how do you 
assess the relationship Ryan enjoys today 
as a member of the defense team? 

"I want to first say that I looked forward 
with a great deal of pleasure to working for 
Ryan. They've pioneered the aviation field 
and will continue this leadership. 

"The relationship between Ryan and the 
defense team couldn't be better. This is due 
to the excellence of Ryan products. And the 
thorough support given by the company's 
field service teams, their enthusiastic cooper- 
ation and attitudes of Ryan representatives." 

Can you make any recommendations 
which would help generally to strengthen 
the defense-industry team? 

"I believe the chief ingredient needed 
right now is a larger DOD research and de- 
velopment appropriation. Many excellent 
ideas are not being developed for lack of 
supporting funds." 

As the national debate over our involve- 
ment in Vietnam continues, a lot of people 
are asking why we are fighting the war. Is it 

Photos by Steve Ryan 

. . . Cites Vietnam commitment. 

really in our national interest to continue 
this struggle? 

"It certainly is. We have a deep commit- 
ment in Vietnam, one that goes back almost 
20 years. Furthermore, our stand in Vietnam 
will affect other commitments all over the 
world — in NATO, Japan, Korea and Thai- 
land, for example — because it is a test of 
reliability. We cannot back out of Vietnam 

Issued battlesliip callup. 

without invalidating our position as a world 

"Another fact which cannot be ignored is 
that we are in confrontation with aggressive 
communism — communist imperialism, you 
might call it -in all of Asia. Right around 
the rim of Communist China, one country 
after another is struggling to remain free of 
the communist yoke. 

"As the leader of the free world, we can- 
not stand by and let a country that desires to 
remain independent be overrun. If we did, 
the whole structure of the free world would 
begin to fall apart." 

Your first sea assignment was in the bat- 
tleship USS New Mexico. Your subsequent 
career has involved you in operational 
situations in which BBs filled roles of major 
importance. How do you regard activation 
of the USS New Jersey? Do you think the 
enemy will make an all-out attempt to sink 
or damage her? 

"About a year ago, when I was Command- 
er-in-Chief of the Pacific, I requested the 
activation of one or more battleships for 
two reasons; the range and destructive pow- 
er of their 16-inch guns and their relative 

"There are some targets in North Vietnam 
such as underground, heavily fortified pos- 
itions, which are difficult to destroy with a 
cruiser's 8-inch guns or with bombs. 

"The battleship, with its heavy armor is 
less vulnerable than cruisers or destroyers 
to fire from shore batteries or surface-to- 
surface missiles. The enemy will make an 
effort to sink or damage the New Jersey as 

they do with every ship that gets within 
range of their shore batteries." 

Increasing prominence is being given to 
the feasibility of V/STOL applications - 
such as Ryan's Vertifan aircraft — in the 
fleet. You have witnessed this evolution 
over the past several years. Would you as- 
sess some of its major potential values in 
operational application? 

"The most urgent need for a V/STOL 
aircraft is for aircrew rescue. We could save 
many aircrewmen if a V/STOL aircraft was 
available near the strike groups. 

"It is frequently possible to pick up down- 
ed personnel, even near populated areas, if 
the rescue aircraft is landed immediately. A 
few minutes later and the man on the ground 
is captured. 

"There are many other uses for this type 
of vehicle, such as insertion of scouts, sup- 
ply of remote bases, etc. 

"CARA (Combat Aircrew Rescue Air- 
Craft) is needed as I've indicated above, 
but it may be the victim of the tight budget." 

Within each major global conflict his- 
torians and military leaders have been able 
to identify turning points which led to a con- 
clusion. Has there been a turning point in 
Vietnam and if so, can you identify it? 

"It is too early to pick a turning point, 
but I can think of two incidents which may 
become turning points. The treacherous 
breaking of the Tet ceasefire by the com- 
munists at the end of January is one. The 
attacks on the cities during the Tet holiday 
brought the war home to city dwellers — and 
the result was a greatly increased deter- 
mination to resist and participate in the war. 

"The performance of the South Viet- 
namese Army at Tet was generally so good 
that the people gained renewed respect for 
their army. Thus, the Tet offensive may have 
been a turning point. 

"The restrictions on bombing which were 
declared on March 31, 1968 may also be a 
turning point. If negotiations result in a halt 
to North Vietnamese aggression then we 
will have achieved our objective. On the 
other hand, negotiations could result in a 
stalemate and ultimate loss of SVN to com- 
munism. If this is the case, the restriction 
on our bombing could also be a turning point. 
Because we will have failed to use our great 
air power to its full effectiveness." 

How would you characterize America's 
men and their equipment in the Vietnam 


Adm. Sharp turns over Pacific command to Adm. Jolin S. McCain, Jr. 

"The American fighting man in Vietnam 
is unsurpassed. There may be protesters and 
demonstrators amongst our youth at home, 
but when they are on the battlefield they 
fight courageously and well." 

There are indications that South Viet- 
namese units are being equipped with 
modern U.S. equipment which includes M- 
16 rifles in an effort to de-Americanize the 
Vietnam war. In your opinion, is this a real- 
istic solution to our involvement? 

"Vietnam units are being equipped with 
modern rifles, including the M-16, in addi- 
tion to other requirements to improve their 
fighting capabilities. Their army is being en- 
larged as rapidly as possible but is limited to 
its ultimate size because of availability of 
manpower and leaders. When the North 
Vietnamese stop their aggression and go 
home, the South Vietnamese Army should 
be able to control any residual insurgency. 

"Until the North Vietnamese do go home, 
U.S. troops will be required, if we are to 
achieve our objective — a Free Republic of 
South Vietnam." 

The United Kingdom has stated that it 
will withdraw its military units, including 
naval forces, from the Far East and Indian 
Ocean areas this year. At a time when the 
USSR is increasing its naval aggressive- 

ness, what position do you foresee for the 
U.S. Navy in these strategic areas? 

"The UK withdrawal from the Far East 
is a blow to free world countries in the area. 
The U.S. Navy is a mobile fighting force 
that can go where it is needed, when it is 
needed. I expect that the Seventh Fleet will 
be stationed in the Far East in the foresee- 
able future." 

How will the announced intention by the 
Navy to mothball 50 ships now in active 
service affect the Navy's capabilities to meet 
global requirements? 

"The Chief of Naval Operations had to 
choose between laying up ships or cutting 
back on fleet modernization. I think he 
made the correct choice." 

Riverine warfare has established itself 
in Southeast Asian combat as a doctrine of 
the amphibious force. How do you regard 
this evolution and what place do you see 
for its continued use as a permanent cap- 

"Riverine warfare is an important part of 
the Vietnamese war. The Navy has a new 
capability and I think we will see it further 

The operational capabilities of the Navy's 
nuclear powered combat ships have been 
amply demonstrated. And strong, active 

support has been supplied from those who 
advocate an all-nuclear Navy. What are 
your views on this prospect? 

"It would of course, be advantageous in 
many ways to have an all nuclear Navy. 
With limited funds being appropriated for 
new construction ships, it becomes a matter 
of trade-off. Should we have fewer ships — 
but all nuclear powered — or more ships, 
most of them oil powered? All submarines 
must be nuclear powered to match the in- 
crease in their capabilities and mission re- 
quirements. It would be highly desirable 
to have another nuclear powered attack car- 
rier task group. It is my opinion that we can- 
not afford to put nuclear power in other ships 
at the present time." 

Reviewing now your four years as Com- 
mander-in-Chief of the Pacific, what is your 
strongest source of personal satisfaction? 

"Perhaps my strongest source of personal 
satisfaction was the great teamwork in the 
Pacific Command. All of my principal com- 
manders of each of the military services as 
well as subordinate commanders had an 
attitude of cooperation and coordination. 
This resulted in making the most efficient 
use of resources available. We had a truly 
unified command." 



rirebee-Banner target systems ore flying in Heui meHica against 300 round- 
per-mlnute nrmy Uulcan guns in a record-making program of practice firings. 


United States Army Vulcan 20mm an- 
tiaircraft cannon crews have begun 
operational firing practices at Dona Ana 
Range, New Mexico, against Ryan's jet- 
powered Firebee-aerial target systems 
towing banner targets. 

Initial firings were held in July with more 
than 100 trainees from the Advanced In- 
dividual Training Battalion, Army Train- 
ing Center, Fort Bliss, Texas, manning 
the 3,000 round-per-minute Vulcans. 

Ryan Aeronautical Company is under 
contract to the U.S. Army Missile Com- 
mand to provide MQM-34D Firebee 
target support at Dona Ana. Jack O. 
Rathgeber, Ryan Base Manager at the 
Dona Ana-McGregor Range complex, 
leads the 93-man contractor team charged 
with installation, checkout and operation 
of the Firebee target systems. 

Two ground launch platforms, located 
a mile from the Dona Ana firing area, are 

Banner targets towed individ- 
ually by Firebee at a 500 foot 
length of wire are readied for 
flight in front of launch plat- 
form. Jet-powered Firebee will 
provide up to 13 presentations 
per flight for U.S. Army gunners. 

Ryan flight control operator Quincy Adams 
conducts pre-launch check of Firebee flight 
systems from mobile remote control van. 

in operational use for Firebees. Towing 
a 2 X 12 foot banner target on 500 feet of 
wire behind the Firebee, presentation 
passes are made for the guns on the "hot 
leg" of a 3 X 5 mile racetrack target course. 

As the Firebee makes its final turn into 
the firing run, at a speed of 350 knots and 
at altitudes ranging from 500 feet to 1,000 
feet, Vulcan gunners acquire the banner 
target either by visual or radar sighting, 
lock on the target and fire. 

Between 1 1 and 1 3 presentations are 
made to the guns on each flight of the 
Firebee. This represents an increase in 
number of firings from 10 to 30 percent 
over the 10 presentations per flight orig- 
inally estimated. 

The firing line at Dona Ana is nearly 
two and one half miles in length. Ranged 
along this distance are batteries of Vulcan 
guns, M42 "Duster" twin 40mm antiair- 
craft cannon and quadruple .50 caliber 
M55 machine guns. As many as 20 guns 
can fire at a single presentation. 

Ryan support technicians, part of 93-man 
contractor team based at McGregor Range, 
take inventory check of Firebee on firing line. 



Mobile Firebee flight control van in use at McGregor-Dona 
Ana firing range was designed for remote area operations. 

Photos by David A. Gossett 


Firing range tower overlooks 2.5 mile long 
line on which Vulcan, M42 anti-aircraft and 
M55 machine gun batteries are positioned. 



During the two-day, initial firings, 98 
presentations were made by eight Fire- 
bee flights. 

Scheduled to support automatic antiair- 
craft weapons training, the banner targets 
are being fired upon by the twin 40mm 
"Dusters" and the M55 .50 machine guns 
during the presentations to the Vulcan 
guns. This provides maximum firing train- 
ing at a high speed target for increased 
numbers of Army student trainees. 

Firebee/Banner targets are scheduled 
to fly 797 flights during fiscal year 1969. 
This will amount to approximately 10,361 
target presentations to Vulcan and other 
automatic weapons, confirming the cost 
eff"ectiveness of the Firebee target system. 

Brigadier General Robert H. Safford, 
Commanding General, U.S. Army Train- 
ing Center, Fort Bliss, witnessing the first 
day's firings, indicated his satisfaction 
with the high speed performance and real- 
ism of the Firebee/Banner target. 

The high speed Firebee makes a chal- 
lenging target to Vulcan gunners. Flying 
at low altitudes and at medium ranges, it 
keeps students on their mettle to acquire 


the elusive banner target, achieve a radar 
lock on for the computing sight and give 
the necessary lead angle to hit the target 
on the firing command. 

The 20mm Vulcan automatic gun is a 
self-propelled weapon. It is an adaptation 
of the Air Force Vulcan gun system. It is 
an externally-powered, six-barrel, rotary 
action weapon. Each barrel has its own 
bolt mechanism that chambers, fires and 
extracts a round each time the barrel 
cluster makes a complete revolution. 

The firing rate of the Vulcan in the air- 
to-air application is 4,000 to 6,000 rounds 
per minute. However, a rate of 3,000 
rounds per minute is utilized for the 
ground-to-air application. 

The Vulcan weapon system has a four- 
man squad: squad leader, senior gunner, 
and driver. Major elements of the system 
are the 20mm gun, linkless ammunition 
feed system, turret, radar/computer, fire 
control system and M741 armored carrier. 

Self-propelled Vulcan batteries on firing line 
use six rotating barrels to spit out 3,000 
rounds of 20mm M55 shells per minute. 

. -■*<-: 


Firebee launch at left starts 
a firing practice operation in 
which a banner target is towed 
at an altitude of 500 to 1,000 
feet, simulating enemy aircraft. 
Vulcan gunners acquire target 
either visually or by radar. Eight 
FIrebees used in initial, two-day 
practice firings made 98 target 
presentations for more than 1 00 
trainees from Advanced Training 
Battalion, Army Training Center 


"Duster" gunner draws a bead on high performance 
Firebee's banner target. Nearly 800 Ryan Firebee flights 
are scheduled on McGregor-Dona Ana complex during 
balance of fiscal year 

Ammo handlers load clips of "Duster" 40mm rounds into twin-barreled anti- 
aircraft cannon, one of 20 batteries that can be fired during a target run. 

Vulcan can operate on the move and 
against air and ground targets. Lt. Colonel 
A.W. Davis, USA, Commanding Officer 
of the Vulcan Training Battalion, called 
the Firebee, "the most realistic target 
we have fired at". 

The Advance Individual Training Unit 
of the Army training Center trains more 
than 1,000 students a month at the Fort 
Bliss and Dona Ana facilities. The con- 
tinuous program indoctrinates and trains 
Army artillerymen in handling and main- 
taining the Nike-Hercules, Hawk and 
Redeye missile systems; the M61 Vulcan 
gun, the M42 40mm "Duster", and the 
quadruple-mounted .50 caliber M55 
machine gun systems. The M42, M55 and 
Vulcan Air Defense Systems are managed 
by the U.S. Army Weapons Command, 
Rock Island, 111. All these Army antiair- 
craft systems are supported by the Ryan 
MQM-34D Firebee target system at Dona 
Ana and McGregor Ranges from the main 
Ryan contractor service facility at 
Orogrande, New Mexico. 



48 122 

yan Solar Panels on Navy 
Navigation Satellite 

Solar-energy panels for the Navy's ad- 
vanced Navigation Satellite are in produc- 
tion at Ryan Aeronautical Company under 
contract to RCA which builds the Satellite. 
Twenty-five panels, 10 inches wide by 
66 inches long, designed to unfold 
in space to provide solar-electric en- 
ergy power for the satellite system, 
will be produced by Ryan. 

Twenty-seven panels were built by Ryan 
under an earlier RCA contract. 

The new order brings to nearly 100 the 
number of panels provided by Ryan for 
Navy Navigation Satellites (Transit) over 
the past three years. Panel size is deter- 
mined by power requirements and size 
of the shroud or "nose cone" in which it 
is contained on the launch booster. 

Ryan Systems to Guide 
Army Minesweeper Jeeps 

Ryan remote control technology is to be 
employed in U.S. Army mine-detecting 
jeeps under contract to the Army's Mo- 
bility Equipment Research and Develop- 
ment Center, Ft. Bevoir, Virginia. 

Prototype remote control systems are 
being developed at Ryan for installation 
in the vehicles. The Ryan system will 
enable a single operator at a remote lo- 
cation to start the vehicle, disengage or 
engage the clutch, shift forward and 

reverse, advance and retard the throttle, 
steer the vehicle and apply the brakes. 
The system will consist of two independ- 
ently powered units, the operators control 
pack and a truck-mounted transceiver. 

The Ryan system will allow operation 
of the jeep-mounted mine detector by an 
operator from any distance up to 300 
yards. The operator will control the jeep 
mine detector with his back pack trans- 
mitter and chest-mounted remote unit. 

Navy Awards New Contract 
For Firebee Support at AFWR 

Acknowledged by Navy officials as a 
key element in Atlanta Fleet Weapons 
Range operations in the Caribbean, Ryan 
Aeronautical Company's 26-man Firebee 
field support team has been awarded a 
new $550,000 contract for continued con- 
tractor services through July 1969. 

Richard F. Manceau heads the Firebee 
contractor team established at the Naval 
Air Station, Roosevelt Roads initially in 

By September 30, this year. Manceau's 
team had compiled a mission reliability 
rate of 95.76 percent, launching 165 flights 
since the first of the year which averaged 
out at 23.57 flights per Firebee. 

The standard BQM-34A Firebees are 
flown in support of air-to-air fighter-inter- 
ceptor missile evaluation and surface-to- 
air gunnery training programs. 


ne portraits 

'>^ ,% 

If one were to list the great classic 
airplanes of all times, there is no 
doubt that the in-line powered Ryan 

S-T sport trainer would be high on 
the list. As one writer has stated 
the case: 

"Sleek and shining, like a model 
turned from solid silver, the first 
Ryan S-T caught the attention and 
affection of the flying world in 1934 
and has held iteversince. Itembodied 
the features most desired by sports- 
men and training schools alike; high 
performance, minimum and easy 
maintenance, lowoperatingcostsand 
a striking appearance." 

Of some 150 Menasco-powered 
S-Tsbuiltfor private ownership, com- 
mercial training schools, foreign 
governments and for the U.S. Army 
pilot training program, approximately 
28 are still accounted for, and half 
of these are licensed and flying. 

An S-T in mint condition today will 

1934 Ryan-S-T 

cost its new owner about $15,000- 
about three times its original price 
33 years ago. And remarkably, the 
S-T, which was far ahead of its time, 
is as sleek and modern looking today 
as when it came from Ryan. 

In the early 30s, T. Claude Ryan, 
who pioneered production of mono- 
planes in this country, recognized a 
need for a modern, low-wing, metal 
fuselage training and sport planes to 
replace the wood and fabricbi-planes. 

The S-T was an immediate success. 
And when World War II loomed on the 
horizon the Army Air Corps adopted 
the PT-16 and PT-20 versions as the 
first military, low-wing trainers. 

Later, the advanced PT-21, NR-1 
(Navy) and PT-22 radial engine mod- 
els were produced by the hundreds. 
Despite the fine records they estab- 
lished, their popularity of the original 
S-Ts among the classicists were 
never quite duplicated. 

Please send address changes to .■ 


P. 0. BOX 31 1 ■ SAN DIEGO, CALIF. 921 12 

Address Correction Requested 
Return Postage Guaranteed 



43 12^ 



San Diego, Calif. 
Permit No. 437 

When you haven't the foggiest... 

When it's one of those nights-black, soupy and zero-zero-it's mighty comforting to have a 
friend aboard to tell you where you are, where you're going, and how to get back. The friend 
you have in your Sikorsky SH-3D is a Ryan Doppler Navigation System, AN/APN-182. First 
cousin to Ryan's successful Surveyor moon-landing radar, it keeps you on the safe, steady 
hover you need for your on-the-deck mission. And now, for an even greater safety-of-flight 
factor, you can team it with a new kind of radar altimeter, Ryan's 602B. Originally developed 
for NASA's Lunar Landing Training Vehicle, the new 602B is the first altimeter to provide 
audio-plus-visual warnings-to alert both your eyes and your ears to critical altitude situations 
or excessive sink rate. And it's the first to offer a solid state electroluminescenHndicator. 
It's another example of how, from the surface of the moon to the sur- r "^ ^ . j^ j 
face of the ocean, Ryan keeps scoring firsts in radar technology. But - ' 

then, you'd expect that. Because being first is a Ryan tradition, i 

R V A N 






--■>-. -■■ .J, i^i II, -ffi^ — 

Volume 30, No. 1 



March 1969 

Published by Ryan Aeronautical Company 
P.O. Box 311. San Diego, California 92112 

Robert B. MorriseylPublic Relations Manager 

Jack G. Browardl Managing Editor 

Robert A. WeissingerlStaff Photographer 

Robert WattslStaff Artist 

Departments: Robert P. Battenfield 

Electronic & Space Systems 

Charles H. Ogilvie 

Aerospace Systems 

Shaun Doole 

Researcti Assistant 

Where Fleet Readiness Begins . 

To Conquer the Moon . 

Sea Legs For Firebee . 

Home of the Angels . 

Report on Firebee II . 

Wave Watch In The South China Sea . 


'■^ [p®p[pS@ff 

USS Enterprise launches 
missile against simulated 
"enemy" duringOperation 
Beef Trust, an 8-day U. S. 
First Fleet exercise held 
in early December in 
waters off So. California. 


Month after month, year-in and year-out, 
Fleet's fighting trim falls to the U.S. 

Potency of nuclear-powered task force 

comprised at right by USS Long Beach, 

USS Enterprise and USS Bainbridge 

is maintained only through continuing 
programs of combat readiness training. 

lie vitally important task of maintaining the Pacific 
iirst Fleet. That's why it's called the place 





"•k-.* -« 



' '*».$ 







ANKEE STATION-EAST", a sea-land complex of 
gunnery and bombing ranges situated in Southern California 
and adjacent waters, is giving Pacific Fleet units a realistic taste 
of combat they face when deployed in Western Pacific areas. 

The complex simulates a Tonkin Gulf environment, includ- 
ing landmarks that resemble the terrain of North Vietnam. 

It is the nearest thing to reality short of actual combat, accord- 
ing to U .S. First Fleet officials charged with developing a battle- 
ready condition for units deploying to combat areas. 

While a major share of the Pacific Fleet units are veterans 
of Vietnam combat, stateside rotation generally depletes the 
ranks of combat seasoned crewmen. Freshly assigned men must 
be integrated into a fighting unit before a ship can be assigned 
to the U.S. Seventh Fleet, a First Fleet spokesman explained. 

"The rapid advance of technology, innovation of weapons 
systems and constantly changing tactics must also be integrated 
into pre-combat training," it was noted. 



We must be aware of and alert to changing! 



First Fleet Commander, Vice Admiral 
Bernard F. Roeder, holds key job in Navy today. 

The Commander, U.S. First Fleet, is based at San Diego, 
California, aboard a flagship with responsibilities for this con- 
tinuing training program. 

Vice Admiral Bernard F. Roeder is the man upon whose 
shoulders this momentous task falls today. 

Interviewed by the REPORTER in early December last 
year, Roeder emphasized that the Pacific Fleet "must be ready 
to meet any threat as it presents itself. 

"While the Vietnam situation represents perhaps the major 
threat today, we must also be aware of and alert to changing 
world situations. And, these elements must be plotted into our 
fleet readiness programs," he noted. 

Currently, one of the major enemy threats to surface units 
deployed in Tonkin Gulf is surface-to-surface and air-to-surface 
weapons systems. First Fleet exercises must therefore incor- 
porate not only a simulation of this threat, but include a broad 
spectrum of offensive-defensive tactics to counter the threat. 

"We consider the Russian-made STYX missile a very serious 
threat. Our units have been developing defensive, counter-meas- 
ures against it for more than two years," Admiral Roeder noted. 

"We've incorporated this element into our sea exercises along 
with a variety of other known threatening situations," 
he pointed out. 

Realistic simulation is the vital element involved in Admiral 
Roeder's training programs. Typical of his periodic sea exercises 

on the sea-land complex was Operation BEEF TRUST, con- 
ducted over an eight-day period in early December last year. 

Twenty-eight ships, 31 air squadrons and nearly 25,000 per- 
sonnel participated in the gruelling mock war. Included in the 
force were three Canadian anti-submarine destroyers and the 
nuclear-powered heavy attack carrier USS Enterprise as well 
as the guided-missile frigate USS Bainbridge. 

Overall operational readiness training during BEEF TRUST 
exercised the units in antisubmarine warfare, anti-air defenses, 
surface missile defenses, air-to-surface missile defenses and 
shore bombardment tactics. Included were round-the-clock air 
strikes provided by squadrons aboard the Enterprise as well 
as the USS Kitty Hawk. 

Commanded by Rear Admiral M.W. Cagle, Carrier Division 
One and Rear Admiral F.A. Bardshar, Carrier Division Seven, 
carrier based air units conducted missile firing exercises, bomb- 
ing practice against targets located at Chocalate Mountain and 
San Clemente Island ranges and close air support missions. 

The submarines USS Pomodon and Spinax conducted con- 
tinuing attacks against surface vessels, filling the role of enemy 
undersea craft. 

Shore bombardment by surface units under Rear Admiral T. 
F. Rudden, Jr., Commander, Cruiser-Destroyer Flotilla Three 
were conducted against San Clemente Island impact ranges. 

Pacific Missile Range facilities were used for anti-ship missile 

orld situations/' 

Ryan Firebee filling role of "enemy" is launchied 
from Navy DP2E Neptune during Operation 
Beef Trust off Southern California 

firings in simulations of ship missile attacks. 

Ryan Aeronautical Company's jet-powered Firebee (BQM- 
34A) aerial target systems, acting as enemy "stand ins" for 
Army, Navy and Air Force units over the past 22 years, played 
a major role in BEEF TRUST. 

Air-launched into remote-controlled flight over the Pacific 
Missile Range by Air Composite Squadron-Three Neptune 
patrol planes, the high-performance Firebees presented simula- 
tion attacks against units. 

The guided-missile destroyer USS Jouett, one of the units 
participating in the anti-ship missile attack phases of the exercise, 
returned from Tonkin Gulf in August and will resume combat 
deployment shortly. 

The ship's executive officer. Commander John Walker, praised 
the values incorporated in BEEF TRUST. 

"This kind of readiness training presents a variety of threats 
we'll face during our combat employment. It is essential in 
orienting the ship's crew — a major portion of which is yet un- 
tested in combat — to realistic combat conditions. 

"While physical conditioning is mandatory there is also a 
psychological conditioning process to deal with," he explained. 

Commenting on the realism of Firebee targets used to play 
the enemy role. Walker termed the target system an "excellent 
simulation . 

"The outstanding qualities of the Firebee are its maneuver- 

Symbol of readiness is thrust against Pacific sky bacl<drop as destroyer USS 
Jouett readies advanced Terrier guided missile for launch. Ship's executive 
officer called Operation Beef Trust "essential training for combat." 

Nuclear-powered USS Bainbridge heels sharply to port with missiles ready for 

launching during 8-day Operation Beef Trust, A U. S. First Fleet readiness 

training exercise that included live firings like that at right. 

ability and speed capabilities, of course. Beyond this, however, 
is the augmentation systems that permit us to simulate just about 
any kind of a threat we'll be up against in the known future." 

Commander Walker pointed out that this latter characteristic 
is extremely important. "It is not just a matter of putting some- 
thing up in the air to perform various evolutions; it is the ability 
to perform realistically over a broad range of applications." 

Identifying realistic threats and conditioning his First Fleet 
units to meet them is the essence of Admiral Roeder's respon- 

Reviewing the philosophy of this broad mission, he called 
the fleet maneuvers in which units destined for service in the 
Western Pacific were engaged during BEEF TRUST, "the most 
realistic conditions available to us today in this area of the world. 

"Ours is the final conditioning phase a unit gets before it be- 
comes a part of the Seventh Fleet. It must be thorough and it 
must be completely realistic." 

While commitments in Vietnam currently dominate the major 
share of Pacific Fleet activities in the Western Pacific, Roeder 
envisions a broadened area of U.S. Navy influence when the 
Vietnam war diminishes. 

Acknowledging the presence of USSR naval units in the 
Indian Ocean and Pacific areas, he noted that the U.S. Navy 
has periodically dispatched units into Indian Ocean aind adjacent 
waters and said this policy would probably be resumed as com- 
mitments in Vietnam lessen. 

One of four numbered fleets maintained by the Navy, the 
First and Seventh Fleets in the Pacific are assigned responsi- 
bilities for patrolling nearly 85,000,000 square miles, an area 
that covers almost half the world. 

Admiral Roeder's area of responsibility extends from the 
West Coast of the U.S. to a line that lies approximately half 
way between Midway Island and Japan and from the Arctic 
to the Antarctic. 

Within this broad expanse of ocean, the Commander of the 
First Fleet exercises operational control over some 100 ships, 
manned by 60,000 officers and men. 

This organization is divided into five task forces: Attack Car- 
rier Strike Force, Amphibious Assault Force, Surface Action 
Force, Antisubmarine Warfare Force and a Logistics Supply 

"These units are required to be ready for extended de- 
ployment on short notice to carry out U.S. commitments wher- 
ever required in our ever-changing world situation," Roeder 

Fleet readiness exercises constitute the major portion of his 
overall responsibility. Through the year, as units which have 
returned from the Western Pacific for yard upkeep,crew rotation, 
leave periods and logistic requirements, they are maintained 
under the Fleet organization of Admiral Roeder. 

Preliminary refresher training is conducted under type com- 
mands to which these units are attached. As they near the date 

Ryan Photos by Robert A, Weissinger 

Two of Operation Beef Trust's 25.000-man force 
stands vigil (above) while crewmen aboard USS St. 
Paul (left) prepares to launch helicopter. 


USS Enterprise departs Sasebo, Japan harbor with her escort to tal<e up position on "Yanl<ee Station" in Gulf of Tonkin combat zones. 

''...a posture of strength to meet any situation." 

for re-deployment and assignments under the Seventh Fleet 
in the Western Pacific, they are integrated into major First 
Fleet readiness exercise programs. 

"They're either ready for combat at this point — and our ex- 
ercises are programmed to make this determination — or, they 
return for additional preparation to respective type commands," 
Roeder noted. 

If Navy commitments in Vietnam have sometimes offered 
frustrations to units deployed in Tonkin Gulf, due to the unde- 
fined personality of this conflict as an all-out war, it has also 
served as a very positive influence in developing fleet readiness, 
according to Roeder. 

"Almost without exception, all Pacific Fleet units have been ex- 
posed to a combat environment We've been able to properly iden- 
tify major threats and consequently train our units to meet them. 

"The readiness of our Navy force in the Pacific today has 
never been higher; their capabilities have never been greater: 
they have been thoroughly combat tested: and these elements 
combined give the Navy a posture of strength to meet any 
given situation." 

While a major portion of units engaged in Operation BEEF 
TRUST have since deployed to Western Pacific Areas, assum- 
ing an operational combat role in the Seventh Fleet, yet another 
force of ships, planes and carrier based aircraft started the year 
1969 by conducting a "dress rehearsal" for combat duties that 
lie ahead. 

This evolutionary process — designed and executed with 
exacting realism under the U.S. First Fleet — has established 
a fleet-wide personality for Admiral Roeder's command: 

"Where Fleet Readiness Begins." 

Terrier missile spews tail of fire as it is launched 

from cruiser USS Long Beach against a Ryan jet-powered Firebee 

target filling the role of an enemy aircraft. 

D (BdiDDffiDDOP ODD® mm 

By Robert P. Battenfield 

In June, 1966, the first Surveyor spacecraft rushed at 
the moon, braked automatically, and soft-landed under 
control of a Ryan-built landing radar system. 

In a few short months, U.S. astronauts will be attempt- 
ing to duplicate the feat of the five Surveyor robots. 

Stepping out of the Apollo Lunar Module, two Amer- 
ican space men will be placing their feet on the 
crunchy soil of the moon for the first time. NASA has 
named Neil Armstrong and Edwin Aldrin for this most 
historic mission, Apollo 11, which is scheduled for July 
barring difficulties on preliminary Apollo 9 and Apollo 
10 flights. 

Guiding Armstrong and Aldrin in their descent-and 
linking the Apollo and Surveyor moon programs with a 
technology forged in the crucible of space-will be 
another Ryan landing radar. More sophisticated in 
electrical design and in structural components than its 
pioneering Surveyor system, the LM landing radar will 
play the same key role in the manned Apollo lunar 

Function of the radar is to continuously measure 
altitude and velocity as the spacecraft descends from 
lunar orbit, passes through several planned events, 
hovers above the landing site, and finally descends 
vertically to the soft touchdown. 

High frequency radar signals are transmitted in four 
narrow beams at the lunar surface and are reflected 
back to the radar's receiver antennas. Distance and 

velocity are proportional to the strength of the return 
signals, a phenomenon termed "Doppler shift." 

Ryan has designed and built nearly 3000 Doppler 
radar sets for aircraft and helicopters during the past 
17 years. Currently in production are the AN/APN-182 
and AN/APN-193 Doppler radars, both of which have 
benefited from improved design techniques resulting 
from space radar experience. 

The APN-182 is for helicopters and the APN-193 is 
for fixed-wing air-craft. 

Ryan is producing the LM landing radar under con- 
tract to Radio Corporation of America, which is respon- 
sible for radar subsystems to Grumman Aircraft and 
Engineering Corporation, prime contractor to NASA for 
the Lunar Module. 

Production of the LM radars is underway at Ryan 
Electronic and Space Systems, under direction of J. R. 
Iverson, Vice President; Ned L. Olthoff, Programs Direc- 
tor; E. Bruce Clapp, Program Manager, and Lee S. Reel, 
Project Engineer. 

Orbiting the clouded world for 10 days in October 
at 90 minutes per pass, Apollo 7 proved the space- 
worthiness of the rebuilt Command Module and re- 
kindled U.S. hopes for an eventual lunar landing. 
Christened "Wally's ship" for Commander Walter 
Shirra, Apollo 7 was hailed "1 01 percent successful." 

Mm ^ m 

The Ryan landing radar on seven unmanned 
Surveyor spacecraft won 100 percent success. 

Astronaut Neil Armstrong, left, selected for first Apollo moon landing mis- 
sion, is briefed on LM Landing Radar design by Ryan's Ralph Longfellow. 


NASA Photos 

Florida newspaper banners "Go 7!" as Apollo 7 astronauts breakfast on steak before launcfi (top left). From earth orbit 
came live daily TV shows (top right). A rendezvous with S-IVB was the name of the game (bottom left). After capsule splash- 
down, a grizzled threesome (l-r, Wally Schirra, Donn Eisele, and Walt Cunningham) emerged to prove the Apollo ready. 

Trained and relaxed, Astronauts Bill 
Anders, Frank Borman and Jim Lovell 
prepare for the moon-circling Apollo 8. 


Heaviest, fastest, highest, farthest - firstest among the first! Apollo 8 thrilled men everywhere with its 
Christmas time voyage that looped the moon ten times before making a high-speed, pin-point re-entry 
back to earth. Borman, Anders and Lovell: first men to see close up the forbidding face of the moon. 

NASA Photos 


Holder of most hours in space 

Space "rookie" from La Mesa, Calif. 

McDonnell-Douglas Photo 

Apollo 8 commander, Gemini veteran 

Like storybook three men in a tub, Apollo 9 astronauts rest in raft during training. From left: Commander Jim McDivitt, LM Pilot Rusty 
Sctiweickart, and Command Module Pilot Dave Scott. 

NASA Photos 

LM Pilot Sctiweickart 

Next: Apollo 9 

Apollo 9, first manned mis- 
sion for the Apollo Lunar 
Module moon lander, will 
mark the longest space 
test of the Ryan LM landing 
radar. Launch date set by 
NASA is February 28. 

Though lunar "radar 
echo" signals cannot be 
simulated in earth-orbit, 
the Apollo 9 astronauts will 
test radar readiness as 
they would in lunar orbit 
before committing the 
spacecraft to a powered 

descent to the moon. Also, with a 367-second burn of 
the descent engine the radar will be turned on and 
off to provide data on electrical power consumption 
and thermal management. 

Apollo 9 crew is James McDivitt, David Scott and 
Russell Schweickart. McDivitt and Schweickart will 
enter the LM and Scheickart will "space walk" be- 
tween the LM and the Command Module. 

Then: Apollo 10 

Down to 50,000 feet above the moon Apollo 10 will 
descend with veteran Astronauts Gene Cernan and 
Tom Stafford aboard in a "full dress rehearsal" of 
the moon landing. Launch is set for May 17, NASA 
has said. John Young will be Command Module pilot. 
Final flight plan has not been released; however, it 
is likely that the Ryan Landing Radar will be operated 
while the Apollo 10 LM is in lunar orbit. Specification 
does not require the radar to acquire at this altitude. 

Finally: Apollo 1 1 

With the previous two Lunar Module trials completed 
successfully, NASA has announced the first lunar 
landing attempt will be Apollo 11, set for launch in 
mid-July. With CM Pilot Mike Collins holding lunar 
orbit, Astronauts Armstrong and Aldrin will descend 
in the LM and become the first Americans on the 
moon - perhaps the first men ever. 

American aerospace technology will have con- 
quered the moon. 

Three space veterans from Gemini program, Apollo 10 crewmen are, from left, 
Gene Cernan, Lunar Module pilot: John Young, Command Module pilot: and Tom 
Stafford, flight commander. The LM will descend to within 50,000 feet of the moon. 


A new dimension of operational capabilities has been 
added to Ryan's Firebee spectrum. It adds up to . . . 

Initial ship-launch operations of Ryan Firebees have been 
successfully completed in the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, adding newly 
proved capabilities to the versatile, standard jet target's expanding per- 
formance envelope. 

The de-commissioned destroyer Killen was used in a preliminary test 
series conducted on the Atlantic Fleet Weapons Range (AFWR) waters 
of the Atlantic Ocean and Caribbean Sea in mid- 1968. 

The precedent-setting launch series was the first of its kind in a history 
of Firebee operations now more than twenty years old. 

The remote-controlled Firebee aerial targets are normally launched 
from ground platforms or aircraft modified to serve as airborne launch 

Standard BQM-34A Firebee systems were used in both series of tests. 
The AFWR test series included six launches while the tests conducted 
at the Navy's Missile Center at Pt. Mugu, California involved one launch 
from a 104-foot converted aviation rescue boat. 

In this test, the converted boat was under remote control of an oper- 
ator aboard another vessel. 

The deactivated Killen, used normally as a gunnery target for Atlantic 

SKA \.m 


Ryan technician checl<s BMQ-34A Firebee mounted on launch platform aboard Killen. Tests were conducted in Atlantic and Pacific. 


Aerial view of Killen witti 

Firebee mounted on fantail launch 

platform was taken as ship under tow 

moved toward Atlantic Fleet Weapons 

Range test area last year 

Art rendering depicts use of remote-guided 

aviation rescue boat at Pt. Mugu which was used to conduct 

tests on Navy's Pacific Missile Range. 


Fleet units, was towed to sea from its harbor base at San Juan. Puerto 
Rico, It had been modified with a ground launch platform mounted on 
the aft gun mount base ring. Use of the ring permitted rotation of the 
launcher 120 degrees to either side of the ship's stern. 

A launch-control platform was situated midway up the ship's stack 
behind a metal shield to protect the launch operator. 

Richard F. Manceau, Ryan Base Manager at the Naval Air Station, 
Roosevelt Roads, P.R., whose Firebee field support technicians pre- 
pared the launch facilities aboard the Killen, said the test series was 
"highly successful". 

He noted that "it added the start of a new chapter to our Firebee 
operations manual." 

The first three flights in the series were conducted for tracking pur- 
poses while the balance of the flights functioned as targets for gunnery 

It is at the Atlantic Fleet Weapons Range complex — one of the world's 
most sophisticated facilities of its kind — that Army, Navy, Air Force 
and Marine Corps units annually conduct land, sea and air combat 
readiness exercises. 

Captain W. D. Dietz serves in the dual capacity as Range Commander 
and Commander, Fleet Air Caribbean. Ryan Aeronautical Company's 
contract support team is integrated in Captain Dietz's command as a 
unit of the Atlantic Fleet Range Support Facility, commanded by 
Captain C. A. Hill, Jr. 

Now in its eighth year of supporting AFWR operations, Manceau's 
Firebee unit is responsible for Firebee aerial target systems maintenance, 
refurbishment, operational flight control and target service requirements. 

Firebee launch control operators from the contractor unit are inte- 
grated into flight crews of Fleet Composite Squadron-Eight, whose 
Neptune DP-2E aircraft are used for Firebee air launch operations. 

In both of the test series — in the Atlantic and Pacific — Firebees used 
in the launchings were successfully recovered by helicopters from open 
sea ranges and returned to base installations for rehabilitation and return 
to operational status. 

Commander S. N. May, Target Officer for the Naval Missile Center, 
said the experimental launch conducted from the converted rescue boat 
was also highly successful and that officials are now studying plans to 
convert 85 and 63-foot boats to launch configurations. 

The NMC tests were conducted by remote launch and flight control 
procedures with the launching boat underway at about 15 knots. The 
rescue boat had undergone modifications which included the installation 
of a launch rail on the aft section of the deck spaces. 

Both of the test series were conducted under a Naval Ordnance Sys- 
tems Command task assignment. ^^^ ^ 







« *■? 

Ilii IF 

A bright, promising new future 

was awarded to Imperial Beach 

with its designation as a full-fledged 

Naval Air Station. 


By Jack G. Broward 


\ process of orderly transformation is un- 
folding today at the Naval Air Station. Imperial Beach, 
California after 5 1 years of fluctuating status dictated by 
peace and wartime needs. In and out of commission 
since World War I, the Navy's newest and most unique 
aviation facility is building for the future. 

Known as Ream Field until placed in commission as 
a Naval Air Station in January 1968, Imperial Beach is 
the home of all West Coast Pacific Fleet helicopter 

As such, it enjoys a lion's share of the glory reflected 
by the Navy's development of modem helicopter warfare. 

Wet-suited crewman at left board helicopter for training mission that will take 
them out to sea for deployment into water in simulated air-sea rescue operations. 


'le'wi iilf stratshei tie mdm§- 

"We've only scratched the surface of what lies ahead," states 
Captain A.W. Ayers, the first helicopter pilot to command the 

Situated some 14 miles south of San Diego in the suburb of 
Imperial Beach, the Naval Air Station encompasses 634 acres 
of land and water, a relatively small but strategically located 
component of the greater San Diego Navy complex. 

Its most prominent value in this location is the proximity it 
represents to the fleet, submarines and carriers in San Diego 
Bay and offshore. 

Under a long range construction plan already underway, the 
Station will broaden its southern and western boundaries, 
acquiring direct access to open water. 

The Station's mission is keyed to operational employment of 
Navy helicopters in the Pacific Fleet. Eight helicopter squad- 
rons are currently assigned to the fleet, with a portion of that 
number assigned to various combatant and auxiliary ships and 
shore installations on a rotational basis. 

In addition to its role as a home base for the squadrons, the 
Station houses a Naval Air Maintenance Training detachment 
and a Fleet Airborne Electronics Training Unit. 

Largest of the helicopter squadrons is Helicopter Combat 
Support Squadron — One. Detachments from this unit — the 

Navy's largest — are deployed throughout the Pacific area on 
attack carriers. 

Helicopter Anti-Submarine Squadrons Two, Four and Six, 
flying the SH-3A, are on continuing deployment to Western 
Pacific areas. They are also engaged in constant operational 
training programs. 

"The Navy's major problem today," according to Ayers, "is 
training, in peace or in war. There are countless factors which 
contribute to the problem. 

"We believe our Station affords a continuing solution to the 
problem through our good flying weather, ready access to the 
Fleet and ocean operating areas, control of the air field and air 
spaces and our proximity to an industrial complex for logistic 
support requirements. 

"I believe we can capitalize on these inherent features in 
developing the Air Station to its maximum helicopter training 
potential," noted Ayers. 

In addition to the rotating ASW squadrons based at Imperial 
Beach, student pilots are trained by HS- 1 at the Station, pend- 
ing their assignments to permanent squadrons. HC-5 . the Navy's 
first helicopter combat support Fleet Replacement Training 
Squadron, is also based at the Station, training pilots and crew- 
men as replacements for assignments to combat squadrons 

"Today, helicopter pilots and aircrewmen stand second to 
none," asserts Captain A. W. Ayers, skipper of Station. 

New control tower overlooks strip at Imperial Beach Naval Air Station where an average of 
800 daily flights were logged in the year 1968, making it one of the nation's busiest air fields. 

and other activities. 

The remaining unit, HC-7, permanently deployed at Atsugi, 
Japan is part of the vast hehcopter complex maintained by the 

The Station logged a staggering, 193,338 flights last year with 
a daily average of 800, making it one of the busiest airfields in 
the nation. 

Under its long range development plan, the Navy hopes to 
have completely replaced the Station's 108 "temporary" build- 
ings with 40 permanent structures. Already completed under 
this program is a crew dining hall, a campus-style barracks 
building, and an operations tower. 

Four ultra-modern hangars, each designed to accommodate 
administrative personnel and up to 20 helicopters are to be 
completed by 1973. The first hangar was completed last year 
and the second begun in early 1969. 

Commenting on the Station's construction program. Rear 
Admiral C. A. Karaberis, Commander of Fleet Air, San Diego, 
said the new construction program symbolizes the Navy's 
determination to include Imperial Beach as a permanent part of 
future seapower. 

"The helicopter stands as a symbol of progress for the Navy," 
he asserted. 

While machines, buildings and Station facilities serve as 
physical symbols of this progress, it is the men of the Station 
and squadrons in which Captain Ayers devotes his largest share 
of interest and pride. 

He calls helicopter pilots and crewmen, "the most courageous 
and gallant to ever wear the Navy uniform. This has been 
proved repeatedly in Southeast Asia and particularly in Vietnam. 

"One source of my greatest pride in this helicopter Navy is 
the broad flexibility those who are a part of it offer. They seem 
to be limited only by their ingenuity and we haven't yet found 
an instance of limitation there." 

Approximately 50 percent of the Station's air operations are 
conducted at night, drawing emphasis to the precision de- 
manded, in operational skills of helicopter pilots and crewmen. 

Ryan Aeronautical Company contributes to this operational 
environment with its AN/APN-I30 Doppler Navigation 
System incorporated in helicopters flown by Station squadrons. 

Designed primarily for ASW use, the Ryan system enables 
pilots to conduct all-weather night operations, detecting fore 
and aft motion (heading speed), left and right motion (drift 
speed) and vertical motion up and down. This three-way 
measurement provides pilots with precision hovering capabilities, 
essential to sonar ASW operations. 

Training for emergency rescue is a continuing process for Imperial Beacti based squadron per- 
sonnel. Men below gain familiarity with jungle penetrator tioisting seat being used in Vietnam. 

Squadron ground crewman fills role of traffic cop as flighit 
of fielicopters is launctied from station on a training mission. 

Ryan Photos by Robert A. Weissinger 


bilisf • iir ttatiti affftris a ^iitiinini silititi U \h 

Ryan engineers have also designed and produced AN/APN- 
130 system line test sets, a portable unit that enables mainte- 
nance personnel to conduct pre-flight equipment checks. The 
set can be completely operated by one man, a function that 
formerly required a check-out team. 

A growth-version of the Ryan system, the AN-APN 182 
Doppler radar navigation system, has been designed and 
produced for adaptation in new helicopters. 

Aside from its combat ASW, rescue, logistic and search and 
rescue missions. Imperial Beach-based units provide special 
recovery teams in support of NASA's space exploration 

Astronauts aboard Apollo 8 were plucked from the Pacific 
Ocean by Commander Donald Jones, skipper of HS-4, follow- 
ing the historic moon-orbit and return to earth. 

In pre-dawn darkness, Jones hovered his SH-3D Sea King 
at 50 feet over the bobbing space capsule for 35 minutes before 
deploying frogmen into the sea at dawn. 

This was the latest in a series of helicopter recoveries pro- 
vided by Navy helicopter units in the Pacific during the past 
eight years. 

Noting that the Vietnam conflict has served as a "proving 
ground" for modern day helicopter technology. Captain Ayers 
asserts that the helicopter today, "has come of age and is 

Helicopter maintenance technicians play a key role in the success story being 
written today by the Pacific Fleet helicopter units based at Imperial Beach. 

accepted as an essential weapons system." 

He pointed out that the helicopter inventory has doubled in 
three years. The resulting effects include an "upgrading" of 
helicopter pilots and crewmen. 

"There was a time not many years ago when the helicopter 
community was considered second class team members. 

"Today, helicopter pilots and aircrewmen stand second to 
none," emphasizes the Nebraska naval oflficer. 

The rotary wing concept or variations of helicopter concepts 
is virtually untapped, according to Ayers. 

"Within the next decade, we will see the helicopter taking on 
roles in the military never envisioned before. Improvements in 
the state-of-the-art will permit this advance to make significant 
inroads in the private and commerical industry sector, he esti- 

"The next 20 years," he predicts, "will produce various 
adaptations and applications of the rotary wing mode of flight. 
Concepts such as compounds, hot cycle rotor drive, stowed 
rotor and tilted rotor suggests the degree of adaptation to the 
helicopter of today that we will experience in the future." 

It is a future toward which the Imperial Beach Naval Air 
Station is already well embarked and on whose progress in the 
immediate years will be established a foundation for the hori- 
zons of tomorrow. ^^^ ^ 

Ryan line test set used in pre flight checks of helicopter's Doppler Radar Navi- 
gation System built by Ryan is completely mobile and operated by one man. 


Captain A. W. Ayers is ttie first helicopter-trained pilot to command Naval Air Station. 

Navy's triple-threat ASW team is comprised of ASW helicopter in foreground, killer-submarine and ASW destroyer. 

Continuing training programs conducted by Naval Air Maintenance and Fleet Instructor conducting operational-maintenance class in Ryan Doppler Radar 
Airborne Electronics units assures Fleet of enough skilled support personnel. Navigation system uses full-scale hardware for system function-orientation. 

Ryan's growth-version Firebee II is proving 
itself a sizzling, supersonic success as it nears 
the climax of flight tests. 


By Charles H. Ogilvie 

^^upersonic Firebee II is nearing the completion of its develop- 
mental flight test program and the start of Navy evaluations today at 
the Naval Missile Center, Pt. Mugu, California following a 15-month 
schedule of tests in all flight regimes and performance modes. 

Since its maiden flight in January 1968, the slender, needle-nosed 
jet has compiled 6 hours and 51 minutes of subsonic and supersonic 
flight over the Pacific Missile Range. 

Its speed has ranged as high as Mach 1.68 and altitude to 63,000 
feet. While the bulk of its 23 flights (as of early February) were 
made from air-launch modes using a Navy DP2E Neptune, three 
ground launches have been achieved. 

Ryan produced 14 prototype flight test versions of the Firebee II 
under contract to the Naval Air Systems Command, delivering the 
first version in late 1967. 

Scheduled for transfer to the Navy in March for evaluations pre- 
liminary to its introduction into the Fleet for operational use, Firebee II 
incorporates subsonic and supersonic mission capabilities. 

A general description of the system, its design and configuration 
and operational performance characteristics follows on succeeding 

The combined thrust of Firebee ll's jet engine and JATO bottle hurls 
remote-controlled target into flight from launch rail with external fuel 
tank on for test flight out over the U.S. Navy's Pacific Missile Range. 

Twenty air-launched flights of the Firebee II have been made in tests. 

General Description 

Ryan Aeronautical Company develops 
and produces the widely renowned 
family of Firebee aerial jet target systems. 
Ryan experience in design, fabrication, 
test and operation of high performance 
Firebees spans 18 years. 

Ryan continues to supply the United 
States Air Force, Army and Navy with 
increasing numbers of these versatile, 
threat targets. 

Today, the military services are operat- 
ing versions of the adaptable and de- 
pendable BQM-34A and MQM-34D 
Firebee targets. They provide a realistic 
re-creation of hostile environments en- 

countered by our combat forces, both in 
air-to-air and surface-to-air offensive and 
defensive situations. 

Firebees serve as prime elements in the 
evaluation of manned and unmanned 
weapons systems. Firebees also perform 
the vital personnel training function for 
these weapons systems with a high de- 
gree of cost effectiveness. 

By integrating proven subsystems, the 
air or ground launched Firebee offers a 
series of formidable, yet economical 
weapons systems delivering up to 1,000- 
pound payloads. 

Ryan has developed, during its 20 years 

of uninterrupted target-drone experi- 
ence, the largest pool of management, 
technical, manufacturing and service tal- 
ent available in the field today. 

The Ryan Firebee management organi- 
zation incorporates the necessary techni- 
cal disciplines and other specialized 
personnel resources to meet with out- 
standing success, the aerial target-drone 
requirements for any air defense system. 
This includes systems management, de- 
sign, development, flight testing, tool 
manufacturing and flight services. 

Firebee production aerial target sys- 
tems are products of a planned program 
which evolves from a basic Ryan philos- 
ophy. This contends that the original 
concept and subsequent development of 
Firebee systems and equipment must 
contain growth potential as well as fulfill 
the initial requirement. The development 
of today's weapons inventory has been 
paralleled by the evolution of the Firebee 
target system. Ryan management has 
carefully anticipated the requirements of 
increasingly more sophisticated and com- 
plex weapons systems. 

Ryan Aeronautical Company has taken 
another progressive step forward in Fire- 
bee development. 

Ryan has transitioned from the sub- 
sonic to the supersonic flight regime with 
the design and manufacture of the Super- 
sonic Firebee II (military designation — 
BQM-34E). This new product of Ryan's 
design and technical excellence provides 
the first realistic answer to the require- 
ment for a supersonic, remote controlled, 
jet-powered, recoverable, aerial target. 

Currently, under contract to the U.S. 
Navy, Ryan is delivering fourteen proto- 
type XBQM-34E supersonic Firebees for 
preproduction flight test and evaluation. 
One static test version for strain gauge 
and vibration testing was also produced. 
The BQM-34E is a turbo-jet propelled 
recoverable supersonic aerial target. It i 

can be either air or ground launched. 
It is designed to operate at a speed of 
Mach 1.5 at 60,000 feet. 

The target is powered by a Continental 
jet engine of advanced design, which op- 
erates on JP-5 fuel. It carries approxi- 
mately 663 pounds of fuel in a main tank 
and in a jettisonable external tank. 

Flight control is accomplished by a re- 
mote command guidance system which 
relays signals to the automatic control 
and stabilization system and throttle 

The primary mission of the BQM-34E 
is to provide a highly realistic aerial target 

capable of simulating the performance of 
enemy aircraft, to aid in research, devel- 
opment, test and evaluation of weapons 
systems employing surface-to-air and air- 
to-air missiles, and to provide training 
tor operational units. Ground support 
equipment and special support equip- 
ment are modifications of existing BQM- 
34A designs. 

The target is capable of being air 
launched from aircraft currently being 
used to launch the BQM-34A Firebee. 
Ground launching utilizes a zero- 
length launcher augmented by jet- 
assisted, takeoff (JATO) boosters. The 

BQM-34E Firebee can be equipped with 
active and passive radar augmenters, 
electronic and photographic scoring sys- 
tems, electronic countermeasures, low al- 
titude radar sensing systems and infrared 

The supersonic Firebee is both water 
and ground recoverable. It employs a 
system of sequenced drag and main para- 
chutes which disconnect on surface 


& Configuration 

The supersonic Firebee is a highly stream- 
lined, swept-wing aircraft. It is 28V4 feet 
in length, with a wing span of 8.9 feet. 
The fuselage is of conventional aluminum 
construction, with the main panels of 
the wings and empennage of honeycomb 

The nose radome and fin cap, which 
are used as antenna housings, are con- 
structed of fiberglass. All external at- 
tachments and antennas are flush with 
the skin surface to preserve aerodynamic 
smoothness. A nose radome, similar to 
the subsonic Firebee, contains the scor- 
ing system and passive augmentation. Di- 
rectly behind this is the equipment com- 
partment which contains the electrical 
and electronic systems. 

The central fuselage contains the fuel 
tank and structure for supporting the 
wing. The inlet and oil tank assembly is 
slung under the equipment compart- 
ment. The inlet duct passes from the inlet 
opening through the fuel tank to the 
engine, which is installed in a fuselage 
half-shell integral with the central fuse- 
lage structure. 

Ryan flight test team at Pt. Mugu Naval Mis- 
sile Center prepares Firebee II for air-launch 
from the wing of a U.S. Navy DP2E Neptune. 


The entire aft portion of the fuselage 
is a removable subassembly which forms 
the upper shell covering the engine. 

The tail section consists of two all- 
movable horizontal tail surfaces used for 
both roll and pitch control and a vertical 
stabilizer with an active rudder. These 
are driven by a self-contained electro- 
hydraulic actuator unit. A tail cone 
houses the parachute recovery system, 

which is similar to that used in the sub- 
sonic version. 

A modified Continental )69-T-29 en- 
gine designated the J69-T-6 is used. This 
engine features a rearrangement of ac- 
cessories to reduce frontal area, a modi- 
fied compressor design to uprate thrust, 
and material changes in the radial com- 
pressor to permit supersonic operations 
at sea level. 

Among the unusual design characteris- 
tics of the supersonic Firebee are its 
"clean" wings. No ailerons are used, 
since roll control is achieved by differen- 
tial deflections of the all-movable hori- 
zontal tail surfaces. The horizontal and 
vertical tail are swept as are the wings. 
263 pounds of fuel is carried within the 
fuselage of the BQM-34E. An external 
jettlsonable fuel tank, slung beneath the 
fuselage, carries an additional 400 
pounds of fuel. In this configuration, the 
target performs subsonic flight missions 
with capability, endurance and range 
similar to the subsonic BQM-34A. 

For supersonic flight, the external tank 
is jettisoned, and utilizing internal fuel, 
the new Firebee will fly target missions 
at Mach 1.5 at 60,000 feet, or Mach 1.1 
at sea level. 


The Ryan BQM-34E uses a semi-mono- 
coque fuselage structure. It is designed 
so that shear and torsional forces are 
carried in the skin. 

Structural strength is also enhanced by 
having longitudinal members such as side 
longerons, keel, riser trough and skins 
carry the fuselage bending loads. Bulk- 
heads, frames and formers act to shape 
and hold the skin to its prescribed 


The Continental YJ69-T-6 turbo-jet en- 
gine, rated at 1840 pounds static sea 
level thrust, provides the power for the 
BQM-34E. This engine is an uprated and 
redesigned version of the J69-T-29 engine 
used in the subsonic BQM-34A Firebee. 
It has a dry weight of 360 pounds, a maxi- 
mum diameter of 23.64 inches, and is 
47.03 inches long. It employs two stages 
of compression, one axial, the other 
radial, an annular combustion chamber, 
and a single-stage axial turbine. The en- 
gine burns standard )P-5 fuel and uses 

Three-view drawing at left empliasizes the 
clean design of Ryan supersonic-rated jet 
drone which is now completing flight testing. 


10/10 oil in the lubrication system. The 
fuel system, including tank, booster pump 
and solenoid shutoff valve, are part of 
the basic fuselage tank assembly. 

Control Systems 

The guidance system for the BQM-34E 
supersonic aerial target differs from that 
of a manned aircraft. Because the system 
uses a remote control operator on the 
ground, in-flight information is transmit- 
ted from the drone via a telemetry sys- 
tem and, using a radar plot for positioning 
data, the operator commands the target 
via a coded radio transmitter. The auto- 
matic flight control system of the target 
responds to these remote commands to 
perform the required flight maneuvers. 
The Automatic Flight Control System 
(AFCS) for the BQM-34E target provides 
stability and control about three axes. 
The system provides a sensing computa- 
tion and actuation functions and consists 
of six black boxes: Rate gyro— three axis. 
Vertical gyro. Air data computer. Flight 
control box. Low altitude control box and 
a three axis electrohydraulic actuator 


The BQM-34E, like the subsonic Fire- 
bee, is designed to be launched either 
from a ground launcher or from the wing 
pylons of an aircraft. For air launches, 
specially equipped DC-130 Hercules and 
DP2E Neptune aircraft are currently used. 
Minor modification adapts them for 
launching of the supersonic Firebee II. 

Ground launching of the BQM-34E is 
accomplished using existing zero-length 
rails with little modification required. 
The new target uses the same solid pro- 
pellent booster used on the BQM-34A 

Ground launch, from the short-rail 
launcher, is performed with the launcher 
inclined 15 degrees. Firebee engine 
thrust is augmented during the initial 
launch phase by the solid propellant 

JATO motor which burns 2.2 seconds 
and provides a nominal thrust of 11,300 

For air launch, the Air Force DC-130 
Hercules launch aircraft is equipped to 
carry four Firebees, two on each wing. 
The DP2E Navy Neptune carries two Fire- 
bees. The targets may be launched from 
altitudes up to 18,000 feet at approxi- 
mately 200 knots. The remote controller 
assumes control about five seconds after 


The supersonic Firebee is a highly versa- 
tile aircraft. It is capable of flight in the 
subsonic and supersonic regimes. The 
BQM-34E can perform its mission require- 
ments at high and low altitudes. 

In a typical mission, the supersonic tar- 
get is launched, with its jettisonable fuel 
tank, either from a zero-length ground 
launcher or from a parent aircraft at 15,- 
000 feet. It climbs to 50,000 feet at high 
subsonic speed, about Mach .9. The 
external fuel tank is jettisoned. The tar- 
get then accelerates and climbs to 60,000 
feet, at which point it levels out at Mach 
1.5 and flies for 18 minutes. 

In such a mission, called a combined 
subsonic cruise/supersonic dash, total 
time aloft from launch is 64 minutes. This 
includes 10 minutes of climb to altitude 
after launch, 26 minutes of cruise at 
45,000 feet at Mach .9, 10 minutes of 
acceleration and climb to 60,000 feet 
after fuel tank jettison, and 18 minutes 
in the supersonic dash mode. 

When the BQM-34E is launched in 
supersonic configuration, without its ex- 
ternal fuel tank, it climbs and acceler- 
ates after ground or air launch, to 60,000 
feet and Mach 1.5 in 8 minutes. It then 
performs a 10 minute dash at the super- 
sonic speed and altitude. 

And for typically basic subsonic mis- 
sions, such as now performed by the sub- 
sonic BQM-34A, the BQM-34E climbs to 
50,000 feet at Mach .9 and remains aloft 
in subsonic cruise for 74 minutes. 

The supersonic Firebee is able to per- 



_. x^~3 

On-board recovery system involves a two- 
stage parachute. Retrieval is achieved by 
either a helicopter or by a recovery boat. 

form at sea level at Mach 1.1, more than 
800 m.p.h. In a low altitude mission, the 
target is flown at subsonic speed with the 
external fuel tank for 15 minutes while 
being positioned at 500 feet altitude prior 
to beginning the supersonic hot leg. The 
external tank is then jettisoned and the 
Firebee descended and accelerated to 
Mach 1.1 at 50 feet for more than 
4 minutes. 



By specification, the BQM-34E is required 
to perform 3.0g turns at altitudes of 500- 
15,000 feet, 1.4g turns at 50,000 feet and 
I.ISg turns at 60,000 feet with no loss of 

However, it is capable of 5g turns with 
no loss in altitude, at 35% fuel weight, 
up to 21,000 feet. During missions where 
a slight altitude loss is permissible, 5g 
turns may be initiated at any altitude. 

The automatic flight control system 
stabilizes and controls the target through 
all phases of flight from launch to para- 

chute sequence of recovery within the 
speed-altitude envelope. With the addi- 
tion of the Radar Altimeter Low Altitude 
Control Subsystem (RALACS), the target 
may be flown down to a minimum of 50 
feet above level terrain, such as desert 
and over-water sea ranges. 

Target Acquisition /Augmentation 

The new BQM-34E carries all existing 
electronic and radar equipment now em- 
ployed in the subsonic BQM-34A. In 
keeping with Ryan economy practices, 
the new design uses many of the com- 

ponents of the current Firebee. Active 
and passive augmentation currently in 
use may still be retained. 

Such augmenters as infrared flares, 
Luneberg lenses, the Ryan developed 
Traveling Wave Tube, which electronic- 
ally adjusts the size of the supersonic 
Firebee radar image, and wing mounted 
reflector pods may be employed. 


The supersonic Firebee is equipped with 
the two-stage parachute system similar 
to that used in the BQM-34A for flight 
termination and recovery. Normally, re- 
covery is initiated by radio command. 
Redundant circuits are provided: normal 
command and emergency command. In 
addition, the recovery sequence is auto- 
matically initiated by loss of radio carrier 
for a preset time, or by loss of primary 
electrical power in the target. 

Automatic sequencing of the recovery 
system and autopilot is provided for, 
within the target, to compensate for ini- 
tial conditions of speed and altitude to 
insure parachute deployment at safe 
speeds and altitudes above the terrain. 
Upon contact with the ground or water, 
the main descent parachute is automati- 
cally released to preclude damage caused 
by winds dragging the target along the 


Surface vehicles or helicopters used with 
the BQM-34A can also retrieve the super- 
sonic Firebee. During water recovery, the 
target floats level with the aid of a flota- 
tion bag attached to the aft fuselage. 

The parachute riser is held erect by a 
mechanical device, so that a hook can 
be engaged to lift the target. A helicopter 
or boat engages the parachute riser, lifts 
it out of the water, and returns it for 

For land recovery, a helicopter or a 
suitably equipped truck Is used. 

Following return to the maintenance 
facility, the target is rehabilitated for 
further flight operations. i^HB ^ 

Artist's concept of Ryan Firebee II depicts 
the operational system in supersonic flight 
mode without the use of external fuel tank. 


•elisors are on duty for the Navy 
^nographic Office... 


livered three infrared wave height sensors to the Naval 
Oceanographic Office for use in a development effort 
in automated sea state prediction in the South China 

The sea state prediction model is part of the en- 
vironmental forecasting program under joint develop- 
ment by the Navy Weather Research Facility and the 
Naval Oceanographic Office. 

J. R. Iverson, Ryan's Vice President — Electronic 
and Space Systems, said the sensor transmits and re- 
ceives infrared radiation to produce an accurate pro- 
file of ocean surface movement. With ship motion 
compensation, wave heights, and wave distribution 
can be charted from the measurements. Advance 
warning of storm fronts can also be determined. 

As far as is known, only Ryan is currently demon- 
strating the use of simple, modulated continuous- 
wave infrared to measure distances. 

Transmitting a narrow, concentrated beam, the 
infrared systems built by Ryan are also being used for 
near-ground burst of missiles. 

Both these applications are the result of five years 
of developmental work under U.S. Navy contracts. 

Looking like a spectacled monster, Ryan's Infrared Wave Height 
Sensor shows the simplicity of its optical and electronic compo- 
nents. Transmitter lens is at the top, and receiver is at the bottom. 

Rodger Finvold, the specialist at Ryan Electronic and 
Space Systems who has developed the technique, sees 
other applications: 

• Low altitude infrared altimeters and sink rate 
meters for aircraft; 

• Retro-rocket firing initiators for spacecraft making 

• Cloud height meters for airports and weather 

• Wave height sensors for hydrofoil craft; 

• Warning systems for the blind: 

• Automobile separation meters for the superspeed 
highways of the future. 

"We are finished with the research and development 
stages," Finvold says, "and are capable now of de- 
signing the technique to meet any of the various prac- 
tical applications on short order." 

Infrared is a portion of the electromagnetic radiation 
spectrum that extends beyond the visible into the in- 
visible, on the long wavelength side. 

Ryan's IR sensors work just beyond the visible 
spectrum. They operate at a frequency 10,000 times 
higher than today's X-Band microwave radars used as 
navigation sensors in aircraft. Or, put another way, the 
frequency of infrared is one million times higher than 
that at which home television sets operate. To say a 
frequency is higher is the same as saying that the 
wave length is shorter. Infrared wave lengths are one 
million times shorter than that of TV systems. 

The IR source in Ryan's infrared sensors is a small 
gallium arsenide diode unit less than Vio inch in diam- 
eter. It is an electroluminescent light source that con- 
verts electrical energy into IR radiant energy and 
transmits it in a continuous wave. This conversion can 
be accomplished in less than a billionth of a second 
after application of electrical power. In contrast, a 
conventional light filament in household light bulbs 
takes approximately 100th of a second to heat before 
radiation is emitted. 

"The distance between the transmitter and the re- 
flecting target is directly proportional to the time 
difference between transmission and reception of the 

IR beam," Finvold explained. "The receiver is an 
optical device, similar to a camera lens, that focuses 
the return radiation onto a photo detector. This is a 
small, solid state device that converts the light energy 
back to electrical signals for processing of the distance 

Total power required for the transmitting and re- 
ceiving functions is only five watts. This means the 
entire assembly creates very little heat. It also means 
that a minimum of electrical power is required for 
remote sensors such as buoys at sea, where it is diffi- 
cult to provide large quantities of continuous electrical 

Finvold pointed out that there are three other tech- 
niques being used by aerospace companies to measure 
distances electronically. 

The most popular technique under development for 
precision measurement is lasers, which, Finvold 
states, are presently far more complex than simple 
diode IR emitting systems. Sonic systems, that meas- 
ure distance by sound echoes, are generally bothered 
by outside noises. In military situations, sonic sen- 
sors are affected by gunfire, for instance. Radar sys- 
tems have a relatively large beam width and need a 
large transmitting and receiving aperature — or radome 
— through which to operate. 

Ryan's IR sensor, on the other hand, is of simple 
design, is not affected by noise, has a beam width of a 

Opto-electronic assemblers fabricate sensors under watchful super- 
vision of Engineer Joe Copeland. Navy is using Ryan IR sensors in 
developmental effort in automated sea state prediction and in 
forecasting environmental conditions in the South China Sea. 


<? O .V* 


Weighing about 30 pounds in its watertigiit 

case, ttie IR Wave Heiglit Sensor mounts 

easiiy on tlie ocean research tower 

railing for unobstructed view of waves. 

Ryan engineers arrive at Naval Electronics 
Lab tower off Mission Beach here for 
start of pre-delivery tests. Other Navy tests 
were conducted at East Coast sites 
and near Bermuda. 


Present IR equipment applies to ocean researcli towers, oil derricks, buoys and piers. Satellite tie-in is future potential. 



few degrees, and employs an aperature of only a few 
square inches. 

Ryan engineers met and solved numerous chal- 
lenges in developing the technique. These hurdles in- 
cluded achieving the desired range, sensitivity levels, 
accuracy and stability. 

During the past five years, the company has re- 
ceived six contracts for developmental work in this 
field. The first three were studies for the Naval 
Ordnance Laboratories at Corona, California, and 
White Oaks, Md., for application of the Ryan tech- 
nique to electro-optical fuzes. 

More recently, these have been followed by a con- 
tract with the Naval Weapons Center, Corona, to 
design and fabricate a near-surface burst fuze for a 
Navy missile, and an additional study for this center of 
an "imminent collision" fuze. 

Parallel development to production of prototype 
systems has proceeded under the sixth contract. This 
is for an infrared remote wave height sensor that has 
been built and successfully tested under contract to 
the Naval Oceanographic Ofiice in Washington, D.C. 
Most other wave height sensors require contact with 
the water. This can lead to installation and service 
problems, and possible damage in heavy seas. 

Iverson stressed that both the fuze and the wave 
height sensor appear close to initial production. 

"Other applications are also opening up," he said. 
"The basic IR unit can serve as a station-keeping 
device to allow cargo helicopters to hover safely above 
a selected spot on the deck of a ship at sea. It could 
also serve as a closure rate indicator for docking space- 
craft that would be more accurate than current radar 

In the meantime, interesting results are anticipated 
in the wave watch in the South China Sea. ■■■§ ^ 

One application is IR altimeter or sink rate meter for helicopters. 

Another is a hydrofoil height sensor, a system already demonstrated. 






One dramatic application seen by Ryan IR engineers is an IR sensor for 
blind persons. With a transmitting diode in one stem and a receiver in the 
other, the sensor would provide audio signals for individual to "see" objects. 

Precise measurement of altitude by a Ryan IR precision 
sensor could help NASA solve problems in retro landings 
of future manned spacecraft on return flights to earth. 

High speed freeways of the future -v^ith autos streaming along at 100 mph or more-might be made practical and safe with 
use of a Ryan automobile separation meter based on the IR distance measurement principle. 

Turning the present system upside down and aiming it at the clouds gives a rough indication of cloud height. With further refine- 
ment, a truly efficient cloud height meter for airports and weather stations appears to be a practical application of IR technology. 


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he secret of durable science-fiction writing more than a century ago was first, to base your plot on existing scientific 
knowledge. Jules Verne realized the value of this procedure in writing "From the Earth to the Moon" 104 years ago. 
The next step was to lace your prose with liberal quantities of imagination. 

Herein lies the prophetic quality of the cover gracing this issue of the Reporter. Jules Verne's Space Train was launched 
from the Florida Peninsula! Its velocity matched the requirement for achieving gravity-free space flight. More than 
all else, in writing his immortal book, Jules Verne provided a setting for what we are now to witness as perhaps the 
most realistic scientific achievement known to mankind. 



Volume 30, No. 2 
May 1969 

Robert B. Morrisey 
Public Relations Manager 

Jack G. Broward 
Managing Editor 

Robert A. Weissinger 
Staff Photographer 

Robert Watts 
Staff Artist 

Robert P. Battenfield 

Electronic & Space Systems 

Charles H. Ogilvie 

Aerospace Systems 

Shaun Doole 

Research Assistant 

Seven Minutes To Touchdown. ..4 

Space Spinoffs. ..10 

Mission Apollo. .14 

The Bridge. ..20 

Reporter Interview... 24 

The LM Team. ..30 

The End is Not Yet. ..34 

Reporter News... 37 



Dr. W.H. Pickering 

Director, Jet Propulsion Laboratory 
California Institute of Technology 

A quarter of a century ago, when Jet Propulsion Laboratory engineers were firing Private 
A rockets at Leacin Springs on tlie old Camp Irwin reservation north of Barstow, Cali- 
fornia, buried sound sensors were used to determine the impact point after flights of 
perhaps 5,000 yards. 

Today, advanced tracking and flight control systems enable us to fly a vehicle to 
within three miles of an aiming point at the quarter-million-mile range of the Moon, and 
to within 60 milesata planetary distance of perhaps 60 million miles. Radar techniques 
now allow us to estimate spacecraft range to within better than 15 meters, measured 
in light-seconds from Earth's center, and velocity with respect to Earth of 1/lOth of a 
millimeter per second. 

During 25 years in guided missile and deep space research, JPL- supported by the 
scientific and governmental communities and by industrial firms-has participated in 
the development of all the technologies required to orbit and soft-land on the Moon, 
and to investigate interplanetary space and the environments of Venus and Mars. The 
Surveyor soft-landed missions to the Moon returned over 86,000 closeup photographs 
of the lunar surface with resolutions down to l/50th of an inch; performed controlled 
surface penetration, excavation, and trenching experiments; demonstrated that the 
bearing strength of the surface will support spacecraft and men; investigated sites at 
four mare locations and in the highlands north of the Crater Tycho; and showed that 
the surface is largely basaltic in texture, like terrestrial soil. 

Surveyor successfully demonstrated the techniques involved in the automatic de- 
scent ofaspace vehicle to the lunarsurface, usingclosed-loop radar systems designed 
and developed by Ryan. The altitude marking radar commanded the start of the pro- 
gram to reduce the speed of Surveyor from 6,000 mph at 60 miles above the surface, 
to about 250 mph at approximately six miles. The main radar system then worked with 
the on-board computer and vernier propulsion systems to bring the spacecraft to a 
gentle three mph at 14 feet altitude. 

Based on the experience gained with the unmanned Surveyor program, Ryan is 
also producing the automatic landing system that will control the descent trajectory 
of the Apollo Lunar Module. Without the knowledge and confidence that radar signals 
are indeed reflected from a point at or near the lunar surface, the Apollo landings 
would be much more hazardous than they now appear. 

The dramatic flight of Apollo VIII orbited the first astronauts around the Moon and 
brought them back to a safe Earth landing. Apollo IX successfully demonstrated the 
soundness of the design concept for excursions of the Lunar Module to and from the 
lunar surface. The prospect is now good for the first manned landings this summer 
and for a series of manned Apollo flights to the Moon beyond 1969. 

The success of this program and of our entire space effort is vitally dependent upon 
a meshing of all the capabilities of our scientific, governmental, and industrial com- 
munities. Only through the support of highly competent industrial firms can we fully 
realize the scientific and technological benefits that can accrue from the continued 
orderly development of our national space program. 

' -^sagjE^.-. -■ 

Programmed for its descent configuration, the Lunar Moduie witfi two 
astronauts aboard, lias separated from tfie Command l\Aodule wtiich 
remains in orbit, and now starts its final seven minutes to toucfidown. 





Robert P. Battenfield 



Receding, the cloud-swirled Earth is a bright, marbled-blue 
ball suspended against the velvet black expanse of space. 

Rising, the moon is suddenly there beneath, close beside — 
barren hills and dry-bright flatlands. But beautiful, waiting to 
be discovered. Sensual, waiting to be touched. 

At once, both familiar and unknown, precious and worthless. 
A puzzle and a friend. 

Two men, American astronauts with 3y2-day beards, stand 
strapped weightless at the controls of their spaceship, the 
Apollo Lunar Module, and watch with eager eyes the alien 
face of the moon pass silently beneath them. 

Their voices read numbers and the assurance of Apollo 
Mission Control speaks back to them across 240,000 miles 
of space. The astronauts hands move in practiced concert. 

They have become thinking extensions of their computers. 

But a corner of their minds is reserved for wonder. 

Here I am, the astronaut says to himself, living, floating, in- 
escapably beyond all that man has known and controlled be- 
fore. Here I am swinging around the moon, everything working 
like clockwork, like a charm, like a dream. 

And his spirit soars and he descends in a rush, then like a 
feather, and the astronaut lands his first moon landing -the 
first moon landing-he lands it a thousand times in his dream. 
In his imagination. 

Over the moon fields the astronaut sees himself walking, 
lunar boots crunching noiselessly, making footprints in the 
silent moon-world that no winds or tides or raindrops will ever 
obscure. Oh, maybe micrometeorites will beat them down in 
a century or two, but — 

Maybe this LM descentstage, lefton the moon, will be amonu- 
ment to lunar colonies of the future, with a chain around it, 
and a sign reading Don't Step on the First Astronaut Foot- 

It is an experience never before, an experience now and for 
all time. 


Two brave men in a spider-legged craft of silver and black 
and gold, facing the awesome, pristine moon that has rested 
in the palm of God's hand since time began, since the first 
day and the first night. 

Away, the Command Module is away and orbiting at 80 miles 
up. Coasting down in a transfer orbit, the Lunar Module ap- 
proaches 50,000 feet above the moon mask. A final check of 
descent control systems, propulsion and communications, and 
punch the button for powered descent. 

Radar, computers and rockets, the automatic closed-loop 
descent control system will slow the LM from a speed of al- 
most 3,750 mph to a safe, radar-controlled two mph at touch- 

At 35,000 feet, flying over the moon at an altitude of 74 de- 
grees from the lunar vertical, the LM pilots initiate a yaw man- 
euver that gradually flips the Lunar Module over, face up. 
Visual contact with the moon is lost. 

But the landing radar altimeter immediately locks onto re- 
turn signals echoing from the surface of the moon. 

The Ryan system becomes the astronaut's 'radar fingers" 
— reaching out, touching, sensing, reporting. Like a man guid- 
ing his movements along a darkened corridor, the LM astro- 
nauts use the Ryan radar as a fingertip sensory nerve, 
an "eye," an extension of their control over their fast-braking 

This is the first active response of the Ryan radar. The LM 
is moving forward at about 1,750 mph and is dropping toward 
the moon at about 81 mph. 

This is seven minutes to touchdown. 

Around 90 seconds later, at about 25,000 feet above the 
moon, the altimeter performs for the astronauts the first of a 
series of programmed updates of the inertial guidance. 

Down, down the Lunar Module slips-22,000 feet. ..20,000 
feet. Seconds tick by. The moon below is dead pumice, lava 
frozen in mid-flow. 

Now spacecraft altitude reaches 59 degrees and the third, 
most forward-looking of the landing radar's three velocity 
sensor beams strikes the moon's surface, and locks on. Rug- 
ged battlefield highlands are below. Altitude is 18,500 feet. 
Forward velocity is 760 mph. Vertical velocity is 102 mph. 

Four and one-half minutes from the landing, and Ryan's 
radar Is on all four burners. Three speed-sensing beams de- 
tect spacecraft velocity up, down, forward, backward, side to 
side. The single altimeter beam provides true altitude and 
altitude rate. 

Measurements are being transmitted and received through 
the landing radar antenna assembly, which is positioned be- 
neath the LM descent stage. Nearby is the bell-like skirt of the 
LM descent engine, fiery hot, expelling a plume of rocket ex- 
haust that throws an umbrella-shaped plasma into space be- 
neath the spacecraft. 

Also in near-view of the antenna is the structure of one of the 
four LM landing legs, vibrating slightly in the corner of the 
radar's "eye." 

Apollo-n astronauts in their Lunar Module, having made 

their final survey from 500 feet to touchdown, may select a landing 

site similar to one created by artist Robert Watts. 

Fish-eye camera tens view of interior of Apollo Ll^ mission 

simulator (at right) shows astronauts James A. McDivitt and 

Russell L. Schweickart during Apollo 9 training at Cape Kennedy. 

Astronaut Neil Armstrong (center) will be first 
man ever to step out onto a lunar surface 
via Apollo-11 spacecraft. Flanked by team-mates 
Edwin E. "Buz" Aldrin (left) and Micfiael 
Collins. Armstrong will man Lunar Module 
equipped witti Ryan radar system. 

Ryan's Surveyor landing radar proved it could see through 
this plasma and operate with 100 per cent reliability in control- 
ling five robot scouts to safe landings on the moon. 

And in Apollo 9, Ryan's LtVl landing radar showed it trans- 
mits past theengineskirt and landing legs, through the plasma, 
and that it rejects any reflected "spurious" signals from these 

Now it's time to prove the radar's service to man. There's a 
man in the loop and a fire in the hole. 

Reliable radar performance is a must. There is no back up. 
Without an accurate reference to the lunar surface, the Apollo 
landing will not be possible. No other system aboard the LM 
can provide this reference. 

Measurements are fed to the astronauts' control panels and 
to the LM Guidance Computer, the "brain" of the Primary 
Guidance and Navigation Section, which uses landing radar 
data to update the inertial system. Also, the computer uses 
radar data to fireand throttle theLMDescentPropulsionSystem 
and the reaction control jets that keep the spacecraft on the 
proper descent path through the airless lunar sky. 

Next major event is "high gate, " a point in the trajectory 
where spacecraft velocity has been reduced enough to begin 
moving the LM closer to vertical. Depending upon final tra- 
jectory planning, this point is near 7,500 feet. Vertical velocity 
is around 92 mph and horizontal velocity about 350 mph. Atti- 
tude is about 55 degrees. 

Shortly after "high gate, " the LM landing radar switches 
automatically from the descent position (Antenna Position 1) 
to hover position (Antenna Position 2). This means it moves 24 
degrees on its tilt mechanism to keep its beams perpendicular 
to the lunar surface. This movement should be complete by 
7,200 feet. 

Now, through the LM's triangular windows, the astronauts 
have their first low-altitude look at their landing site, dead 
ahead, just under the lunar horizon, approximately 3V2 miles 
away. Pitched forward now to about 47 degrees, the LM is 
passing the 6,800 foot mark. 

Yawning craters with crevasse-cracked floors can be seen to 

the north, and to the south. There, mountain ridges reach up. 
And there, escarpments sharply fall away. A boulder has plow- 
ed a furrow to a crater's core. A river valley — water or molten 
lava? — has twisted through a small mare and left a string of 
potholes, crisply shadowed. 

Everything is in sharp relief, stark. The sun is at their back. 
Gently rolling, the lunar sea landing site appears relatively 
safe by contrast. 

Down they go, monitoring their control displays. 

"Low gate " is a mission event at 500 feet above the surface. 
Forward velocity slows to a cruising 38 mph, and descent rate 
to 13.5 feet per second, or less than 10 mph. 

...60 seconds from touchdown... 

Twenty seconds later, now past the 200 foot mark... Beneath 
them, now at closer range, they see shallow craters with 
crumbled ridges, jumbled boulders, tumbled moon stones. 

At about 110 feet above the surface, they reach the optimum 
safe descent rate of three feet per second. 

Theastronautswill elect to take manual control of the spider- 
legged craft's descent at about this time. With the landing 
radar furnishing precise, low-altitude measurements, they will 
assess the landing site and perhaps move horizontally over 
the surface to a more desirable-looking area. 

With the best site selected, the astronauts will null out hori- 
zontal velocities and descend vertically to the surface, moni- 
toring their altitude and altitude rate indicators — three feet 
per second, three feet per second — until the LM landing leg 
probes make contact. 

A light flashes on their panel and the astronauts shut off 
the engine, dropping gently on the moon. 

The soft-landing, mid-way point in man's greatest adventure 
...and Ryan Aeronautical Company is playing an important 

There it shines, silent, forbidding— the face of the moon. 
Scarred by the fists of the Universe, lovely in its promise to 
reveal secrets of Creation, if only man is bold enough to court 
and conquer it. 

Bold science. Bolder man. ^^m ^ 

Wow 240,000 miles from home, two Apollo 11 
Astronauts in Lunar Module are moving in de- 
scent phase (at upper left) at about 81 mph 
toward a surface on the moon that is pocked 
with craters. Ryan landing radar, beaming its 
four electronic fingers to the surface below, pro- 
vides data essential to man's first visit to moon. 

1- i 



. ''^Mi^' v*"^' 






Director, George C. Marshall 
Space Flight Center 
National Aeronautics 
and Space Administration 

iJtj^A/.^ ."f^-^- 


Saturn launch vehicle for Apollo-9 lifts off Cape Kennedy pad. 


li V t , 

Dr. Von Braun helped 
lead U.S. space efforts 
thirough early-day 
rockets on to spacecraft 
and satellite booster 
vehicle development. 

Von Braun (to right of 
man pointing) joins 
colleagues in observing 
early flight of Saturn SA-8 
vehicle at Cape Kennedy. 

What practical return are we getting for the billions of dollars 
this country is spending for sending men to the moon? 

This is one of the questions most frequently asked in the 
wake of the moon circling Apollo 8 flight. It takes on added 
significance as we prepare the Apollo 11 vehicle and train the 
crew for the actual moon landing attempt later this summer. 

One of the most immediate benefits noticed after the Apollo 
8 victory is the reaction of the "man in the street." This great 
national achievement had, I feel, a unifying effect on the nation 
at a time of unprecedented unrest. To the man, the reaction is 
"I am proud to bean American -to have been a part of sending 
men to the moon." 

And every American can be justly proud, for it is American 
taxpayers whose contributions alone make it possible to reach 
this most important goal -a lunar landing. 

The prestige factor of being first in space is proven. We know 
leadership in outer space means leadership on earth. 

There is no immediate way of telling in concrete terms of dol- 
lars and cents how much value, call it space benefits or space 
spin-off or whatever, the mushrooming technology spawned by 
space research will have today, tomorrow or next year. But this 
we do know, the benefits from space exploration filters into 
most every segment of the American economy. 

Indeed one of the most useful things about the space program 
is that it spreads throughout the entire industrial spectrum 
includingelectronics,textiles,fuels, machinery, plastics, metals, 
ceramics and hundreds of other fields. 

Science itself has been given by the space program new tools, 
new opportunities, and new vantage points for observation of 
the universe. Scientists are interested in such mysteries as the 
origin of the moon, the earth, and the planets; the precise shape 
of the earth; possible fluctuations of gravitational and magnetic 
fields of earth; the nature of radiation emitted by the sun and 
stars; the interaction between the solar wind and earth's mag- 
netic field; and the most intriguingthought of all -the possibility 
of existence of life elsewhere in space. 

Now, that is simply basic research, and no one that I know can 
say where it will all lead. It is impossible to put a price tag on 
a discovery such as the Van Allen Belt, or the detailed photo- 
graphic atlas of the moon's surface compiled by the lunar 
spacecraft, or the variety of space achievements. 

With a few of the thousands of examples of "spin off" we have 
collected, I think I can at least give you an idea of the impact 
of space research. 

MEDICINE-Space medicine is a recognized medical special- 
ty, and research in this area will become more vital and bene- 
ficial than ever as man himself continues to penetrate space. 

The practical advantages of space research and technology 
are especially impressive and heartening in the improvement 
of medicine and public-health services. 

A switch operated simply by eye movements was developed 
for the Marshall Center and has now been adapted for use in a 
motorized wheelchair. The sight switch, properly relayed, 
enables a paraplegic to control the wheel chair without moving 
his body or limbs. The same switch can be adapted for use as a 
mechanical pageturner or to enable a patient to control lights, 
thermostat, radio, or television set without moving. 

A six-patient physiological monitoring system, which evolved 
from Mercury and Gemini technology, has been installed in a 
St. Louis hospital and is being marketed commercially. The 
system includes bedside consoles and oscilloscopes, two 
multiplexers used to display several traces simultaneously on 
each scope, a strip-chart recorder, a magnetic-drum recorder, 

An air curtain developed to keep spacecraft parts free of dust 
during assembly is now being used by the Food and Drug Ad- 
ministration in testing antibiotics. The air curtain insulates the 
test bench and substantially reduces the number of test failures 
than can be attributed to dust-borne micro-organisms. 

A telemetry unit designed for cardiac monitoring of astronauts 
has been modified for marketing to hospitals for use in inten- 
sive care units. 

EARTH RESOURCES-Growing problems of water and food 
supply, mineral and fuel sources, water and air pollution, and 
traffic congestion plague the people of the world with increas- 
ing insistence. Some of these problems are predicted to be- 
come acute within the next few years as the earth becomes more 
densely populated. Although space operations will not in them- 
selves provide any solutions, they will give key information on 
which effective action can be based. 

The distribution of rainfall and the subsequent storm run- 
off in drainage basins of small to moderate size are of consider- 


Apollo 9 earth and moon photos above 
and right are leading to technological 
refinements in data acquisition which 
promise broad spectrums of benefits 
to man, ranging from meteorological 
and weather forecasting to agriculture, 
mining, fishing and water resources. 

able scientific and economic importance in water management, 
especially in arid regions where tinunderstorms are tine major 
source of precipitation. A plnotograph taken from Gemini IV 
clearly shows the track of one such storm in West Texas, and 
demonstrates the potential usefulness of remote-sensing tech- 
niques to this problem. Time-sequence measurements are 
naturally of prime value in studies of rainfall distribution and 
runoff, and only the orbital approach offers the special advan- 
tage of both synoptic and frequently repeated coverage of large 

Studies currently being conducted in specific areas of known 
water pollution have shown that orbital observations can prob- 
ably be used to locate pollution and monitor its movement in 
large lakes and estuaries, repeatedly and on a very broad scale. 
Infrared imagery shows great promise in studies of mixing proc- 
esses where waters of different temperatures come together, 
as in estuaries and at river mouths. 

FOOD AND AGRICULTURE- Infrared photographs of the Gulf 
Stream taken from the meteorological satellite Nimbus II 
show promise of being of tremendous value to the commercial 
fishing industry as well as to weather forecasters. Because the 
Gulf Stream is about 10 degrees warmer than surrounding 
waters, it shows up clearly in the infrared spectrum. NASA 
scientists and Navy oceanographers were able to locate its 
northern boundary near Cape Hatteras very distinctly by study- 
ing infrared photos from Nimbus II. Fishing experts say that 
they would know consistently where to find several species of 
fish if they could accurately plot the daily wanderings of the 
Gulf Stream. A better understanding of the Gulf Stream's shape 
and almost constantly shifting course would also be of great 
importance to weather prediction. 

Current research is revealing that the use of imagery in 
several wavelengths from aircraft and orbiting spacecraft can 
determine crop species and variety; relative size and maturity 
of crops; types of soil, moisture content, and relative amounts 
of soil and vegetation observed; and the geometric configura- 
tions of crops. Multispectral imagery also depicts vegetation 
zones as they vary with elevation, reveals trace-burn patterns 
of previous forest fires, and delineates timber lines. Of particular 
significance is the fact that using several wavelength bands of 
the electromagnetic spectrum provides a much greater degree 
of reliability than the use of single bands. 

Infrared imagery shows up dead and diseased trees more 
clearly than standard color photography does and reveals the 
contrast between well-drained and poorly-drained areas. The 
rapid detection of infected trees would speed up the applica- 
tion of control measures, such as spraying, and help reduce the 
spread of infestations. 

EDUCATION -Astronomy textbooks will soon contain striking 
new illustrations. For example, a photograph taken from Gemini 
IX shows the earth's zodiacal light free of the airglow always 
present in ground photos. Previously, it has been necessary to 
portray zodiacal light in drawings in order to differentiate it 
from airglow and city lights and indicate its true nature. In the 
Gemini photo, airglow appears as a thin layer, with the moonlit 
earth below it. 

New textbooks in preparation on earth sciences are incorpor- 
ating many color photographs taken on Gemini missions. These 
reveal synoptic features of the earth, such as huge fault lines, 
much more clearly than black-and white photos. 

The problems and solutions associated with spacecraft de- 
velopment make excellent educational material for several 
reasons. They are topical, exciting, and interesting to students, 
technically sophisticated, interdisciplinary, and intellectually 
challenging. They require system-level thinking and the solu- 
tion of problems containing multiple variables. Many members 
of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory staff have been instrumental 
in injecting spacecraft technology into engineering education. 


Ryan engineer Romer Chadwick (right) conducts system check on scatterometer 
which was used aboard instrumented NASA aircraft (above) in acquisition of 
wave-height data over North Sea during initial evaluation tests of equipment. 

The result has been not only the transfer of knowledge and tech- 
niques but also the opportunity for students to acquire a better 
perspective by becoming familiar with actual engineering 

NATIONAL SECURITY-The shipment of Chinook helicopters 
urgently needed in the Vietnam war zones has in some cases 
been delayed because conventional techniques were incapable 
of removing dents made in hollow-blade spars during fabri- 
cation. Boeing's Vertol Division and the Marshall Center are 
working together to design and construct for this urgent job 
a tool that is an adaptation of the successful electromagnetic 
hammer, developed at MSFC to remove dents from welded tank 
components for Saturn rockets. 

A new type of stretcher was developed by a NASA contractor 
to lift an injured worker vertically out of a Saturn fuel tank 
through a narrow opening in the top. Essentially the same means 
could be used to hoist wounded soldiers from a battlefield to 
a hovering helicopter unable to land. The stretcher is lowered 
by crane, placed around the patient with straps and padding 
that will keep him comfortably immobile during all carrying 
operations, and raised straight up when he is snug and secure 
in it. 

INDUSTRY- Publication of space related information in the 
technical literature, interchange of duties of commercial engi- 
neers between government and nongovernment work, and the 
stimulation by government to industry to support their own de- 
velopment of new and more capable devices are the primary 
means of transferring space benefits to industrial applications. 

Advances in microminiaturization has been an aid in the 
electronics and computer industries. In the metals field, NASA 
has developed stable metal alloys and made advancements in 
metal-joining techniques such as electron-beam welding, 
explosive welding, and diffusion bonding. These improvements 
could lead to the fabrication of more complex metal shapes 
than previously. 

Many plastics are being formulated that have long-term 
stability at 600 degrees Fahrenheit and short-term stability 
at temperatures as high as 1000 degrees Fahrenheit. These 
could find applications wherever the inherent properties of 
plastics at these temperatures are more desirable than those 
of metals or ceramics. 

CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY --Thanks to an idea borrowed 
from NASA launch-facility design, San Diego is to have a com- 
plex of nine circular apartment buildings, 18 to 24 stories high, 
that will revolve every three hours. 

The use of space age technology has enabled aerospace 
contractors to underbid established shipbuilders for a big 
Navy contract for the design and construction of from 15 to 40 
fast new cargo vessels, costing $30-$40 million apiece. A sub- 
stantial advancement in shipbuilding practices will undoubtedly 
be one of the lasting benefits. 

com satellite demonstrated that a global communications net- 
work isfeasiblethroughtheuseofsatellitesinearth-synchronous 
orbits. Comsat, or Communications Satellite Corporation, was 
established for the purpose ^ ' establishing such a network. 

The United States now has in initial operation a meteorological 
satellite system, providing essentially global weather obser- 
vations daily from central analysis and forecasts. NASA de- 
signs, procures, and launches the satellites; the Department 
of Commerce and the Environmental Science Services Ad- 
ministration operate and manage the system, and process and 
distribute the data it produces. You have seen the results of 
this system on your local television station. Many commercial 
television stations have acquired their own equipment for tap- 
ping the meteorological satellites' store of weather pictures. 
They display pertinent orbital pictures during their regular 
telecasts of Weather Bureau forecasts. According to the stations' 
reports, their audiences love this vivid space age improvement 
on traditional weather predictions. 

Of course, there are just a few of the examples of space 

The exploration of space has kindled a sense of awe, high 
adventure, and enthusiasm among the American people. And 
it has stimulated our very best scientific and technological 

Surely this effort will give man greateropportunities for study, 
healthful recreation and creative pursuits. ^^hsh 



Pleased with landing radar progress 
report during visit to Ryan, NASA's 
Dr. George Mueller examines radar 
part. Meanwhile, NASA astronauts 
continue to train for future moon land- 
ings: brave men on missions of bravery. 


After the first manned lunar landing, what will the National 
Aeronautics and Space Administration do for an encore? 

Theanswer isbeginning to unfold in statements by top NASA 

Apollo 11 and 12 will land in relatively smooth mare areas, 
while the next two landings will be directed at the more geo- 
logically interesting — but more dangerous — lunar highlands. 
Then NASA wants six more for a total of ten. 

"We have equipment for the scientific payloads for the first 
four of the Apollo vehicles," said Dr. George Mueller, associate 
administrator for manned flight. "We are discussing with Con- 
gress the need for funding the last six missions." 

Mueller said enough Saturn 5 launch vehicles. Command 
and Service Modules, and moon-landing Lunar Modules are 
already paid for to support ten landings. 

Scientific equipment might include a network of seismo- 
graphs, heat measuring probes, and other sensors to learn of 
the lunar environment. He would have the astronauts take a 
"gamut of pictures" and collect geological samples. 

"In particular we would like to get a good set of pictures of 
the cross section of the side of one of the impact craters, for 
example, to learn what the history of the moon really is," he 

To achieve landings in the lunar highlands, or near the river- 
like rills that crease many plateau areas, Mueller said he ex- 
pects to develop the capability for pin-point landings anywhere 
on the surface of the moon. 

Helping place the two-man Lunar Module where NASA 
wants to have it will be Ryan's reliable lunar landing radar 





■'/■ aa 

Hanging in ttie airless vacuum of space lil<e clinging spider, the silvery 
Apollo 9 Lunar Module spins its vi/ay to successful earth-orbit checkout 
of the systems that will enable it to land on the moon. Ryan landing 
radar passed spurious signal test. 


"Okay, you're moving into tine boundary. You're inside the 
capture mounting now. I have capture. That was a very nice 

"That wasn't a docking. That was an eye test. ..Okay, Hous- 
ton, we're locked up." 

So ended the trickiest test of the earth orbital Apollo 9 mis- 
sion in March. Apollo Astronauts Jim McDivitt and Rusty Sch- 
weickart flew the "Spider" Lunar Module, firing it away from 
the Command Module and Astronaut Dave Scott before suc- 
cessfully performing a rendezvous that simulated return from 
the moon. 

Among the many successes of the Apollo 9 flight was the 
first space-vacuum test of the Ryan LM landing radar. 

Astronauts McDivitt and Schweickart, manning the LM, re- 
ported, "No spurious lock ups at this time," as the landing 
radar transmitted signals into space. This radar spurious signal 
test came in the 49th hour of flight, on the third day, during 
the first burn of the LM descent engine. 

Also tested was the landing radar's ability to maintain ac- 
ceptable operating temperatures while the engine was fired. 
The astronauts reported landing radar temperature at 81 de- 
grees before the firing, at 95 degrees mid-way through, and at 
100 degrees two minutes after. 

McDivitt and Schweickart first commanded a "radar self 
test," in which the radar's electronics reported its readiness. 

Later, during the six-minute firing of the engine, they moni- 
tored their control displays for any indication that the Ryan 
system had "locked up" on any radar energy being reflected 
by the descent engine chamber, the LM landing legs, or the 




First Apollo "spacewalker." Rusty 
Schweickart (above) overcame bouts 
of motion sickness, emerged from 
Apollo 9 Lunar Module to space test 
back-pack life support equipment. 

descent engine exhaust. The radar is designed to reject these 
signals. Engine exhaust in the vacuum of space becomes a 
form of plasma that might have influenced radar signals. 

Analysis of radar return data indicated that the radar did see 
pieces of aluminized mylar that flaked off the descent engine 
during the engine burns, but that the trackers rejected these 
false returns as well. 

McDivitt and Schweickart observed radar performance by 
watching control displays. On-bcard recorders stored data on 
signal return, temperature and power consumption which 
was later "dumped" over NASA ground stations. 

The LR Spurious Signal Test-called out as LR SPUR TEST 
on the astronaut's time-line plan — was initiated by McDivitt 
at 49 hours, 37 minutes. 

He placed the antenna in Antenna Position 1, the so-called 
descent position, and he and Schweickart prepared other sys- 
tems for the firing of the Descent Propulsion System (DPS). 
While the engine burned, Schweickart attempted to photo- 
graph the descent engine exhaust, or DPS plume as it is called. 
McDivitt recorded landing radar temperature during and two 
minutes after the burn. 

Second use of the landing radar came at the time of the 
Rendezvous Phasing Burn of the DPS, at 91 hours and 53 
minutes. This was on the fifth day at the start of the "maxi- 
football ' flight maneuver that sailed the LM as far away as 100 
miles from the mothership Command Module. 

First the self-test routine was performed by the astronauts. 
Then, about 40 minutes later, the LM and CSM separated. The 
Lunar Module moved away and rotated 360 degrees for in- 
spection by Command Module Pilot Scott. During 50 minutes 
of formation flying, various control and propulsion systems 
were checked by the LM astronauts and Antenna Position 2 
was selected. This is the "hover" position for the landing radar 
antenna assembly. 

The second LR SPUR TEST was started soon after DPS fir- 

ing at about 93 hours, 50 minutes. The burn lasted about 25 

Ryan space engineers tested the LM landing radar for its 
performance in an operational space environment during 
qualification testing of pre-production radars. 

Bottom of the LM was simulated with actual descent engine 
bell and a LM landing leg. A wooden platform covered with 
foil served as the descent state structure. The leg and bell 
were vibrated at various levels and frequencies to correspond 
with various thrust levels required of the descent engine in a 
lunar landing. 

These tests, called RF View Factor Tests in the qual test 
series, proved to the satisfaction of Ryan and its customers, 
RCA, Grumman and NASA, plus observers from Massachusetts 
Institute of Technology, that the radar's frequency tracker 
electronics could indeed recognize these signals and reject 

Other ground support test equipment is capable of feeding 
the LM radar system false signals to test tracker rejection. This 
includes the Bench Test Console and the Vendor Acceptance 
Test Equipment which Ryan designed and produced in sup- 
port of the system. 

At the first post-mission press conference. Dr. George Muel- 
ler, associate administrator for Manned Space Flight, NASA, 
declared, "Apollo 9 was as successful a flight as any of us 
could ever wish. " 

Lt. Gen. Sam Phillips, USAF, director of the Apollo Program, 
said, 'I'm exceedingly pleased with the results that we've 
achieved. " 

Dr. Robert Gilruth, director of the Manned Spacecraft Cen- 
ter, Houston, credited the people who made it happen, saying, 
"I'd like to extend my compliments to all elements of the great 
team that made this accomplishment possible. " 

And George Low, manager of Apollo Spacecraft Program 
Office, enthused, "It was an outstanding performance of an 
outstanding spacecraft. " 


APOLLO 10 : "TEN MILES UP . . ." 

At 50,000 feet above the surface of the moon, approaching 
the site planned for the first manned lunar landing, Apollo 10 
Astronauts Tom Stafford and Gene Cernan will call on their 
Ryan-built Lunar ModuleLanding Radar for two important tests. 

First will be to obtain an indication of true altitude. NASA 
hopes Stafford and Cernan can determine if the so-called mass 
anomalies In the lunar surface — likely dense concentrations 
of some ore — affect the LM flight path. At the critical low points 
in the approximately 10 by 60 nautical mile LM orbit, the Ryan 
radar will be the prime indicator for the astronauts of distance 
between the LM and the moon. 

Second objective will be to demonstrate that in the lunar 
environment the radar rejects any false return signals that may 
reflect from the LM structure or from the plasma effect created 
by the descent engine exhaust plume. This rejection of spur- 
ious signals was demonstrated in earth orbit by Apollo 9 Astro- 
nauts Jim McDivitt and Rusty Schweickart. 

Related to the first objective is a test of the radar's ability to 
transmit, receive and track reflected signals from the moon. 
NASA wants all four beams-one altimeter and three velocity 
sensors-to generate meaningful data. 

"The landing radar was adapted to give us a return worthy of 
analysis at this 50,000-foot level," Cernan, the LM Pilot, told 
the press April 8. "We are turning it on during the descent 
engine burns to check its thermal characteristics and we are 
performing a special attitude maneuver as we go over the 
pericynthion and landing area, to get radar velocity and alti- 
tude returns." 

"What we have," Stafford added, "is a period of approxi- 
mately 800 seconds that we are checking the landing radar." 

Requiring the radar to operate at 50,000 feet is above speci- 
fication. Trajectory for the first planned moon landing, Apollo 
11, calls for altimeter acquisition at 35,000 feet and velocity 
sensor acquisition at 18,500 feet. Contract specification is 
40,000 feet. 

NASA and Ryan radar specialists are nonetheless confident. 

Astronaut Stafford, Apollo 10 commander, described the 
mission and the role of the landing radar. 

"We hope we can really pinpoint any anomalies in the total 
lunasphere. We proceed down to 50,000 feet. ..going through 
the exact time lines and attitudes as the lunar landing mission, 
except before perilune we'll pitch over. We'll first check the 
landing radar, which we think is very important to determine 
the (altitude) data because there are still some anomalies with 
respect to, really, where is the lunar surface?" 

John Young, Command Module pilot, added that it is neces- 
sary "to predict where you are going to be for two orbits from 
where you start your powered descent (in the LM), and that's 
very difficult with what we know of the shape of the moon right 

Astronauts Stafford and Cernan will fly the Apollo 10 LM in 
a vertical position in relation to the moon for the landing radar 
test. The antenna will be in its "hover" position to direct all 
four beams at the moon. 

The test comes on the fifth day, during the thirteenth revolu- 
tion of the moon, at approximately 100 hours into the mission. 
Below the LM will be Apollo Site 1 in the Sea of Tranquility. 

Mission planners want 400 seconds of landing radar data, 
about 6-2/3 minutes. Additionally, the obtaining of data on the 
altimeter sensor for another 400 seconds before and after the 
prime test has been termed "highly desirable" by NASA. This 
would yield a total of 13:20 minutes of radar operation in the 
lunar environment. 

The radar will also be operated by the Apollo 10 astronauts 
during each of the descent engine burns. First is the descent 
orbit insertion (DOI) burn at 99 hours, 54 minutes into the mis- 
sion, and second is the LM phasing burn for achieving a higher 
orbit at 101 hours, seven minutes. 

"Snooping" from 50,000 feet, tfie Apollo 10 Lunar l^odule sweeps over 
ttie moon's Sea of Tranquility in artist's concept. Ryan Landing Radar 
will obtain measurements of spacecraft altitude and velocity, gener- 
ating data on all four beams for analysis. 

In a pensive mood, Apollo 10 LM Pilot Gene Cernan slips on hiis space- 
suit gloves during pre-mission training. Cernan joins Apollo 10 Com- 
mander Tom Stafford in landing prelude mission. 



Aviation pioneer, space pioneer- Apollo 
Astronaut Neil Armstrong, left, the man 
selected to first walk on the moon, dis- 
cusses the lunar landing mission with T. 
Claude Ryan, founder and chairman of the 
Board of Ryan Aeronautical Company. (Be- 
low) Astronaut Edwin Aldrin will join Arm- 
strong for historic Apollo 1 1 moon landing. 



Quiet and unassuming, quick blue eyes, sandy yellow hair 
that tends to spring up at the crown, fair-skinned and a spare 
medium build -that's the man who will be first to stand on the 
moon, that's Neil Armstrong, Astronaut. On July 20, his Apollo 
Lunar Module-nicknamed "Haystack" -will make the first 
manned landing on the moon. 

"He's just so /Amencan," people have said. "Knowing who he 
is and what he is destined to do, you're taken by surprise by 
Neil's easy manner." Tm humbled by him," said another, 
"he's the bravest man I've ever met " Another added: "And 
that's primarily because he doesn't put on a show of bravery. 
He radiates bravery in spite of himself." 

During the final seven minutes of their descent to the moon, 
Apollo 1 1 Commander Armstrong and his LM Pilot Edwin (Buz) 
Aldrin will be assisted by continous measurements of altitude 
and velocity from their Ryan Landing Radar. (See lead article, 
p. 5) Mike Collins will remain in the Command Module. 

Site for the landing is Apollo Site 2, in the Sea of Tranquility, 
some 20 miles from the spot where Surveyor 5, also guided by 

Ryan radar, landed on September 10, 1967. 

Four to six months after Apollo 11 will follow Apollo 12. 
Selected to man the Apollo Lunar Module are Astronauts Pete 
Conrad and Alan Bean. They will set up lunar surface experi- 
ments while Command Module Pilot Richard Gordon orbits 
the moon. 

Five hours of "moonwalking"are expected from Apollo 12, 
compared to three hours in the first manned landing mission. 

In November 1967, Armstrong landed a NASA T-33 jet at 
Miramar Naval Air Station, adjacent to Ryan Electronic and 
Space Systems plant on Kearny Mesa in San Diego, and spent 
the day at Ryan. He toured the landing radar clean rooms, 
met T. Claude Ryan, and accompanied Mr. Ryan out to the Ra- 
mona Raceway where a helicopter flight test program was un- 

This was the flight evaluation of the radar altimeter and velo- 
city sensor system that has since been installed in the NASA 
Apollo Lunar Landing Training Vehicles. Armstrong climbed 
into the cockpit of the Brantley helicopter beside Ryan Chief 
Test Pilot Bill Anderson, and flew the chopper over the rock- 
hilly Ramona countryside. 

Faraway, the moon was faraway. But it never seemed closer. 


Ryan radar altimeters and velocity sensors are being con- 
sidered for pair of unmanned soft-landers set for Project 
Viking launch to Planet Mars in mid-1973. Requirement is 
similar to moon landings with Ryan radar in Surveyor 
series, and Apollo LM landings. 


NASA has called for proposals from industry on Project 
Viking, a 1973-launch dual lander of survivable scientific pack- 
ages on Mars. Two robot spacecraft will sample and study the 
Martian surface for signs of life. 

Ryan radar may assist in the landings. Techniques perfected 
in lunar landings of Surveyor and Apollo, plus knowledge 
gained in high altitude altimetry in the Saturn rocket develop- 
ment effort, give Ryan a distinct advantage over any competi- 

J. R. Iverson, vice president. Electronic and Space Systems, 
confirmed recently that his engineers have "carefully studied 
the use of our Lunar Module landing radar for a Mars soft land- 
ing, and we foresee no significant difficulties in applying it to 
planetary missions." 

Iverson directed the design of the landing radars for Sur- 
veyor and Apollo. Calculation of lunar reflectivity was a major 
part of the system design. Iverson pointed out that radar meas- 
urements from earth and the photographs taken by Mariner 
IV showed that Mars is "very much like our own moon, in terms 

of surface roughness and radar reflectivity." 

In describing the Viking mission, Dr. John E. Naugle, NASA 
associate administrator for Space Science and Applications, 
said, "After suitable reconnaissance of potential landing sites 
by the Viking orbiters, the Viking landers will be detached and 
will soft land, using the techniques developed for Surveyor 
and the Apollo Lunar Module." 

Naugle referred to the automatic closed loop control system, 
comprised of velocity sensor radar and altimeter, retro rocket 
and attitude control rockets, plus a flight control computer. 
Such a landing system operates in reference to the surface of 
the planet for maximum accuracy and deceleration control, 
rather than from distant earth control with the inherent time 
delay in command signals. 

Radar reliability will be a key to Viking success, Iverson 

"Since NASA has initiated funding for Project Viking in the 
Fiscal 1970 budget, and since mission hardware will be required 
by early 1972, there isn't time to develop and produce new radar 
systems from scratch," he said. "Fortunately, Ryan already has 
a system and a technique of proven reliability." 



Ryan's\ spectrum of r^dar applicatii^hs 
ranges\from bUmps td spacecraft. 






years lir 


|e a bridge^cort^^ctirigU string 
technology developed by Ryan 
|mpany over the past seventeen 
ift to spacecraft, rocket to satel- 
lite, moon lan^#^to planetary lander. 

Starting with boppler radar navigation equip- 
ment for blimps^ aircraft and helicopters, Ryan ^jy 
sought and won i^e contract for the Surveyor 
Janding radar in lif61. 
^/ "We recognized the similarity between con- 
- 'trolling a helicopter's descent and hover and 
the descent ^nd hover control of a spacecraft 
soft-landing in ttie moon,'' Ryan engineers say. 



'^ v^: 














'UdMw'i \: 'li 


Four unmanned robots soft- 
landed on the crusty surface of 
the moon's "Apollo belt" and 
provided information about the 
composition of the moon's flat 
lunar seas. Closing the program 
in January 1968, daring Sur- 
veyor 7 soft landed in ejected 
rubble of the highland Crater 
Tycho. Ryan radar performance 
was 100 per cent reliable. 

Surveyor led in 1964 to a con- 
tract for the landing radar for 
Apollo Lunar Module. With five 
times the accuracy, this sophis- 
ticated sensor system is con- 

tributing, in turn, to proposed 
bacteria-proof velocity sensors 
and altimeters for the two un- 
manned Project Viking soft- 
landing spacecraft slated for 
launch to Mars in mid-1973. 

Of six radar systems flown in 
space, Ryan supplied three. Be- 
sides Surveyor and LM radars, 
is the Ryan Model 520 Saturn 
High Altitude Altimeter which 
was carried down the Atlantic 
Test Range on six of the early 
Saturn Launch Vehicles. It ex- 
ceeded performance specifica- 
tions, measuring to altitudes 
beyond the required 250 miles 
to nearly 320 miles, or almost 
1.7 million feet, at an accuracy 
of 0.0006 percent. 

Ryanhassuggested the Model 
520 be used in earth-orbiting 
Earth Resouces Survey Satel- 

lites, in manned space stations, 

or in lunar-orbiting survey 

In 1963, Ryan modified its 
AN/APN-97 Doppler navigation 
system from helicopter use to 
operation on the spider-legged 
Lunar Landing Research Vehicle 
(LLRV). A three-year manned 
flight test program at Edwards 
AFB, Calif., proved the practical- 
ity of such a vehicle for simula- 
tion on earth of the "feel" of 
landing manuevers on the moon. 

The Lunar Landing Training 
Vehicle (LLTV) followed. A new 
radar system was developed to 

takeadvantageof improvements 

in electronic components since 
the APN-97. Included in the 
new radar, called the LLTV 
Flight Data System, was a flat, 
"planar array" antenna model- 
ed after the Lunar Module radar 

Additionally, from the LLTV 
radar has stemmed two new 
radar "families." Ryan's Model 
602 LLTV altimeter became the 
AN/APN-192 Altimeter and is 
currently being evaluated on 
several military helicopters and 
fixed-wing aircraft. At the same 
time, the Model 547 Doppler 
Velocity Sensor— the second 
half of the LLTV system - is pro- 
posed as a lightweight naviga- 
tor for military or civilian air 
cushion vehicles, as well as light 


Surveyor I appears inside white circle (ptioto. top left) as seen by Orbiter III cameras. Ryan landing radar 
used on the five successful Surveyor spacecraft contributed significantly to the spectacular program. 


Also offered currently are the 
AN/APN-182 Doppler Naviga- 
tion Set for ASW helicopters, 
the AN/APN-193 Doppler Velo- 
city Sensor for high performance 
aircraft, and the AN/APQ-135 
Sink Rate Radar for all types of 
aircraft. Several other radar 
systems are in prototype de- 

Another section of the 
"bridge" links the lunar landing 
radars to remote microwave 
sensors for Earth Resources. 

To substantiate electronic de- 
sign of the LM radar, a Ryan- 

patented Radar Scatterometer 
was installed in a NASA Earth 
Resources aircraft and flown 
over a variety of moon-like land 
forms. Radar reflectivity signa- 
tures were recorded and ana- 
lyzed. When compared with 
lunar reflectivity data gathered 
by the Ryan radars on Surveyor, 
signatures matched within de- 
sign tolerances of Ryan's LM 
landing radar. 

In the process, the Scattero- 
meter showed it could identify 
surface characteristics remote- 
ly. Wooded hills, arid slopes, 
fertile farm land-each dis- 
played distinctive signatures. 
Also, ocean surface conditions 
could be measured accurately. 

Ryan has now furnished NASA 
with three Scatterometers for 
sea state sensing. A recent mis- 

sion sought high seas off North- 
ern Ireland. Additionalcontracts 
for data reduction and analysis 

Recently a special study of re- 
mote sensor data correlation 
was undertaken for the En- 
vironmental Science Service Ad- 
ministration in which Ryan 
analysts established relation- 
ships between scatterometer, 
infra-red, radiometer and photo- 
graphic information. The data 
was taken over the Salton Sea 
and Imperial Valley in Southern 
California by the NASA aircraft. 

NASA's purpose is to prove 
out a family of remote sensors 
in aircraft that might be appli- 
cable to use in manned space 
stations. Ryan's Scatterometer, 
Saturn High Altitude Altimeter 
and other microwave devices 
offer great potential for these 
earth-orbiting programs. 

Also in the planning stages 
are lunar-orbiting spacecraft 
equipped with remote sensors. 
These would identify areas of 
the moon where mineral de- 
posits or interesting thermal 
discontinuities might exist. 
Manned landings and surface 
exploration would follow. 

And Ryan's "radar bridge" 
will have come full circle- 
earth, moon, earth and back to 
the moon once more. 1^1^ ^ 

Ryan ANIAPN-97 radar system designed for helicopter use, was modified in later years for application 
on NASA Lunar Landing Researcli Vehicle and its successor Lunar Landing Training Vehicle (LLTV). 


'You have to mix science 
the reasons for putting a 



with J. R. Iverson, Vice President, Ryan Electronic and Space Sys- 
tems and N. L. Olthoff, Director, Electronic and Space Systems. 

and philosophy when you talk about 
man on the moon.'. ..Iverson 

Q. Ryan's prominence in the space program is rapidly 

growing. Where did it all start? 

Iverson: Ryan has been involved in radar sensors for heli- 
copters, aircraft and spacecraft for around eighteen 
years. We perfected a Doppler navigation sensor to 
control the transition of ASW helicopters from for- 
ward flight to hover. This was a natural entry into the 
Surveyor lunar landing requirement. We competed 
for and won the contract for the Surveyor RADVS 
— radar altimeter and Doppler velocity sensor system. 
We argued a similarity between guiding and ASW 
helicopter automatically from altitude down to a 
hover, and the problem of guiding a spacecraft down 
to a hover and soft landing on the surface of the 
moon. Both maneuvers are accomplished in what is 
called an "automatic closed loop," -strictly between 
the vehicle and the surface beneath it. 

On Surveyor we had 100 per cent reliability. Our 
radar performed successfully on all seven space- 
craft in the series, and, as you know, five Surveyors 
landed successfully on the moon. 

Olthoff: In addition, we should mention our altimeter for the 
Saturn launch vehicle. Ryan's Model 520 Saturn 
Altimeter operated in space first, before any other 
space radar system. It operated as high as 310 
nautical miles over the Eastern Test Range on one of 
the six developmental missions. 

Another space-related radar system is our Flight 
Data System on the Apollo Lunar Landing Training 
Vehicles, and on its predecessor, the Lunar Landing 
Research Vehicle. These are essentially hover in- 
dicating velocity sensors, altimeters and displays. 

Iversoti: Even with this background, though, we went up 
against extensive competition to win the man-rated 
radar on the Apollo Lunar Module. 

Q. Is your space experience limited primarily to radar 

systems then? 

Olthoff: No, we actually have a diversified space product line, 
including rigid and deployable solar panels on such 
satellite and spacecraft programs as Ranger, Mariner 
Mars and Mariner Venus, Transit Navigation Satel- 
lites for the Navy, the Geos Geodetic Satellites, Ex- 
plorer B, and the DOD Gravity Experiment satellite, 
or Dodge. 

Iverson: In the structures area, I should include the engine 
chambers for the LM Descent Propulsion System. 

Q. Well, let's stick with the radars for now. How many 

types of space radars have there been? 

Olthoff There have been really only six different radars. Ryan 

Saturn altimeters were first, then the Gemini rendez- 
vous radar by Westinghouse, our Surveyor landing 
radar, the Surveyor marking altimeter by Hughes, our 
Apollo LM landing radar, and the Apollo Rendezvous 
Radar by RCA. So there have been six, and of these, 
three have been designed and produced by Ryan. 

Tension reaches its peal< at Jet Propulsion 

Laboratory where Iverson (left) shares final minutes of 

Surveyor's historic descent and soft landing on the moon. 


Q. Were there some technical hurdles that you encoun- 

tered, going from an unmanned system to a man-rated 
landing radar for Apollo? 

Iverson: Reliability requirements were certainly increased, 
and the sophistication of the LM landing radar sys- 
tem placed demands on us, to prove out individual 
parts and design improvements. 

Q. Were there any real technical problems, though? Such 

as the difficult metals, or the assembly techniques? 

Iverson: Perhaps the best way to answer that is to talk about 
people. To take on the LM program, we have had to 
upgrade the skills of our people. We have had to ad- 
vance the state-of-the-art in several areas of radar 

Our design engineers had to improve their capabil- 
ities to do math models of the radar functions to 
build the final hardware configuration with the help 
of computer programs. This involved using the com- 
puter for what is called "worst case analysis" -every 
extreme situation that the system might encounter in 
performing the mission. Thermal analysis and stress 
analysis and other studies were made on each part 
of the system. 

Also we had to develop better capabilities In our 
testing areas to move from Surveyor to man-rated 
status. Very little test equipment existed that could 
be taken off the shelf to test a radar for a manned 
landing on the moon. We had to design and build 
-and even test-ourown test equipment. Our manu- 
facturing test and environmental test facilities are 
among the finest. 

We've also participated with NASA In the flight 
test program for the LM landing radar at Holloman 
Air Force Base. 

Iverson flashes Surveyor success 

to members of Ryan team in San Diego 

after radar system passes landing test. 

Q. How was that accomplished? Was that a drop test 

like Surveyor? 

Iversoti: No, this was actual flight of the LM radar. The an- 
tenna assembly was encased in a special radome 
and mounted on the underside of an SH-3 helicopter 
and on a T-33 jet. The jet simulated the high-speed 
portion of the lunar trajectory, and the helicopter did 
the slower portion, the hover and vertical descent. 

Olthoff: In the actual lunar landings, the radar will be turned 
on for about ten minutes. But at Holloman, It has 
accumulated something like 2000 hours of operating 
time in both bench tests and actual flight hours, 
without a failure. 

I'd like to add a point on the Increased test require- 

Q. Go ahead. 

Olthoff: We subjected one of the qual test models of the 
radar to a test series In a solar thermal vacuum 
chamber. This was where we applied the "worst 
case" thermal environment to the radar. Chamber 
temperatures ranged from minus 360 degrees Fahr- 
enheit to plus 2300 degrees. Those extremes repre- 
sented the worst possible extremes of cold and heat 
the radar might encounter on the way to the moon 
and during the firing of the descent engine during 
the landing. 
You passed that test? 

Oh, yes. The thermal coatings and vacuum-deposited 
aluminum surfaces on the antenna assembly proved 
they could hold temperatures down for the internal 
electronics. We maintain a range of between 50 and 
145 degrees Fahrenheit. 

Another significant test was what we called the RF 
View Factor Test. In this we built a simulated LM 
descent stage on an outdoor vibration test stand. 
We had the descent engine skirt and the landing leg 
sticking up In the air like an inverted LM. The radar 
antenna was mounted in between and radiated into 
free space while the leg and skirt were vibrated. We 
wanted to make sure the radar could reject any false 
signals reflecting from these parts. 

Q. What were the results? 

Iverson: The problem was solved. 

Q. Was that similar to the Apollo 9 test? 

Iverson: Yes, that was the closest we could come In the earth 
environment to checking the radar for spurious sig- 
nal lock up. There isn't a vacuum chamber big 
enough to test it further. It had to be checked on 
Apollo 9. 





Q. We've been talking about reliability. What is the re- Q. 

liability figure for the LM landing radar? Olthoff: 

Olthoff: Probability of mission success is .99954. Q. 

Q. How is that arrived at, through one of your computer- 

ized math models? Olthoff: 

Olthoff: Yes. 

Q. What do you see for Ryan in the post-Apollo period? 

Iverson: In the long term, we see lunar exploration. Our land- 
ing radar system will be used in these landings, in 
the establishment of scientific bases on the moon. 
Everything that soft lands will need a landing radar. 

Also, we see our basic radar concept being utilized Q. 

in future planetary missions, such as Viking, the Olthoff: 

Mars 1973 soft landing. Several different types of 
radar appear to be required for Viking, but they are 
essentially altimeters and velocity sensors. 

Q. What's different about landing on the moon and land- 

ing on Mars? q. 

Iverson: Increased reliability requirements, chiefly. This is 
because of two aspects of the Mars mission. 

First, you can't contaminate the Martian surface 
with micro-organisms from Earth. You want to deter- Iverson: 

mine if there is life there on Mars. So the radars and 
the lander spacecraft must be sterilized. This is done 
by high temperature cycles that kill micro-organisms. 
But most conventional electronics would fail such 
temperatures. So this will call for an extremely 
sophisticated package and very high reliability parts. 
If you put your clock radio in an oven at 240 de- 
grees and left it there for 64 hours, do you think it q 
would work when you took it out? Well, the Viking 
radar electronics will have to withstand that treat- 
ment and still work properly. 

Olthoff: The other factor is the long transit time to Mars. Olthoff: 

Transit time to the moon is only 3V2 days, while the 
flight to Mars will take something like seven or eight 

So the reliability factor is even higher. 


Is sterilization really a new requirement? How about 

the Mars fly-by spacecraft, weren't they sterilized? 

No, they are not sterilized. The Mars lander will 
sample the surface in the immediate vicinity of its 
landing point. We don't want it to sense Its own bac- 

There's another interesting thing — Mars does have 
an atmosphere, 100 times less dense than Earth, it's 
figured. And it has high winds. 
How will that affect the radar? 
It shouldn't influence the radars. Microwave energy 
passes through vacuum, atmosphere or clouds. It 
doesn't make any difference. The same basic Dop- 
pler radar concepts can be applied. The atmosphere 
and winds do affect the trajectory, however. 
That brings up a question we were saving. Will there 
always be a need for a landing radar, or are there 
other practical techniques to accomplish soft land- 

Due to the long transit time, an inertial sensor will 
have accumulated errors; it wouldn't be able to 
provide the accuracy needed during final terminal 
phase to the touchdown. Radar fingers go out and 
touch the surface to make those measurements to 
control the spacecraft. For soft landings on the 
planets, a terminal descent radar of this type will be 
a necessity. 

It was reported recently that the major portion of the 
space budget has actually been plowed back into 
local economies. Would you say that is true of Ryan's 
programs as well? 

Well, certainly everything is returned in one way or 
another except the profit on the job, and even that is 
returned eventually to the economy through expense 
for plant improvement or the like. 

Our vendors are scattered across the nation. Some 
are local, but others are all over the country. The na- 
tion's economy has gained greatly by the very fact of 
the space program. 

Test model LM landing radar system being examined by Olthoff 
has completed "worst case" thermal environment. 

Olthoff belives public support of Apollo 
program is mounting. 





Q. Then there is a yield realized in spin-off technologies 

or products? 

Iversori: People question the merit of tlie space program. My 
belief is that the dollars spent on space are returned 
to the technology of the country. Both civilian and 
military programs have benefited. 

As an example, in our ow/n case, we developed the 
concept of CW Doppler for helicopters and applied 
it to the Surveyor spacecraft guidance. In developing 
the Surveyor radars and even more so in developing 
the Apollo landing radar, we have developed new 
circuits, new assembly techniques and new design 
and packaging concepts. The state-of-the-art in 
space electronics has been advanced by the force 
of space systems. 

Olthoff: Take that one step further. Look how we are using 
one of our space technology spin-off products, the 
Radar Scatterometer. We built it first to measure 
radar reflectivity from an aircraft for the NASA Lunar 
Landing Program. It flew over craters and deserts 
to establish a reference for comparison with Sur- 
veyor landing radar reflectivity measurements. 

This device is paying off directly into all areas- 
farmers, fishermen, meteorologists, shippers. NASA 
is starting airborne survey flights using two of our 
Scatterometers and is getting amazing results. 

The next step will be going into space with remote 
sensors spacecraft. The result will be untold bene- 
fits to mankind. 

Q. What do you see as the motivation behind this push 

for space exploration and exploitation? Do you take 
a scientific or philosophical point of view? 

Olthoff: Well, I take the scientific point of view. I believe we 
can gain real benefits. The real benefit is scientific 
advancement. Going to the moon and on to the 
planets-these are the greatest things that man has 
ever attempted. Exploring space-man has been 
dreaming about doing this for years. 

-Now I'm getting philosophical. I guess it would 
be best to say that we advance mankind through 
scientific achievement. Science advances, mankind 

iverson: You have to mix science and philosophy when you 
talk about the reasons for putting a man on the moon. 

Q. How do you evaluate the general press capability in 

reporting space? Does the press come up to your ex- 

Iverson: Yes, I think they are doing a good job. The trade 
press, in particular. 

Q. What we're really referring to Is this so-called tax- 

payer revolt, where according to a recent poll 49 per 
cent of the people are in favor of landing a man on the 
moon, and 51 per cent are opposed. Doesn't that indi- 
cate success hasn't been achieved yet with the mass 

Olthoff: I don't know. Three years ago, perhaps the space 
program was in a less favorable position than that. 
I imagine the ratio is coming up. 

Iverson: Interest in the space program sagged between 
Gemini and Apollo. And of course the tragic fire was 
very detrimental to public support. 

I remember vividly, on Surveyor 1 , the press of the 
world was there at the Jet Propulsion Lab in Pasa- 
dena. But the next shots, hardly anyone was there 
but the technical press. 

Apollo is going very well now, and I am positive 
interest is gaining. 

"/ feel deeply involved," Iverson says. 

"This Apollo program represents the 

greatest achievement of all mankind, 

the greatest adventure. I'm personally 

dedicated to the space effort and to our 

company's contribution to it." 








How many people has Ryan employed in its Apollo 

We are past the peak of our production schedule. At 
the peak however, we had about 350 people charged 
directly to the program. And then there is a sizable 
number associated with the effort indirectly. 
We've talked a lot about the LM Landing Radar. What 
does it actually do in the moon landing? 
Well, the radar is used in the most critical part of the 
landing maneuver. During most of the powered des- 
cent phase, the LM is in a horizontal attitude and 
then gradually changes to a vertical attitude. This 
requires the radar antenna to be able to shift from 
what is called Antenna Position 1 to Antenna Posi- 
tion 2. We actually pick up the surface of the moon 
at about 35,000 feet with the altimeter and get full 
lock on the surface with all three velocity sensor 
beams at about 1 8,000 feet. 

As the trajectory curves more and more, the space- 
craft attitude changes with respect to the moon's 
surface until at about 8-9,000 feet the antenna tilts 
to Antenna Position 2. This keeps the beams at the 
lunar vertical. 

Then at something like 200 feet, the astronauts 
approach a hover. The landing radar has been helping 
them all this time, with measurements of altitude and 
the three components of velocity. Now they look out 
to see if the surface is adequate for the landing. If it 
is not, they can actually translate to a better site. 

In the final vertical descent, they use the radar to 
indicate true altitude and altitude rate, or descent 

What happens if the radar doesn't work? 
At higher altitudes, if they were getting "radar un- 
reliable" indications on their control displays, they 
would abort the landing. At the lower altitudes, 
though, if the radar should suddenly fail or "drop 
out," the astronauts would probably be able to land 
the spacecraft using manual controls. 
Could they land without the radar then? 
No, they couldn't land. If, for instance, they were in 
lunar orbit and the radar self test indicated the radar 
wasn't working properly, they would probably abort 
and come home. NASA knows the best answer to 
that contingency, however. 

Is there a back-up to the landing radar on the LM? 
There is no actual backup to the landing radar. How- 
ever the radar outputs are utilized by the guidance 
computer to update velocity information supplied 
by an inertial system. Without the landing radar, the 
inertial system could not supply sufficiently accurate 

We'd like to go back to a technical point. Understand- 
ably there has been a reduction in weight and size 
from the Surveyor landing radar to the Apollo. But 
what features or components are we really talking 





Olthoff and C.J. Badewitz, Director of Engineering at Ryan Electronics, tour astronaut Neil 
Armstrong at San Diego plant, during early phases of system's design and test program. 

about, and what do you see in the next generation of 
of microwave electronics? 

IversoH: The biggest change in the systems was in the anten- 
na types. Surveyor used two parabolic dish antennas 
based on our design for the AN/APN-130 Doppler 
that was in production at that time. The Surveyor an- 
tennas were made of aluminum honeycomb. Then 
there was a separate "black box" for the klystron 
power supply modulator and another for the signal 
data converter. Surveyor was like a skeleton — you 
could sort of hang things on it. 

With the Apollo Landing Radar, though, we've 
gone to a planar array type antenna, with slotted 
waveguides. We've interlaced the altitude and 
velocity transmitters and mounted the receiver 
arrays as broadside antennas. It makes an antenna 

The LM landing radar has a new microwave de- 
tector, new solid state transmitter. The SSX, in fact, 
eliminated the need for the high voltage power sup- 
ply which was a big weight factor with Surveyor. 
Also, we've used many integrated circuits in the LM 
radar which weren't available when we designed 

Using stripline in the antenna elements will be next, 
for the next generation. Hybrid microcircuits, phased 
array electronically steerable antenna systems. 
Got time for one more? 

How do you feel, personally, about your own involve- 
ment in the space program? 

You're looking for a serious answer, I'll give you one. 
I feel deeply involved, both through the Ryan com- 
pany activities and directly in the nation's space 
activities. I really get excited seeing a launch at Cape 
Kennedy, or even listening to the radio and hearing 
the Apollo 9 astronauts voices as they achieved 
rendezvous. This Apollo program represents the 
greatest achievement of all mankind, the greatest 
adventure. I'm personally dedicated to the space 
effort and to our company's contribution to it. 

Olthoff: I've heard it said thatanyone who works on the space 
program works enough extra hours, puts enough of 
himself into the task, that it is likely to take five years 
off his life. Time hasn't really shown that, yet. The 
space program itself is only ten years old. But it 
points to the sort of personal involvement that is 
demanded by this work to assure success, ^b^ ^ 








The LM team 

Around long conference tables, beside buttoned and wired test consoles, in the presence of the thermally blanketed Lunar 
t\Aodule moonship itself- thousands of men and women have worked together to prepare for the day when two men try for 
the first manned landing on the moon. At Ryan Electronic and Space Systems, managers and engineers are joined by rep- 
resentatives of RCA, Grumman, NASA and MIT to perfect and produce the man-rated Apollo Lunar landing radar system. 


•L LUXENBERG has a look of North Brittany 
about him-of lobster pots and chilled sea winds, of bulky- 
weaved sweaters and sturdy shoes. 

His voice carries the long "a's" of upstate New York, though. 
The character in his face and stance belong to some past time, 
generations ago. 

For A! Luxenberg is a Ryan man standing today in the shadow 
of Apollo. 

On the 29th level of the huge Vehicle Assembly Building 
(VAB) at NASA's Cape Kennedy Space Center, Luxenberg and 
fellow field support engineer Don Campbell work with the 
special Ryan ground support equipment used for pre-launch 
check-out of the Ryan Apollo Lunar Module Landing Radar. 
They are the last to see it go. 

Final readiness complete, Luxenberg punches "power off" 
and murmurs, "Kiss you goodbye, P-46," and cradles his ear- 
phones across the nape of his neck. 

A short while later, the massive VAB doors rattle open and a 
complete Apollo stack-a Saturn 5 rocket capped with Com- 
mand Module, Service Module and Lunar Module— inches into 
the Florida sunlight. 

Thirty-six stories tall, it casts a long shadow. 

Across the country, thousands of other men and women, 
engineers and technicians, accountants and administrators 
have their own special thoughts as they send the Lunar Module 
— their "Lem" — to the moon. 



J. R Iverson. Vice President. 
Electronic and Space Systems 
Ned L Olthoff. Director. E&SS Programs 
Charles J Badewitz. Director. Engineering 

E Bruce Clapp. 

LM Landing Radar Program Manager 

Lee S Reel. Senior Project Engineer 

Joe Ramos. Electronic Assembly Group Engineer 

Jack Dunnaway. 

Antenna Assembly Group Engineer 

George Warr, 

Engineering Test Group Engineer 

John Preston. 

Environmental Laboratory Group Engineer 

Don Hurst. Contracts Administration Chief 

Don Skinner, Procurement Chief 

Don Callard. Project Administrator 

Jack Drake, 

Engineering Drafting Group Engineer 

Mel Thompson. Configuration Control Chief 

Harry Frankland, 

Product Design Group Engineer 

Vern Poehls. 

Systems Analysis Group Engineer 

Steve Chubbic. Reliability Engineer 

Mary Jane Hyde. 

Quality Assurance Engineer 

Don McOmie. 

Product Test General Supervisor 

Gloria Dorius, Inspection Supervisor 

Gene Elwell. Manufacturing Supervisor 

Bill Parish, Manufacturing Supervisor 

Al Froehlich, 

Manufacturing Control Coordinator 

Gil Oliver, Master Scheduler 

Red Lawrence. 

Production Control Supervisor 

Ozzie Nelson, Machine Shop Supervisor 

L. S. Kruse. 

Manufacturing Assembly Superviser 

The LM Team— professional people standing at the point where science and spirit intersect. 

For one part of the LM team, the success of the Lunar Module 
will be a special triumph. 

These are the men who specialize in radar. They have come 
from Ryan and RCA, from Grumman and the Massachussetts 
Institute of Technology, from NASA Headquarters and NASA 
Manned Spacecraft Center. They've had a passion for things 
like the electromagnetic properties of the moon, for the high 
accuracies possible with Doppler effect radar, for the ability 
of microwave energy to penetrate the descent engine plume 
in the vacuum of space. 

They have talked about environmental testing for an en- 
vironment that no man has ever experienced. They've built a 
radar to operate above the moon and then configured it for 
flight test over the deserts of New Mexico. And they've spun 
it and shook it, soaked it and baked it. They've loved it and 
hated it. 

Through it all, company identities have almost blended. 

At the Cape, Luxenberg and Campbell are joined on oc- 
casion by Ed Van Horn, a product support engineer specializ- 
ing on the radar, and by Ed Mace, a senior engineer specializ- 
ing on the Bench Test Console. They work alongside RCA 
radar engineers who support the RCA LM rendezvous radar. 

Grumman engineers direct the team effort. Joe Ram is radar 
lead engineer; Bob Brown is responsible for ground support 
equipment. Other Grumman men draw lead engineer assign- 
ments for each Lunar Module: Paul Payette, LM-3, Apollo 9; 
Ray Priest, LM-4.Apollo 10;andRobertSullivan, LM-5, Apollo 11. 

At Grumman's huge Bethpage, Long Island, plant, Ryan 
Field Engineer Bob DeMay troubleshoots newly delivered LM 
landing radars, assisting in bench check-out, installation, in- 
tegration tests, and systems tests. Ryan-built Bench Test Con- 
soles are in service at Grumman also. 

Radiating free energy to the sky, tlie LM landing radar is tested for its 
ability to reject reflections from the vibrating skirt of the descent en- 
gine and from the long-toed landing leg. The tests were successful. 

Cy Schwartz, senior test engineer, monitors a data receiving 
station in Building 45, Apollo Mission Control, at the Houston 
Manned Spacecraft Center during the Apollo missions. Bruce 
Clapp, program manager, and Lee Reel, senior projectengineer, 
join him. RCA, Grumman, MITand NASA radarmen fill theroom. 

Flight test and landing trajectory analysis are other key areas 
of teamwork. 

Mounted in a special radome pod, the landing radar antenna 
was installed on the underside of a NASA SH-3A helicopter, 
then later a NASA T-33 jet trainer, for a year-long series of tests 
code-named Project Pearl in which a variety of lunar landing 
trajectories were flown. Lava beds north of Holloman AFB, 
New Mexico, served as the lunar landscape. Data was analyzed 
at Stallion Site by NASA and TRW contract computer men while 
Lockheed maintenance engineers kept the aircraft flying. 

Ryan Field Engineer Joe Wahnish, who was a lumberjack 
less than a decade ago, supported the radar and test equip- 
ment. Ryan Systems Analysts Bob Harrington, Vern Poehls 
and Don DeLong were called on from time to time to assist 
with interpretation of the radar data, which had to be mated 
with theodolite film records and various software programs. 

Final reports, completed recently, divide results into low 
velocity/low altitude, low and high velocity/mid altitude, and 
high velocity/high altitude. General summation: "Based on 
the analysis. ..the radar gives every indication of being capable 
of providing accurate, reliable velocity and range data for... 
vehicle control in lunar landing missions." 

In San Diego, daily contact carries Ryan, RCA, and Grum- 
man engineers and administrators through the tasks of manu- 
facture, test, acceptance and shipment of LM radar systems. 

Grumman's resident team is composed of Ray Madrazo and 
Lloyd Huffstutter, while representing RCA are Gil Whalen, 
Gene Wilford, Bill Aitken and Jack Barkow. 

In the background are the Government's DCAS men, Neale 
Bailey and Walter Gray. 

The LM Team — professional men standing at the point where 
science and spirit intersect. 



(Editor's note: The following is an excerpt 

from an address presented by 

Frank Card Jameson. Executive Vice 

President -Programs and Engineering. 

Ryan Aeronautical Company, on March 17. 

1 969 before the San Diego County 

Women's Council. Navy League of the 

United States). 


Is America fatally infected? Are the riots, 
the campus revolts, the anarchy, transient things that will 
pass, or is this a fatal disease, now entering into the terminal 

These are the questions that many are seeking answers to. 

There is no doubt that the growing phenomenon of vio- 
lence is affecting the United States and threatening social 
order. Public faith has been shaken in some of our basic 

Part of the madness we are surrounded with today is the 
direct result of our American way of life, but most of it is 

Some of America's instabilities flow from our virtues. 
America is the world's most open society, most socially 
fluid and the most ethnically diverse. These virtues do not 
necessarily lend themselves to stability. They do give us 
strength, vitality and progress-along with tensions and 

We are the most technically advanced and changing 
society in the world today. Millions have been divorced from 
the stable farm life by new machines. Millions more were 
displaced as automated equipment replaced muscle. Added 
to this is the invention of television and the impact it has had 
on our society. 

Yet today's violence and anarchy are not uniquely Ameri- 
can. The list of cities hit hard by students, workers and others 
is worldwide: Calcutta, Berkeley, New Delhi, Watts, Columbia 
University, the Sorbonne, Prague, Peiping, Stockholm, West 
Berlin and Madrid are but a few. In this assortment of na- 
tions are Capitalists, Communists, Socialists and Fascists, 
Asians and Europeans. 

Each place has its own provocations and specific issues. 
There are no common traits of economics, politics or ideol- 

This means the instability cannot be understood in these 
terms, analysis of contagious violence by issue seems fruit- 
less; yet there are common denominators running through 
the madness. They are massive and widespread, they in- 
volve social and technological change. There has been mass 
saturation and exposure to the communications media and 
basic changes in old ideas about interpersonal relations. 

Look at the infections as a whole; all link to change. Knowl- 
edge used to double every 2,000 years, now it's probably 10. 
For good or ill, knowledge enriches and disturbs, produces 
and uproots. Take a basic invention that required 10 lab 
years to develop. If it affects human behavior, adjustment 
simply cannot keep pace. 

Society has developed a case of galloping "future shock". 
The bomb, the pill, the computer, the satellite, the trans- 
plant; the oldest of these is a generation, others came within 

the year, and all have shaken behavior patterns, old ideals- 

Think what these have done to the familiar patterns of life, 
the ideal of God, the importance of history, the role of educa- 
tion, sexual relationships, distinction between the sexes, the 
family. For 10,000 years, human life was organized around 
job and family. Both are now struggling to survive a headlong 
rush to the future. 

Take today's "secure" job; it may not outlive tomorrow. It 
may be the victim of the twin invaders, technology and 
"systems". The lifetime profession is also becoming a new 
kind of rat race with too much that is new for any profes- 
sional to keep up with properly. 

Yesterday, fairly precise ideas about these questions ex- 
isted. Today there is no similar precision, no concensus to 
be found; in fact, new answers are not yet available, some 
questions are unasked. What can the old social mores mean 
against these hammer blows? 

It is just this that disturbs so many: the fury of the anarchy, 
the irrational hatred of the values the society used to live 
by, an indifference to all history and what it means to any 

The United States has seen some of such rejections in 
earlier decades. But the reaction never struck so hard at the 
accepted values. It's this anti-morality that stumps society's 
defenders the most. 

Add to this the massive perfection of modern communica- 
tion, which "involves" television viewers, in all that happens, 
but provides no compensating way for the viewer to do some- 
thing. Recall just the sheer horror of both Kennedy murder 
film clips to appreciate what involvement without participa- 
tion can create. 

Put it all together and it makes for a grim picture indeed. 
A culture in dissolution, the new one still trying to be born. 
And, no glimmer of an answer to the urgent questions, "How 

Thus, I return to the original question that I asked at the 
beginning of my speech, "Is America fatally infected?" Is it 
therefore time to write the sad prognosis, "Incurable"? Is the 
United States society another Rome, falling prey to its own 
affluence, a rotting culture with the barbarians waiting for 
the carcass? 

I say NO, I believe it is time to re-examine America's vir- 
tues rather than its vices. We have a right to demand that 
our society be measured by its achievements, not by its 

We must cast off the most massive guilt complex in history 
and think positively and urgently about solutions to the 
nation's problems that beset all of us. 

Individual responsibility and self-reliance, guided by sound 


moral judgment and strict adherence to the law, remains 
the cornerstone to America's greatness in the years to come. 

I have no apologies to make for my country or for my 

Never before in history nor in any other land have people 
accomplished so much, given so much and asked so little. 

Four times in one lifetime we have involved ourselves in 
foreign wars. We have poured the flower of our manhood and 
the fortunes of our citizens into these battles against aggres- 
sion, injustice and tyranny. 

We have never coveted a single acre of land nor sought to 
add a dollar to our national wealth. 

Quite the contrary. We have used our material strength 
and financial fortunes to bind the wounds of the vanquished 
and we have given aid and sustenance to the impoverished 
In a hundred nations around the world. Friend and foe alike. 
In fact, since World War II we have spent over $125 billion 
dollars in foreign aid. 

We have battled, too, for progress and betterment on the 
home front. 

In one generation we have conquered or controlled dip- 
theria, smallpox, typhoid, polio, measles, tuberculosis and 
pneumonia. No longer do these ancient scourges sweep 
across our land leaving death and tortured limbs and minds 
and hearts in their wake. 4S 122 

We have built more schools and colleges and hospitals 
and libraries than all other generations since the beginning 
of time. 

We have trained and graduated more scientists, doctors, 
surgeons, dentists, lawyers, teachers, engineers and physi- 
cists than did our forbearers for a thousand years before. 

We have done more to bring dignity and equality and op- 
portunity to all minority groups than any other generation 
has ever done in any nation since the dawn of history. 

We have raised our standards of living and lowered our 
hours of work. Luxuries that were beyond the dreams of 
princes and potentates a generation ago are now available 
to all our people. 

The automobile, the radio, the telephone, the airplane, the 
computer, television, antibiotics and a hundred other mira- 
cles have come to full flower in one generation. 

We have taxed ourselves unmercifully to bring hope and 
health to our sick, our indigent, our young and our aged. 

Each year our personal gifts to private charities exceed 14 
billion dollars. 

Don't let anyone sell you the idea that ours is a sick 
society. It's far from perfect, but it is also far and away the 
most enlightened, most unselfish, most compassionate in 
the history of the world. 

Let those apostles of despair who preach hate and dis- 
order and discord take a look in their own mirrors. 

Let them ask themselves what they have done and what 
they are doing for the betterment of their loved ones . . . their 
nation and the world. 

I know what our generation has done. I'll stand on our 
record. We may not have scored as high as we hoped. But 
we scored higher than ever before. 

And -the end is not yet. 

There is still work to be done. There are still challenges to 
be met. There are still hopes to be realized. There are still 
goals to be attained. 

They'll not be attained by the preachers and teachers of 
despair. They'll not be attained by sniffing flowers or staging 
love-ins or hate-ins. 

They'll be attained by the unsung heroes of every genera- 
tion. The workers who can dream. And the doers who can 
hope. They'll be attained by the men and women whocherish 
our nation's glorious past... who hold their heads and hearts 
high... the men and women who have faith in our way of 
life; men and women who believe in a better and brighter 
tomorrow and are willing to work to that end. 

Those that think the American people can be cowed and 
our system of political representation wrecked, are likely to 
be disappointed. True, it is a unique system and we are 
scarcely entitled to blame any nation for not having one like 
ours. It concerns the citizens deeply only on a limited num- 
ber of occasions... mostly when the president is to be 
elected. The electoral process is accomplished by unneces- 
sary amounts of ritual ballyhoo, but when the final returns 
are in, it is amazingly accurate in the picture it provides of 
the people's mood. 

I hope by now that you are asking yourselves what can we 
do individually and as a great nation about all of this. 

There are a number of important steps that we must take. 

First, we must stiffen our backbones, thrust out our chins 
and crush out our national guilt complex. 

Second, we must reject the idea that there is something 
outmoded about law and order, codes of ethics and moral 
behavior and the willingness to exercise individual respon- 

Third, we must act to strengthen family ties and respon- 
sibility. A general relapse of parental authority and the family 
role as the center of daily life is as tragic for the rebellious 
college student as it is for the ghetto dweller. 

Fourth, we must bring America back to work. It does not 
make sense to know that there are thousands upon thou- 
sands of people receiving public assistance for their living 
needs right here in San Diego, while thousands of jobs go 
begging. It is time to clear off those relief roles. ..not brutally 
or ruthlessly but methodically and compassionately in a 
manner that restores dignity and self-respect and at the 
same time gives a little relief to the rest of us. If job training 
or re-training is required it should be made possible, but 
above all we must correct the frame of mind that finds it 
easier to accept a handout than to go to work. Employable 
people should be employed because people working are 
people rewarded and people rewarded are proud people. 

Fifth, we must begin to exercise business power as an 
antidote to black power and student power or government 
power. Business and professional men must act instead of 
react and seek solutions for all these problems that our 
government has tried for a very long time to solve without 
very marked success. We must learn to anticipate the 
changes that lie ahead. We must clean up our air and water, 
must find and carry out programs to train the unemployable 
and eliminate the ghettos. We must exert moral leadership 
that takes the ball away from the extremist and disciples of 
violence, and restore faith in our society. 

Sixth, we must stop the ever increasing influence of gov- 
ernment. Civilian employment in the federal government is 
now well over 3,000,000 people. The federal government is 
spending at a rate of $335,012.21 a minute, or approximately 
$20,000,000 an hour every hour of the day, seven days a 

Let us stop apologizing for the success of free enterprise, 
but instead work at spreading and sharing those successes. 

Let us stop apologizing for America's wealth and power. 
Instead let's use it agressively to attack those problems that 
threaten to explode the world. ^^" ^ 




A remote control system developed 
by Ryan for use in land mine-sweep- 
ing operations by the Army has been 
successfully demonstrated in prelim- 
inary tests completed in San Diego 
in early April. 

The truck-mounted system iscontrol- 
led by a remote-control operator fol- 
lowing behind the mine-detector. 

Four standard Army truck-mounted 
mine detecting sets, modified as 
remote-controlled prototypes by Ryan 
under contract to the U.S. Army Mo- 
bility Equipment Command's Re- 
search and DevelopmentCenter, were 
to enter operational evaluation follow- 
ing conclusion of the initial contrac- 
tor road tests. 

Operation of the mine-detector, 
mounted on front of the vehicle, is 
also controlled by the operator who 
would follow on foot or in another 
vehicle behind the minesweeper. 


Sea-launched Firebees have gone in- 
to operational use on the Pacific 
Missile Range following nearly a year 
of developmental tests at Pt. Mugu, 
Calif., and the Atlantic Fleet Weapons 
Range at Puerto Rico. 
Standard Aviation Rescue Boats 
(AVR) modified with remote-control 
systems, are used for the Firebee 
launch platform. The 63-foot boats 
are controlled during launch opera- 
tions from a point on land. 
Standard ground launch rail systems 
are mounted on the boat from which 
the Firebee is commanded to launch. 
The new capability was developed 
for surface-to-surface defense readi- 
ness tests. It adds a third dimension 
to Firebee launch capabilities which 
now include ground, air and sea 
launch operations. 
As inallFirebeeoperations, the target 
is recovered by use of an automatic, 
on-board two-stage parachute sys- 
tem. Capable of retrieval from land or 
water surfaces, the Firebees are re- 
furbished for replacement to the 
flight inventory following missions. 


Navy-conducted test and evaluation 
flights of Ryan's advanced, super- 
sonic Fireebee II are underway at the 
Naval Missile Center following com- 
pletion of the contractor develop- 
mental flight test program. 
Navy ships and aircraft are to con- 
duct tracking exercises with the new, 
1,000 mile-per-hour aerial target sys- 
tem to confirm its radar charac- 
teristics and evaluate various target 
mission performances. 
For the first time, an all-Navy crew 
hasassumed responsibility foropera- 
tion of the highly sophisticated super- 
sonic target. Personnel proficiency is 
being developed in remote control 
operation, recovery, retrieval and re- 
furbishment of the Firebee II. Ryan 
is continuing its technical and engi- 
neering support program during the 
Navy test and evaluation phase. 


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This is it, the pay-off. The final seven minutes in man's 
first moon landing. The last seven minutes before touch- 
dovyn in which the Apollo astronauts must slow their moon- 
ward race, accurately trace their descent trajectory, bring 
their Lunar Module to a radar-controlled hover above the 
landing site, and softly touchdown. Calling out the signals 
for them in these seven minutes is Ryan's Landing Radar 
System. Pay-off for Apollo, this is the pay-off for Ryan's ten 

years of innovation in space radar technology — starting 
with Ryan's high altitude altimeter for the Saturn launch 
vehicle, and continuing with five successful Surveyor moon 
landings. Selected by the NASA-Grumman-RCA team for the 
Apollo program. Ryan — and the skills of its people — will 
be ready to contribute new technological achievements as 
our nation expands its quests, to Project Viking (Mars '73). 
and ever deeper into space. 




R V A N 

R Y A N 


Volume 30, No. 3 
October 1969 




The Navy's "Black Knights" recovery team gave the 
mission of Apollo II its finishing touches, adding a 
new jewel of distinction to a crown already studded 
with achievement. 


Come along with author Bob Battenfield as he rides 
with astronauts Armstrong and Aldrin down to the 
lunar surface in their Apollo Lunar Module, a trip that 
opened a new era. 


NASA's spider-like contraption is the nearest thing 
astronauts can find here on earth to rehearse actual 
moon landings. It orients Lunar Module pilots to 
gravity conditions on the moon. 

The miraculous achievements of modern-day in- 
dustry are largely due to the introduction of computer- 
ization. Elwood Day tells how Ryan employs this 
technology today and what's over the horizon. 


That's the affectionate nickname attached to Wallace 
Air Station in the Philippine Islands, home base for 
Ryan's Firebee field support team now observing its 
first anniversary abroad. 


Japanese naval ingenuity now turns to the technology 
of targetry and from the drawing boards comes a new 
ship with a new mission; the only one of its kind. 


Meet Ryan's top management team. 


Navy photographer Milt Putnam's color shot of a prac- 
tice mission keyed to the recovery of Apollo 11 astro- 
nauts exemplifies the ingredient most essential to 
success. Practice gave perfection to actual recovery. 

Robert B. Morrisey/ Public Relations-Communications 

Jack G. Broward /Managing Editor 

Robert A. Weissinger/ Staff Photographer 

Robert Watts /Staff Artist 


Robert P. Battenfield /Electronic & Space Systems 

Charles H. Ogilvie/ Aerospace Systems 


Thursday. July 24. 1969 ■ 0230; Reveille ■ 0375; Pre-mission briefing ■ 0400: Preflight and man aircraft ■ 0430: Launch aircraft: assume positions for. 


By Jack G. Broward 

U.S. Navy Photos by Milt Putnam, PH2 



g?;;- ■^■.T • - _^^tal[i.>^ ^mHMi 



Not until astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, Edwin E. Aldrin, Jr., 
and Michael Collins were safely aboard the U.S.S. Hornet on 
Thursday morning, July 24, 1969, could the closing chapter 
be added to the lunar odyssey of Apollo 11. 

Nor could Navy Commander Donald S. Jones, pilot of the 
prime recovery helicopter, feel the warm glow of satisfaction 
that follows a critically important mission. 

Twice before in eight months, the Navy's elite "Black 
Knights" had been tasked with the recovery of Apollo astro- 
nauts from splashdown areas in the Pacific. 

Now, on this grey, overcast morning of July 24, Jones would 
lead his recovery team ononeof history's most widely heralded 
helicopter missions. 

It's successful completion would help open a new era for 
all mankind. 

Nearly a month before, on June 27, eight Helicopter Anti- 
submarine Warfare Squadron Four, SH3D "Sea King " helicop- 
ters, 16 pilots and 130 enlisted men boarded the U.S.S. Hornet 
at San Diego. Its deployment left the balance of HS-4 at the 
Naval Air Station, Imperial Beach, California, to fulfill Pacific 
Fleet ASW requirements. 

"We made a special effort to apprise squadron personnel 
of the Apollo program and how HS-4 fit into the picture. 
Splitting us in half imposed additional work loads on many of 
our personnel because each of the two contingents had to 
operate as a complete squadron, " comments Jones, skipper 
of the "'Black Knights " since late 1968. 

Split-mission assignments for Jones' unit, charged pri- 
marily with fleet antisubmarine warfare responsibilities, had 
come with the recovery of Apollo 8 and 10 astronauts. The con- 
ditioning process essential to the successful outcome in 
Apollo 11 was already in effect as rehearsals for the recovery 
began in San Diego Bay in early June. 

Twenty-five full-scale simulations of the actual recovery 
had been completed by Jones' team before the re-entry on 
July 24 of Apollo 11 astronauts. Aboard helicopter number 
66 — used in the recovery of Apollo 8 and 10 astronauts — was 
Jones at the controls, Lieutenant (junior grade) Bruce John- 
son and two aircrewmen, Chief Petty Officers Norvel Wood 
and Stanley Robnett. A NASA doctor and a UDT-11 swimmer 
were also aboard, the swimmer to be deployed and the doctor 
there for contingency requirements. 

Four HS-4 aircraft were included in the recovery flight: two 
swimmer, a prime recovery and a photo aircraft. 

Clocklike precision followed the splashdown. The first 
swimmer helicopter executed a flight pattern which brought 
it within feet of the command module to deploy the first frog- 
man. His task was to attach a sea anchor to the capsule which 
reduced its drift. A second pass was executed to deploy two 
more swimmers who installed and inflated the spacecraft's 
flotation collar. Life rafts were dropped during a third pass 
along with decontamination swimmers. 

In his first pass over the Columbia, Jones dropped his Bio- 
logical Isolation Garments (BIGs) which the astronauts changed 

Command module Columbia bobs in Pacific under watchful eye of 
HS-4 recovery team helicopter and USS Hornet in concluding phase 
of Apollo 11 mission. Rescue seat (below) was developed by HS-4 
"Black Knights" and was used in lifting astronauts from capsule. 
President Nixon witnessed epic event from bridge of Hornet as 
CDR Donald Jones flew helicopter (below right) in to recover 
astronauts Armstrong, Aldrin and Collins on Thursday. July 24, 1969. 


into before leaving the Columbia. They were lifted Into Jones' 
helicopter during successive passes over the recovery site. 

The balance of HS-4's mission involved lifting the astronauts 
aboard the Hornet where President Nixon watched — along 
with television viewers throughout the world — as Armstrong, 
Aldrin and Collins stepped from their helicopter and walked 
across a chemically-treated carpet to their isolation chamber. 

At that moment, the concept of sending men to the moon 
and bringing them safely back to earth had been proved. A 
national goal established nine years before had been achieved. 

In this achievement, Apollo 11 serves today as an inspiring 
testimonial to the accomplishments of man. As the accom- 
plishments of Apollo 1 1 unfolded, as each phase of the mission 
is examined to determine its value for future applications, the 
focal point of attention is directed toward the elements most 
vital to the mission's success. 

Assuredly, one of these elements will be the spirit of team- 
work that characterized the role filled by Commander Jones' 
"Black Knights." 

"Our job in the overall operation was very small when one 
examines the total mission. But, it was very important," he 

"We feel very proud and honored to have been selected to 
take part in this historic event and also for the association we 
had with all those who worked together to make this mission 
a complete success," noted Jones. 

Accustomed to all-weather, night operations as part of its 
antisubmarine warfare procedures, Jones' units were pre- 
pared to make the recovery under a broad variety of adverse 

Should a darkness operation have been required, the SH3D 
"Sea King" helicopters would call upon Ryan Doppler equip- 
ment, the AN/APN-130 to provide for hands-off hovering 
operations involved in ASW, or rescue procedures. In addition 
to its use for automatic approaches and automatic hovering, 
the Ryan Doppler system includes a navigation component 
that serves as a backup for the aircraft's radio instrument aids. 



■ **. -'5^" 


^^ ptim ty 

— ^ 




Lunar odyssey of Apollo 1 1 ends as astronauts arrive 
aboard USS Hornet to begin isolation period. HS-4 
skipper credits success of mission assigned "Black 
Knights" to support personnel like those below 
checking engine of SH3D "Sea King." CDR Jones 
(below right) briefs helicopter pilots aboard 
USS Hornet before recovery. 

'■{zr. K 

Ryan is engaged today in the development of a third-genera- 
tion Doppler radar navigation system, the AN/APN-182, de- 
signed to replace existing systems with solid-state circuitry 
and advanced design components. 

Ryan's first-generation Doppler radar system, the AN/APN- 
97, was introduced in helicopters more than 15 years ago for 
early-day ASW operations at night and in all-weather cir- 

It is this system which aided the refinement by the Navy of 
its ASW operational capabilities in addition to open-sea rescue 

And from system component design came the Ryan landing 
radar used so successfully in soft-landing five Surveyor space- 
craft on the moon, paving the way for Apollo's manned-lunar 

Jones evaluates the SH3D helicopter and its operational 
systems by comparing it today with helicopters he flew in 

"Thanks to refinements only dreamed of a few years back, 
we now have a helicopter that is capable of around-the-clock 
operations in all kinds of weather. Excellent instruments, fine 
stabilization gear and the coupler-Doppler system make the 
SH-3D an excellent platform for both ASW and rescue opera- 

His emphasis on the quality of equipment is overshadowed 
by praise for personnel of his command. Asserts Jones, "The 
real credit goes to those who keep our helicopters flying. 

They're the most talented and resourceful group of enlisted 
men I've ever worked with in the Navy. 

"They're all professionals. And like professionals, they take 
pride in the tasks assigned to them. You take something as 
complex as the Apollo 11 mission, for example. Plan it down, 
months in advance, to the precise seconds within each of its 
hundreds of evolutions and phases. 

"Bringing it all out on the button is really beyond the com- 
prehension of man," states Jones. 

Scheduled for deployment to Southeast Asia with the 7th 
Fleet shortly, HS-4 will be returning to an area where it won 
earlier distinctions as the Navy ASW helicopter squadron 
achieving the highest number of aircrew rescues in waters 
off Vietnam. During its 1966 deployment, the 'Black Knights" 
plucked 24 downed airmen from hostile waters. 

Over its years of commissioned service, the squadron has 
held title to every major award in the helicopter service for 
operational safety, battle readiness and other fleet competi- 
tion. It holds the distinction of being the first ASW helicopter 
squadron in the Pacific Fleet to achieve all-weather, day- 
night operational flight capabilities. 

As it takes up station operating aboard the USS Benning- 
ton this year in the Western Pacific, HS-4 will be wearing a 
new badge of distinction, one that went into the record books 
of immortality: 

A supporting role in the most historic achievement by man 
since his creation. ^^b ^ 








' «-*^»l>.V.- 




"Houston, Tranquility Base liere.. 


By Robert P. Battenfield 

Neil Armstrong and Buzz 
Aldrin did It-they walked on 
the moon and came safely 
back to Earth again. 

The last 50,000 feet to the 
landing were the toughest. 
Ryan's landing radar, de- 
signed to furnish accurate 
measurements of speed and 
altitude in reference to the 
fast-closing face of the 
moon, did its thing, and did 
it well. 

Twenty minutes prior to the start of powered descent, the 
landing radar was given a self-test; five minutes before, and 
it was turned on. 

Armstrong, Commander of the Apolloll Eagle Lunar Module, 
and his LM Pilot Aldrin are standing inside the craft, weight- 
less, wearing their bubble-headed helmets and strapped to 
their positions behind their triangular-shaped viewing ports. 
Flying face down and feet forward, they watch the parched-tan 
lunar surface rise from beneath them. 

Eagle casts its shadow across Maskelyne crater range at left 
as lunar module nears touchdown. 

Aldrin (above) tests ladder descent, each step down 

bringing him closer to man's destiny on the surface of the moon. 

Helmet visor of Aldrin (at right) reflects eerie picture of Eagle 
and fellow astronaut Armstrong in man's first visit to moon. 

.^ Lunar experiments begin as Armstrong (far right) erects 

J?* Seismometer equipment to transmit data on moon tremors. 

Reading theirdisplay board, they knowtheirinertial guidance 
indicates they have already passed the 50,000 foot mark in 
their descent. But it isn't quite time yet to fire the big retro 
engine that will brake their speed, which is increasing and is 
at about 3,750 mph. Nothing has ever flown this fast, this 
low, before. 

Now it is time and Aldrin hits the ignition button. Mission 
Control notes their position is about 2,000 feet low and about 
four lunar surface miles late. 

In the Eagle, Armstrong and Aldrin see to the right Smyth's 
Sea, with its shallow Ghost Crater. To the left is Neper, with 
its concentric, sunken floor. 

There's Furnace Gulch, looking all the world like the Okla- 
homa wash that Tom Stafford named it for. Gemini Ridge, 
Apollo Rille, Lonesome Mesa and Bear Mountain. That's Staf- 
ford. And Gene Cernan -there's Barbara Mesa, named (albeit 
unofficially) for Mrs. Cernan. 

PAO (Public Affairs Officer Doug Ward): "Two minutes, 20 
seconds everything looking good. We show altitude (inertial) 
about 47,000 feet." 

A low spot-Jack's Basin; an odd-shaped rise — Boot Hill. 
And there it is, the lunar landmark they've been watching for: 
the crater Maskelyne, largest feature in the Eagle's descent 
path across the Sea of Tranquillity, with half its broad floor In 
dark shadow. 

They are able to snap a quick photo that captures Maskelyne 
and a field of five distinctive craters that trail it downrange: 
MaskelyneB, Wash Basin, two unnamed craters, and Maskelyne 
G. Sharply etched, the trace of Diamondback Rille slices 
through from north to south. 

And ahead, about 125 miles away the crater Moltke casts 
a long shadow — there's Last Ridge, there's the wide and 
straight rille called U.S. 1, and somewhere in the flat land north 
of those features is the planned landing site, Apollo Site 2. 

CAPCOM (Capsule Communicator, Astronaut Charlie Duke): 
"Looking good to us. You're still looking good at three, coming 
up three minutes." 

EAGLE: "Looks real good. Our position check downrange 
here seems to be a little long." 

CAPCOM: 'Roger. Copy." 

EAGLE: "Altitude rate (inertial) about two feet per second 
greater than it ought to be. ..I think it's gonna drop..." 

Now it is time to turn the Eagle over on its back, two degrees 
per second, in a 174 degree yaw maneuver. 

With this maneuver, the landing radar antenna is placed in 
a position to direct its beams of microwave energy at the sur- 
face. Twenty seconds pass, and there is the indication on the 
astronauts' display board: Radar Data Good, at a slant range 
altitude of about 44,000 feet. 

In the latest landing mission trajectory, Ryan analysts had 
spotted radar altimeter acquisition at 39,500 feet. But the sen- 
sitive receivers did them better by nearly 5,000 feet. Even this 
latest prediction was an increase of 14,500 feet above the 
"nominal" first use of the altimeter by the LM Guidance Com- 
puter. Performance beyond expectations on Apollo 10 had 
increased NASA's confidence in the Ryan radar. 

Now the radar showed it could begin providing updated 
altitude information some 19,000 feet higher than originally 
estimated. The moon is a fine reflector; Ryan's radar is a fine 

"/ think the ability for man to walk and actually live on other worlds has virtually 
assured the immortality of mankind"...\Nerr\her Von Braun 

With radar altitude acquisition, the 2,000-foot error that had 
accumulated in the inertially driven guidance computers was 
eliminated. Said Stephen Bales, guidance officer at the GUIDO 
console during the landing: "The trajectory picked up 2,000 
feet when the landing radar came on, just like it should have." 

Yaw completed, Charlie Duke's voice crackled on the line: 
"Eagle, Houston. You are go. Take it all at four minutes. Roger 
you are go— you are go to continue powered descent..." 

EAGLE: "Roger." 

PAO: "Altitude 40,000 feet." 

EAGLE: "Pings (Primary Guidance and Navigation System). 
We got good lock on (with the landing radar). Altitude light 
is out. (The computer is updating the inertial measurements 
with moon-reference altitude data.)"... 

CAPCOM: "Roger. We copy." 

EAGLE: "And the Earth is right out our front window..." 

PAO: "Good radar data. Altitude now 33,500 feet." 

Radar velocity acquisition was estimated to come in at 
23,200 feet; instead the "Velocity Data Good" signal flashed 
on the Eagle's display panel at an altitude of about 28,000 feet 
— again nearly 5,000 feet higher than scheduled. 

Down, down they go. Twenty-seven thousand feet. The sur- 
face rushes past beneath them, unseen but for the 'fingers " 
of their landing radar. 

PAO: "Altitude now 21,000 feet. Still looking very good. 
Velocity down now to 1200 feet per second (816 mph)." 

CAPCOM: "You're looking great to us. Eagle." 

The landing radar continues to supply inputs to the guid- 
ance computer, which updates the IMU. This is a critical 
period. If the radar had not acquired velocity signals by this 

time, the astronauts would have attempted to recycle the sen- 
sor, and, failing that, would have aborted the mission. They 
would have pitched the spacecraft forward into the abort/ 
rendezvous attitude and "punched out," kicking the descent 
stage away to head back toward lunar orbit and rendezvous 
with Astronaut Michael Collins in the Command Module 

But the radar is working to perfection. 

PAO: "Sei^en minutes, 30 seconds into the burn. Altitude 
16,300 feet. ..13 thousand five, velocity 760 feet per second 
(517 mph). ..altitude 9200 feet." 

CAPCOM: "Eight-thirty (into the burn) and you're looking 

PAO: "Descent rate 129 feet per second." 

EAGLE: "We copy." 

CAPCOM: "Eagle, you're looking great, coming up nine 

During this period, the Eagle gradually makes its "gravity 
turn, " reaching and passing "high gate." This is the point in 
the trajectory when the Eagle's crew is scheduled to have 
their first low-altitude look at their potential landing site, which 
Is now some 5.2 miles downrange. 

It was learned later, however, that they were too busy with 
flying the fast-descending LM; they didn't draw a bead on 
their landing site until much closer to the moon, at an altitude 
of about 2-3,000 feet. 

Also at "high gate," the landing radar switches automatically 
from Antenna Position 1 to Antenna Position 2, a 24-degree 
move that takes about ten seconds. This shift in antenna 
position keeps the radar beams directed perpendicular to 

Astronaut Michael Collins rehearsing for Apollo 1 1 
mission, secures hatch to docking tunnel in mockup 
of command module which he piloted during 
moon mission. 

"As long as men dream and wonder 
and search for truth on this planet 
and among the stars"... 

Edwin E. Aldrin, Jr. 

Rendering by artist Bob Watts depicts landing profile 
of Eagle during its historic touchdown July 20, 1969. 

the moon's surface. 

PAO: "We're in the approach phase of it, looking good. 
Altitude 5200 feet." 

EAGLE: "Manual/auto attitude control is good." 

CAPCOM; "Roger, copy." 

PAO: "Altitude 4200." 

CAPCOM: "Houston. You're go for landing. Over." 

EAGLE: "Roger, understand. Go for landing. Three thousand 

CAPCOM: "Copy." 

EAGLE: "Twelve alarm, 1201. 

CAPCOM: "Roger, 1201 alarm." 

Three times the Eagle's important guidance computer be- 
came saturated with bits of information to handle — fuel levels, 
heart rates, altitude and velocity information -a thousand and 
one different things. The 1201 alarm was triggered, NASA said 
later, by the priority demanded by the pulsing signals of the 
rendezvous radar, which was on and tracking with the Colum- 
bia overhead. 

At each indication of the 1201 alarm, the astronauts punched 
a button to interrogate the computer to determine what the 
trouble was. The computer went into a priority search. 

On the ground. Bates and Dul<e in Mission Control reassured 
Armstrong and Aldrin that the alarm, although unexpected, 
was not critical. "We're go on that alarm," Bales is quoted as 
having said. 

Now Armstrong's voice sparks from the Eagle: "We're go!" 
he shouts. The landing site is visible now — it's unacceptable. 
"Hang tight!" Armstrong says. Aldrin's voice joins in: "Two 
thousand feet... 47 degrees." 

CAPCOM: "Roger." 

EAGLE: "Forty-seven degrees." 

CAPCOM: "Eagle, looking great. You're go." 

PAO: "Altitude 1600. ..1400 feet. Still looking very good." 

CAPCOM: "Roger, 1202. We copy it." 

EAGLE: "Thirty-five degrees, 35 degrees. 750 feet, coming 
down at 23 (feet per second). Seven hundred feet, 21 down. 
Thirty-three degrees. Six hundred feet, down at 19. Five 
hundred-forty feet, down at 30 -down at 15." 

The Eagle Lunar Module passes "low gate," a point set 
around 500 feet. Now the planned trajectory calls for more 
vertical descent, gradually eliminating forward movement. 

EAGLE: "Four hundred feet, down at nine. ..eight forward. 
Three hundred-fifty, down at four. Three hundred-thirty, SVi 
down. We're pegged on horizontal velocity. Three hundred 
feet, down 3V2, 47 forward..." 

A pause. Watching the film taken during this time, one sees 
a levelling off of the Eagle's moon-rushing descent and an 
increase of forward speed. A field of boulders slides beneath 
the camera's point of view on the LM; the lunar soil is dark 
and churned. 

When he speaks again, Aldrin's voice is garbled, then: 


"The beginning of a new era.. .when 
man understands the Universe around him 
— the beginning of an era when man 
understands himself." Neil A. Armstrong, 
August 13, 1969. 

y j^^V- ^"'<--^ -^'fT^A 

"Down one. ..One and one-half down." Armstrong is manually 
controlling the spacecraft's attitude and thrusters, keeping 
only a margin of descent rate, skimming over a crater he later 
described as "football field sized." 

Armstrong had depended heavily on the landing radar's 
measurements of altitude and altitude rate as he descended. 
Now he w^ants to maintain control of the spacecraft in the semi- 
automatic mode. He lengthens the trajectory of the Eagle's 
flight by manually controlling spacecraft attitude, firing the 
reaction control jets, pitching back slightly. He further slows 
his descent rate by punching a button that re-programs the 
guidance system. Each command reduces descent rate by one 
foot per second, giving the Eagle more lift, more length. 

The landing radar continues to operate in this semi-auto- 
matic mode. Aldrin keeps his eyes on the radar altitude rate 
meter, on the horizontal velocity indicator. Even with his hands 
on the controls, Armstrong chooses to continue to use the 
Eagle's landing radar; he does not go to complete manual 
override of his electronic senses. 

"Got the shadow out there," Armstrong says, referring to the 
Eagle's shadow on the surface of the moon ahead. 

"Fifty, down at 2V2, 19 forward. Altitude velocity lights." 

Momentarily, as was expected might happen in this attitude- 
altitude region, one of the radar beams began to sense "zero 
Doppler" and the panel flashed. The radar reacquires almost 
instantly as Armstrong maneuvers the Eagle along. 

"Three and one-half down, 220 feet, 13 forward. ..11 forward, 
coming down nicely." 

Around the world, people listen intently. Aldrin's voice re- 
mains steady. 

"Two hundred feet. AVi down...5yz down. One hundred- 
sixty feet, 6V2 down... 5V2 down, nine forward." 

With their descent rate increasing, the cratered area Is be- 

hind them now. Another crater — large enough to swallow an 
eagle — passes beneath them. 

"Five percent," Aldrin says, then, "Quantity light." Fuel mar- 
gins are running low. "Seventy-five feet, things looking good," 
he reports. "Down one-half. ..six forward." 

CAPCOM: "Sixty seconds." Duke, telling Armstrong he has 
only 60 seconds to make his final decision to land, or abort the 

EAGLE: "Light on. Down 2V2, forward, forward. Good. Forty 
feet, down 2V2. Picking up some dust." On the films, the dust 
is seen as straight spray lines, not as roiling clouds. 

"Thirty feet, 2V2 down. Faint shadow (of the landing legs on 
the surface). Four forward, four forward. ..Drifting to the right 
a little. ..Down one half." 

CAPCOM: "Thirty seconds." Writing for the Los Angeles 
Times, Rudy Abramson recounts: 

"Duke gave him the 30-second warning. The control room 
was silent with the reports from Eagle getting closer and 
closer as the time ran out." 

"Drifting right," Aldrin calls out. Then, a pause, and Arm- 
strong's voice: "Confacf light." 

Abramson wrote: "The velocity charts in the control room 
went to zero. They knew Eagle was down even before Arm- 
strong said it." 

Hurriedly, Armstrong and Aldrin call off their check list: 
"Okay, engine stop. ACA out of detent, t^odes control both 
auto, descent engine command override, off. Engine arm, off." 

CAPCOM: 'IVe copy you down. Eagle." 

EAGLE: "Houston, Tranquility Base here. The Eagle has 

Abramson reported: "Bates bit his lip and crashed his fist 
against the console in front of him. Duke buried his face in 
his hands." 


APOLLO 12: The Flight of Conrad and Bean 

Gemini Veteran Charles "Pete" Conrad will command the 
next mission for a manned landing on the moon. Launch will 
be in mid-November. LM Pilot will be rookie Astronaut Allan 

Current indications are that Conrad plans to use the Ryan 
Landing Radar on the LD/l-6 lander before he initiates power- 
ed descent. This would give him an accurate, moon-re- 
ferenced measurement of his actual altitude above the sur- 

Knowing where his LM is before he commits to descent 
may be a valuable aid in successfully pin-pointing the Apollo 
12 within moon-walking distance of the Surveyor 3 space- 
craft, which has stood in a shallow crater in the moon's 
Ocean of Storms since April 19, 1967. Ryan radar aided this 
unmanned robot to a safe lunar touchdown, also. Surveyor 
3 was the first of that seven-launch series to carry the sur- 
face-sample shovel. 

To acquire radar return signals from the moon before 
PDI, Conrad will have to pitch his LM to a position near the 
lunar vertical so that the radar's altimeter beam and two 
velocity beams intersect the target surface. Once he ob- 
tains a satisfactory reading, he will pitch the LM back to the 
lunar horizontal and fire the braking descent engine. 

Gen. Sam Phillips, Apollo director, said Apollo 12 will stay 
on the moon up to 32 hours. There will be two periods of 
surface exploration of about three hours each, he said. 
Apollo 11 was on the surface 22 hours, and less than 2y2 
hours was spent outside the Eagle. Apollo 1 1 landed approx- 
imately four miles from its intended landing point. I 







Ryan radar guided Apollo 11 Commander Nell Armstrong 
during his training flights in the Lunar Landing Training 
Vehicle (LLTV) as he prepared to be the first human being to 
set foot on the moon in the Apollo 11 moon mission. 

Astronaut Armstrong began his final LLTV flight Saturday, 
June 14, and flew the vehicle again the following day. 

The Ryan radar indicated speed and altitude above the run- 
way at Ellington AFB, Texas, where Armstrong maneuvered 
the four-legged, jet-powered training craft. Purpose of the 
flights was to rehearse the "feel" of the lunar landing, with the 
vehicle's gimballed jet engine creating a moon-like, one-sixth 

Ryan Aeronautical Company sensors also helped Armstrong 
make his historic soft-landing on the moon July 20. Measure- 
ments of how high Armstrong's Lunar f^odule was above the 
moon, and how fast it descended, were made by the Ryan lunar 
landing radar system. 

For the trainer, Ryan provided the LLTV Flight Data System 
— an altimeter, velocity sensor and cockpit instruments. The 
system informs the astronaut pilot of the craft's position and 
rate of motion in any direction. Altitudes of 1000 feet and 
speeds up to 65 mph are attainable. 

"Spin-off " from the space program has occurred with the 
LLTV altimeter. A precision instrument, it has served as the 
basis for creation of the Ryan AN/APN-192 Radar Altimeter. 

Current application is with Textron's Bell Helicopter Com- 
pany advanced design rotor radar helicopter, in which the Ryan 
altimeter is an integral part of flight control. The craft features 

Final touches for astronaut Neil Armstrong's moon landing in Eagle 
came in practice landings via LLTV in background. MSC test pilot 
"Bud" Ream was on hand to congratulate Armstrong. 


radar navigation antennas mounted in the tips of the rotor 

Both the LM and LLTV radars are "second generation" 

The LM landing radar is an improvement over the Ryan radar 
used on the Surveyor unmanned spacecraft. It is a sophisti- 
cated, computer-designed cluster of transmitting and receiv- 
ing arrays mounted beneath the LM descent stage, with the 
electronic assembly inside the stage. 

Apollo 10 Astronauts Tom Stafford and Gene Cernan, 
swooping within 47,000 feet of the moon in "Snoopy," suc- 
cessfully tested the landing radar in the lunar environment. 
For Apollo 11, the radar assisted in controlling the descent of 
Armstrong and Astronaut Edwin Aldrin in their moonship 
from 39,500 feet to the touchdown. 

The LLTV system had a predecessor in the Ryan AN/APN- 
97A helicopter navigation radar. This system was adapted for 
use with the NASA Lunar Landing Research Vehicle (LLRV) 
in a three-year flight test program at Edwards AFB, California, 
that led to the development of the LLTV. 

Armstrong, one of the LLRV test pilots, visited Ryan's San 
Diego facilities in November 1967 to fly the test helicopter 
during development of the LLTV radar. 

Ryan engineers assigned to various roles on the LLTV Flight 
Data System program included Romer Chadwick, Rudy Bau- 
mann, Dean Ellertson, Bill Peacock, Ron Beitz, Russ Martin, 
Bill Cook, Floyd Shacklock, Bill Hayth and Bryan Eagan. 

Ryan's engineering team on LLTV Fliglit Data System included Rudy 
Baumann, project engineer on Doppler velocity sensor (at left) and 
Dean Ellertson, altimeter project engineer. 


Computer operator Robert Vitel (right) programs 

IBM System/360 to perform scientific-engirteering 

and business functions as Mel Curry, Ryan's 

general supervisor of computer operations, 

monitors. Addition of new system extends 

Ryan's capabilities into industry's most 

sophisticated levels of computer technology. 

Photos by Bob Weissinger 



Ryan engineers are creating new design state of 
the art with the aid of computers, a technique that 
is penetrating deep into the frontiers of... 



Elwood Day 

Technical Editor 

Ryan Aeronautical Company 

New horizons in man's fast-paced technological advance are 
being explored today at Ryan Aeronautical Company, using com- 
puter-aided creative design as the vehicle to progress. 

Creative application of computer technology — while not dramatic- 
ally new to industry— is helping point the way to future fields of 
scientific conquest, according to engineering management. 


automatic data collection 
system enables 
production management 
to know constantly 
the location and status 
of in-work parts. 

New IBM 2314 
disc storage unit 
is phasing out the 
old familiar magnetic 
tape drive equipment. 
New method Is faster, 
and allows more 
data storage capacity. 

IBM 1403 printer 
makes data output 
available at 1100- 
lines-per-mlnute rate. 
Computer operator is 
Claire Rainville. 

Ryan's capability 
Includes the EM 8900 
hybrid computer 
in the Flight 
Simulation Laboratory. 
The 8800 analog 
section (at right) 
operates as an electronic, 
mathematical model 
of a system under study. 
Computer user is 
Don Kramer, dynamics 
group engineer. 

The field at Ryan includes electronic circuit design, nnulti- 
element antenna design, microwave component design and 
the layout of large-scale integrated circuits. So widespread 
has the use of computers in creative design become that a new 
discipline has evolved, called Computer-Aided Design (CAD). 
Engineers forsee vast increases in computer usage during 
the 1970s. Design of larger and more sophisticated aircraft and 
space systems will require computer assistance. Engineers 
will need computers as tools not only for processing complex 
data, but also to amplify their own intelligence and senses. 
CAD reflects the progressive spirit of the aerospace industry, 
which has long been among the leaders in computer utiliza- 
tion. In aerospace, Ryan Aeronautical Company has set the 
pace in several areas; 
Manufacturing- Ryan was a pioneer in source data auto- 
mation, one of the first to install an automatic data collec- 
tion system permitting constant visibility of the entire pro- 
duction process. 

Space Systems- Ryan engineers used computers to verify 
the design and performance data of the Surveyor lunar 
landing radar system. The slotted array antenna of the Lunar 
Module Landing Radar was completely computer-designed 
at Ryan. 

Aircraft- Computers were used in defining and lofting air- 
frame structures for the new supersonic Firebee II jet target 
aircraft. Ryan's XV-5B V/STOL aircraft was designed and 
tested with the aid of computers. 

Ryan is involved today in projects in which increased use of 
computers is mandatory: second- and third-generation super- 
sonic Firebees, the Mars lander, electronic navigation and 
positioning systems for high performance aircraft, remote 
sensing systems, and a number of other advanced programs 
for the 1970s. 

Ryan and other leading aerospace companies are applying 
computers more extensively to engineering tasks for basically 
the same reasons: 

D The computer's capacity for tiandling arid storing large 
amounts of Information 

n The speed and accuracy with which the computer can 
perform long and tedious calculations 

O The tremendous versatility of the computer as an engi- 
neering tool 

The computer's proficiency and speed in calculation make 
it a welcome partner for the forward-looking, creative-minded 
engineer. By handling the mundane mechanical steps involved 
in many engineering tasks, the computer gives him more time, 
as well as a better frame of mind, to concentrate on the more 
creative aspects of his work. 

Ryan design engineer Bob Chapman put it this way, "To 
make a difficult, multi-page, hours-long series of hand calcula- 
tions, only to discover that the whole thing is useless due to a 
misplaced decimal back on the second page is a frustrating 
experience, one that is hardly conducive to creative efforts." 

Despite the computer's promise of high reward, many com- 
panies are finding that its invasion of design engineering 
fields in meeting with considerable resistance on the part of 
those who stand to gain the most-the engineers themselves. 

The question might be raised, why haven't engineers, trained 
in efficiency, made greater use of the time-saving machines, 
which have been available for more than two decades, and 
which they in fact created? 

Part of the answer lies in the normal human reluctance to 
accept change. Another part is a fear of being replaced by the 
computer — in considering the computer an adversary instead 
of an ally. 

An analogous situation occurred with transistor develop- 
ment. The change from vacuum tubes to solid state devices 
was so radical that many engineers turned from circuit design 
to other forms of engineering instead of adapting to a new 

Many engineers and engineering managers predict that 
computer-aided design is the wave of the future-that during 


Ryan engineers (opposite page) used computer 
techniques in designing sophisticated slotted array 
antenna cluster, part of the landing radar 
system which guided the Apollo 1 1 astronauts 
to the moon. Checking out the system 
is Don Couch, Ryan production processor. 

Analog computer (top photo) output is observed on strip 
chart recorder by Jess Macias, dynamics engineer. 

Hybrid computer's 
8400 digital section furnishes 
the logical decision- 
making, computation and 
data storage required 
in a design project. 
Using the equipment is 
Mike Roberts, senior 
dynamics engineer. 

the 1970s the use of the computer by the design engineer will 
be as commonplace as the use of the slide rule is today. Not 
that the computer should be used to solve problems the slide 
rule can handle, nor should the computer replace the slide 
rule. It issimply that the number of problems that can be solved 
more efficiently with computers will pyramid with the growing 
scientific technology. 

To generate enthusiasm for computer-aided design and to 
prevent engineers from becoming outmoded, the aerospace 
industry has undertaken a program of orientation, with each 
company tailoring such projects to its own needs. 

Computer orientation at Ryan Electronic and Space Systems 
is spearheaded by the Ryan Computer Council which consists 
of group engineers representing electronic design areas such 
as analog, digital, trackers, servos, and power supplies; prod- 
uct design; and drafting. Electronic circuit design is empha- 
sized by the Council because this effort offers the greatest 
opportunity for expanding computer support at Ryan. 

The Council is enlarging Ryan's design capabilities by imple- 
menting user-oriented, prepackaged computer programs for 
electronic circuit design. Programs of this type are designed 
for minimum human-machine interface. The engineer need 
only know how to imput the data and execute the program to be 
able to solve innumerable circuit design problems. As an ex- 
ample, assume that a particular circuit must operate in a 
space environment. By inputting the range of environmental 
parameters (temperature, shock, etc.) expected and the com- 
ponent values of the circuit (resistors, transistors, etc.) the 
engineer can ask for a worst-case analysis, the results of which 
will tell him whether or not the circuit meets specifications. 

For Ryan's purposes, one of the best available prepackaged 
programs is Electronic Circuit Analysis Program (ECAP). 

"We like ECAP for two reasons," explains G. A. Cooley, engi- 
neering managerof ProductEngineering. "Written inelectronic 
circuit terminology, this program is easy for the beginner to 

use — no knowledge of computers or computer languages is 

"ECAP also accomplishes the most for our users. Actually, 
it is a series of integrated programs designed primarily to aid 
the electrical engineer In the design and analysis of electronic 

By using ECAP, the design engineer can essentially design 
and test a circuit with the computer, thus reducing the time 
and expense of extensive breadboards, the first hardware 
version of the circuit. 

The Ryan Computer Council conducts seminars and train- 
ing courses in all phases of computer utilization — from ECAP 
to sophisticated programming using FORTRAN IV, a computer 
language. The Council also evaluates new devices, such as 
desk top computers, time-share systems, and computerized 
drafting machines. 

The Council is emphasizing particular objectives in its com- 
puter applications: to derive time-cost savings in the manu- 
facture of hardware by improved delivery schedules. 

Eventually the engineer will be able to input the circuit speci- 
fications and general configuration into the computer and 
receive component values optimized for worst case as the 
output. An even more significant application is apparent in the 
capability the computer gives the engineer to explore many 
variations in a system configuration. 

With high-speed computers and remote, time-shared termi- 
nals, each engineer will have nearly instant access to all of 
the computer "muscle " needed to do the job. Even the engi- 
neer working on a crash program (and what engineer isn't?) 
no longer need settle for the first design that meets specifi- 
cations. He can achieve better designs through the ability to 
test a large number of possible design configurations. The 
computer has given him the ability to seek the best design in 
terms of performance, reliability, weight saving — whatever his 
design objectives may be. ^hh ^ 



Out of D. L. Henson's 52-man 
Ryan Firebee team, only two 
have expressed a firm desire to 
return stateside after 1 8-montti 
tours at Wallace Air Station in the 
Phillippines. This serves as a 
testimonial to duty with the Air 
Force's 848th Aircraft Control and 
Warning Squadron based at... 



By Sgt. Robert T. Richter, USAF 
U.S. Air Force photographs by SSgt, Alan M. Engel, USAF 

goafs again!" Harry J. Armstrong, a blonde 26-year-olcl launch 
controller of San Diego, yelled excitedly. He stood near the con- 
trol panel peering out the window at the watermelon patch 
being raided by the four-footed marauders. 

William F. Mitchell, a trim San Diego native in his mid-forties, 
picked up the field phone on the panel and rang the Weight 
and Balance Shop. 

"Hey Conrad, can you send a couple of guys down here to 
drive these goats out of our watermelons ... yep ... okay," and 
hung up. 

Bill, the launch pad supervisor, watched with some amuse- 
ment as Harry S. Ruth, Jr. and Joe W. Horn hurried down the 
hill from the shop and chased the goats back up the hill toward 
the lighthouse. Harry, a 24-year-old bachelor from Ft. Lauder- 
dale, and Joe, a Shreveport, La. native in his late thirties, then 
returned to the shop where they had a few more drones to 
assemble for launching that day. 

"Ask the chopper crew to clear the bancas out of the launch 
area, Harry." Another call was made to comply with Bill's 

In a few minutes, the Air Force "Jolly Green Giant" of the 
31st Air Rescue and Recovery Service came into view through 
the blockhouse windows. The turbine-powered helicopter 
headed out past the beach, just a few hundred yards downrange 
of the pad and toward a congregation of native fishing boats in 
the direct launch path of the Firebee drone and RATO (Rocket 
Assisted Take-Off) bottle. 

The "Giant" warns the fishermen of a launch. 

Harry called off, "T minus five," and both were now on the 
phone with the remote control officer who was housed in the 
MSQ radar trailer halfway up the hill in back of the pad. Harry 


New mission for jet-powered Firebee 
begins as shirtless Ryan team aligns 
target on launch rail from which it will 
be hurled into flight out over 
South China Sea. 

was now deftly checking out instruments on tine panel while 
Bill performed remote checks. "T minus two," and a positive 
ignition. It was a clear day, no clouds over the point, although 
a storm was brewing in the mountains to the east. Visibility was 
good, from 40 to 50 miles. "Forty-five seconds," Harry said. 
Everything looked fine, the launch area was clear. Then the 
countdown and a deafening noise that vanished as quickly as 
it came. 

Seconds later, the drone was out of sight; the fishermen re- 
turned to their stations and Bill gave Harry a slap on the back 
and wide grin. "Another good shot, Harry." 

Up in the MSQ, Nat Summers, assistant base manager for 
operations and remote control officer for this flight, directs 
the Firebee from the gulf out to the range, 20,000 feet above 
the South China Sea. Helping the 35-year-old San Diego native 
through the operation are Carter Hendrick, a computer and 
telemetry technician and Tom Caldwell, the back-up controller. 

Several McDonnell F-4D fighter pilots make their bids at 
hitting the elusive bird. However, this flight came through 
unscathed. After a two-minute descent by parachute, the drone 
was resting fifty minutes after launch in the warm salt-water 
five miles off shore waiting for the "Jolly Green" crew. A few 
minutes more and the chopper gently set the drone down in the 
designated recovery area behind the launch pad. Another 
mission completed. 

Fifty-two Ryanites pool their talents and labors here on Poro 
Point in the Republic of the Philippines. They are guests of the 
Air Force on this paradise peninsula known as Wallace Air 
Station (affectionately named "Walla Rock" by residents) in 
northern Luzon. They are also contracted by the Air Force, as 
well as the Navy and Marines, to keep fighter pilots who are 
stationed in the Philippines on their air-combat toes and to help 
test new weapons systems. Approximately 150 Air Force men 
serve "isolated" tours on this 454-acre point which juts into 


RATO thrust sends Firebee into flight at Walla Rock. 

John Carpenter (left) adjusts Luneberg lens on target tail. 

the Lingayen Gulf, in support of many defense missions. 

The host organization is the 848th Aircraft Control and Warn- 
ing Squadron, commanded by Lieutenant Colonel Charles R. 
Porter. Also sharing space is Detachment 6, 1961st Com- 
munications Group; Detachment 2, 14th Communications 
Squadron; Detachment V, 580th Aircraft Control and Warning 
Wing of the Philippine Air Force; and immediately adjacent to 
the station is a huge Voice of America transmitting station. 

Their primary mission is to maintain the first line of defense 
for the Philippine Air Defense Sector. In case of a "bandit," 
they would report their surveillance radar detections to the 
jointly-manned Philippine Air Defense Control Center at Clark 
Air Base, 90 miles to the south. With this capability, they also 
direct the fighter pilots to the drone for intercept. 

The Ryanites have complete access to base facilities which 
are quite numerous for this postage-stamp station. Included 
are a gym, library, theater, base exchange and open mess. If 
not enough, a beach just below the operations area of the sta- 
tion provides patrons a lot of sun and water sport. 

But what really makes any outpost click is the people in- 
volved and what really helped Ryan click were the Air Force 
men that became involved. 

When the Ryan men arrived in April, 1968, they had a tough 
deadline to meet to get the drones off the launch pad by mid- 
summer. They were working 18-hour days continuously and 
were very grateful and surprised when some military men 
would knock off their jobs at five and work on Ryan facilities 
until midnight. They dug ditches, helped erect the launch rails 
and laid cable to help the Ryan people. Consequently, despite 
temperatures in the 95-105 range, humidity almost as high, 
and generators quitting frequently, the first Firebee vaulted 
off the rail amid appropriate ceremony and a feeling of proud 

accomplishment 30 days ahead of schedule. 

Their military friends are still quick to help — whether it is 
just a favor on base, getting a vital part from Clark AB or work- 
ing together in the drone scoring section. And the Ryan people 
are happy to oblige with any help they can return. 

William A. Maher, maintenance supervisor, knows just how 
far that help can go. He's a retired master sergeant out of the 
Air Force maintenance system and knows his job well. A husky, 
good-natured 45-year-old from Tucson, Ariz., Willy has direct 
responsibility of getting the drones back in shape after their 
salt-water dunking or slight run-in with a missile. For just 
one drone this is usually a two-day task. There are 15 drones in 
the cycle and anywhere from nine to 12 Firebees in repair on 
any given day and 21 men under Willy's supervision. 

After decontamination and rebuilding in the maintenance 
hangar, located just outside the gate of the air station, each 
drone is trucked up the hill to the weight and balance shop, just 
past the launch pad. Here, the final assembly takes place in an 
average time of from two to three hours. Conrado R. Megia, 
from Cavite City, Philippines, the 44-year-old senior mechanic 
of the shop and retired U.S. Navy chief petty officer, directs 
seven men through the most important phase prior to launch. 
The drone's center of gravity is most critical in flight and de- 
mands a tolerance measured in mills of an inch. The yaw 
tolerance is approximately 100th of an inch. Before that is 
checked, however, the men here will attach the nose cone, 
connect the RATO bottle, install the battery, set up one of five 
configurations for the drone and check all radio systems. Then 
it is ready for the critical balancing. 

When one of the launch rails becomes vacant after a firing, 
Conrad's team sets up the bird for the launch — a 15-minute 


.OS /-if'-TtV-Jt'C; 

The Ryan "tour of duty" at Poro Point is approximately 18 
months. Almost two-thirds of the 52-man crew are nearing the 
end of their tour but D. L Henson, base manager, so far has 
only received two firm commitments from returnees and now 
they are not so sure they want to leave. 

All but a few of the married men have their families with 
them. Half of this group have residences in Baguio, the moun- 
tain city that serves as the summer capital of the Philippines. 
Situated on 6,000-foot mountains just 39 miles from the air 
station and a little more than one hour away by car, the city is 
adjacent to John Hay Air Base, which has a mission of providing 
rest and recuperation for the military. Ryanites may enjoy any 
of the base's facilities. Also, all the wives have housemaids to 
help with cleaning, cooking and the kids. One man remarked, 
"/ know my wife is getting a little time off -she never used to 
stioot golf in ttie 80s before." 

Education dominates all the reasons for a Baguio residence, 
however, as the city has adequate schooling from kinder- 
garten to college. San Fernando and the communities sur- 
rounding Wallace Air Station have no recognized school system 
for the American youngsters. 

Most of the marrieds without children and the bachelors live 
in the gulf area close to "Walla Rock." For instance, Willy IVlaher, 
Harry Ruth, Michael J. Gibson, one of the four remote control 
officers and the avionics supervisor, and Vic Adami all live in 
the "Nalinac" Resort Hotel, only six miles from work. For a 
very reasonable rent, they enjoy air conditioning, beach or pool 
swimming and a seaside patio restaurant a few yards from the 

Week-end excursions on horseback for the Ryanites and their 
families in Baguio or day-long deep-sea fishing trips for the 
gulf residents can top off any week in the Philippines. Many 
also have attested that vacations become a little more exciting 
in this part of the world. For instance, Lee Henson, Nat Sum- 
mers and George E. Johnson each made a four to five-day trip 
to Hong Kong with their wives. 

From all this, it isn't hard to see why the men and their 
families enjoy the tour. Educational for the children, relaxing 
for the mothers and exciting and rewarding work for the men, 
the time there passes quickly. They feel a comradeship with 
their military friends that goes beyond words and a sense of 
companionship, also, towards the local Philippine townspeople. 
Ryan has participated in air station-sponsored parties for the 
local children and more recently won the gratitude of the San 
Fernando citizens after firefighting efforts against a blaze 
which destroyed nearly the entire business district of the town 
and left some 200 residents homeless. 

Richard A. Gregory, Ernest Perez, John E. Ellis, Raymond E. 
Robinson and James W. Donahoo all were honored for their 
help in fighting the blaze. Dick Gregory and Ernie Perez were 
specifically recognized for their superhuman efforts of working 
without relief for more than 12 hours, a feat which has resulted 
in Congressional recognition for themselves and Air Force 
people from Wallace AS, John Hay AB, and Clark Air Base. 

As far as results go, the crew at "Walla Rock" performs well. 
Over 300 drone shots under their belt and an average of 12 a 
week and still climbing certainly erases any inclination to- 
wards an "average" nametag. They now are controlling every 
phase of launching, rebuilding, flight sequence and systems 
scoring under a newly-let contract. Expecting a slightly larger 
personnel total in the coming months, Lee Henson added, "/ 
hope the newcomers will get as much out of Poro Point as we do." 
If they like travel, demanding work, satisfying people-to- 
people relations, and watermelons, they probably will, ^hh ■ 

Controller Nat Summers goes through remote control preflight 
checks, talking on phone with Bill Michell at launch site 

Symbol of teamwork is presented below as Ryan crew readies Fire- 
bee on launch rail at "Walla Rock" in the Philippine Islands. 


Conceived, designed and 
constructed to support Firebee 
operations, the Japanese Navy lias 
earned a new distinction witli 
addition of tlie... 


Should it be required, Japan's Maritime Defense 
Force will be tier first line of defense against enemy 
air attacks. To counter tfils potential tfireat, one of 
the world's foremost maritime nations has tal<en 
the lead in defense-readiness preparations. AZUfVIA 
is one-of-a-kind in the world's navies, offering her- 
self and the services she combines as a sea-going, 
mobile target tender. Ryan's Firebees help her 
develop this distinction. 


Ihe world's first naval vessel constructed exclusively from 
the drawing boards on for support of training operations in 
which Ryan Firebee aerial target systems are employed has 
assumed her place in the Maritime Defense Force of Japan. 

The Auxiliary Training Vessel Azuma was launched April 14, 
1969 with a projected fleet operational datewithin the next year. 

Configured specifically for Firebee operations, the Azuma 
will launch her jet-powered targets from a platform situated on 
the aft section of weather deck area. A single ground launch 
type rail has been mounted for this purpose. 

Drone direct control equipment is built in and remote control 
is accomplished through the use of the EPSCO Track and Con- 
trol system, permanently installed on the ship's superstructure. 

The Azuma has the capability of retrieving Firebees from the 
water, and if necessary, perform a complete decontamination 
and maintenance turn-around. The Japanese Navy currently 
plans to accomplish decontamination phases aboard ship and 
the maintenance turn-around procedures at her home port. 

The 2000-ton vessel carries a complement of 180 officers 
and men, offers a speed range of up to 18 knots and measures 
300 feet in length. ^i^ ■ 


43 1^ 

istorians will record the lunar visit 

of astronauts Armstrong, Aldrin and Collins and 
their safe return to earth as man's greatest achieve- 

The magnificence of their success is assuredly a 
testimonial to this nation's bold determination; it is 
man's age-old dream come true; and it fulfilled a 
national goal set nine years ago by our country. 

More than all these things, however, it gives new- 
found hope, courage and confidence to this nation 
at a time when these qualities are desperately 

How effective the utilization of these qualities are 
in resolving man-made problems of our age will be 
measured against the passing sands of time. 

This much is clear at the outset. Complexity is no 
longer a barrier to success. Economics alone will 
not inhibit achievement of goals. Americans can do 
whatever they set out to do. 

Few in our country fully understood the motives 
for sending men to the moon and back. Nor did 
everyone agree that the mission was a worthwhile 
effort. Yet, a national survey conducted early this 
year revealed that the mass majority of our country 
supported the goal. 

And America rallied the most formidable team 
of scientific-industrial talent ever assembled. 

Ryan Aeronautical Company is a proud member 
of that team. Its credentials are best measured by 
the perfection with which the landing radar system 
in the Lunar Module worked. 

This feeling of pride incorporates the association 
enjoyed with other members of the team. The 
leadership provided by Grumman Aerospace Com- 
pany through the coaching of Grumman President 
Lew Evans, is responsible in a large measure for the 
realization of this national goal. 

The same feeling of pride in association is felt 
toward RCA, with whom Ryan worked in the provision 
of systems for the Lunar Module. 

The team association extends up, out and down 
to include literally hundreds of members, not the 
least of which were vendor companies that supplied 
Ryan with sub-components. 

Association with others in common pursuit of an 
established goal; that, in essence, is the quality 
most rewarding. 

This is what Apollo 1 1 and the flights to follow are 
really all about. 

Managing Editor 




Robert C. Jackson 
Chairman. Board of Directors 

Frank G. Jameson 
President and Director 

T. Claude Ryan 

L. M. Limbach 
Executive Vice President 

G. W. Rutherford 

William J. Wiley 
V.P. -Plant Operations 

R. R. Schwanhausser 
V.P. -Aerospace Systems 

Raymond A. Ballweg 
V.P.-Washington Office 

J. R. Iverson 
V.P. -Electronic & Space Systems 

Leon W. Parma 
V.P. -Administrative 

Dr. George Roberts 

Roy D, Fields 

Elmer J. Stone 

Donald L- Arney 


V.P. -Finance & Controller 

Secretary-General Counsel 

Director Personnel. 
Industrial Relations 

— ^.,s«»^ ■i».--*-'WRS;-: 

Please send address chsnges w. 


P. 0. BOX 311 ■ SAN DiEGO, CALIF. 92112 

'.(idiea- touKv.or. fteques'ed 
Ustuti! Posidge Cuarameed 

ti)72 LARAttiS WAY 




San Diego, Calif. 
Permit No; 437 


Ryari'Firebies are the best high performance, unmanned jet aircraft flying today. Un- 
manned, because to Navy and Air Force fighter pilots and Army surface to air missile and 
gun crews, Firebees are the enemy. The Leaders, Firebees are fierce competitors: they can 
hold their own in aerial dogfights, or challenge ground gunners with low level sweeps; then 
recovered by parachute, go back for more and more, just like the manned fighters. Reli- 
a|)le.and economical Firebees already have flown thousands of missions. Now the new 
^'irebee II adds supersonic speed to the long endurance subsonic capability of Firebee I. No 



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